Dr. V Mishra
Physical Nature of Cytoplasmic matrix
Colourlesss, Greyish, translucent, gelatinous Various theories have been propounded to delineate the Physical structure of CM:1.Reticular theory:- Matrix is composed of reticulum of fibres or particles in the ground substance 2. Alveolar theory:-Matrix is composed of many suspended droplets resembling the foam of emulsions 3. Granular theory:- Matrix consists of large and small granules 4. Fibrillar theory:- Fibrils make up the matrix 5. Colloidal theory:- most recent, made up of colloids
Colloidal system:- Particle size ranges from 1/10,00,000 to 1/10,000 Solution:- Solvent and Solute Particle size maximum is 1/10,000 Colloidal system:- 2 Phases:- Discontinuous or Dispersed phase and Continuous or Dispersion phase
Chemical Organisation of CM
92 Natural Elements
46 found in cytoplasmic matrix
24 are essential for life
6 play imp role in the functioning of living system
Carbon:-20% Hydrogen:-10% Nitrogen:-3% Oxygen:-62% Phosphorous:-1.14% Sulphur:-0.14% And Calcium Potassium Sodium Chlorin Magnesium
Iron Iodin Molybdenum Mg Co Zn Se Cu Ni F Boron etc.
Electrolytes :Maintenance of the Osmotic Pressure Acid-base equilibrium in the matrix Examples:- Mg ions, Phosphate etc. Non-electrolytes:(Non-ionising minerals) The examples are:- Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn etc. The Fe occur in haemoglobin, cytochromes, ferritin, some enzymes as catalase, cytochrome oxidase etc. The ca occur in blood, matrix and bones; The Cu, Mo, Zn occur as co-factors for enzyme actions The iodine and fluoride are essential for thyroid and enamel metabolism.
Types of compounds of cytosol:Water:-65% Protein:-18% Fat:-10% Carbohydrate:-5% Other organic substances:-1% Inorganic compounds:-1% Organic (>30%):- Substances containing Carbon and formed in combination with nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphur. Monomers:- Compounds with similar or dissimilar unit structure Oligomers:-Small no of monomers Polymers:- Large no of monomers
Carbohydrates:Main source of energy for cells Green plants alone can synthesize them Chemically carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes Or ketones. monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
2 to 10 monomers Presence of glycosidic bonds between the monomers Disaccharide(sucrose, maltose, lactose) Trisacch (mannotriose, rhabinose etc)
Trioses (Glyceraldehyde, DHAP) Tetroses (Erythrose, erythrulose) Pentoses (riboses, ribuoses) Hexoses (glucose, mannose, fructose) Heptoses (sedoheptulose)
10 to many thousand monomers Form colloidal compounds Can be hydrolysed into monosachharides Divided into structural and nutrient polysachharides
Serve as extracellular or intracellular support material e.g., cellulose, mannan (homopolymer of mannose & chitin, hyaluronic acid, keratin sulphate & chondroitin sulphate (cartilage & other connective tissue) Peptidoglycans (bacterial cell walls)
Serves as the reserve of monosachharides E.G., Starch (plant cells and bacteria), glycogen (animal cells)
Polysachharides: Major Characteristics Branched or Unbranched Homopolysachharides or heteropolysaccharides Similar monosaccharides Starch, Glycogen, cellulose
Made up of Amylose & Amylopectin Made up of branched chains of Alpha-Glucose molecules Made up of unbranched Glucose molecules Made up of different kinds Of monosachharides and Amino-nitrogen, suphuric Acid or phosphoric acid in Their molecules.
The most common examples Are:- hyaluronic acid, keratin sulphate & chondroitin sulphate, Heparin, Proteoglycans etc. Keratin sulphate Chondroitin sulphate
Unbranched heteropolysachh Unbranched heteropolysachh Containing N-acetyl glucosamine Containing D-galactose & suphated N-acetyl glucosamine. And glucuronic acid Found in Cartilage & cornea. Occurs in the conective tissue, Sinovial fluid of joints, the vitrous Humor of the eyes etc. Repeating disaccharide alternating with Glucuronic acid and sulphated N-acetyl Galactosamine. Found in cartilage, bone, umbilical chord, notochord,etc.
Made up primarily of carbon and hydrogen and sometimes Oxygen. Natural fats are compounds of glycerol and fatty acids. They are esters which are formed due to reaction of organic acids with Alcohols. The formula of glycerol is C3H8O3.
Only one type occurs everywhere
Amphipathic molecule : 2 distinct regions:A. Long Hydrocarbon chain (Hydrophobic) B. Hydrophillic carboxylic acid Group, which ionises in solution & Forms amides and esters in solution.
oIn cells, fatty acids occur primarily as forming esterified structures oA fatty acid molecule may be saturated or unsaturated oA saturated fatty acid consists of long hydrocarbon chain terminating into a carboxyl group (-COOH), while so does not happen with unsaturated fatty acids oAn unsaturated fatty acid has 2 to 6 double bonds between C-C atoms, which gives the molecule flexibility for maintaining the fluidity of the biomembrane. Essential fatty acid:- are those which are not synthesized by animals or us. Hence required to be supplemented in our diet. Examples include:- Linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid.
Occurrence as Constituents of cell organelles As reserve material, e.g. starch & glycogen
Types of LIPIDS:1. Simple Lipids:- are alcohol esters of fatty acids, e.g., glycerides, waxes etc. 2. Compound Lipids:-contain fatty acids, glycerol & other substances e.g., Phosphorous, amino-nitrogen carbohydrates etc. Examples are Phospholipids (inositol, choline etc.), Sphingolipids & Glycolipids. 3. Derived Lipids:- Do not contain fatty acids in their constituents, e.g., terpenes (Vitamins A E & K, Carotenoids, Co-enzyme Q or Ubiquinone etc.), Steroids (hormones progesterone, testesterone, Vitamin D, alcohols of steroids, called Sterols such as Cholesterol etc.), Prostaglandins (Hydroxy derivatives of poly Saturated fatty acids, found in seminal fluid, testis, stomach, brain, lung, heart etc
Proteins Form more than 50% cell¶s dry wt. Structural components Made up of amino acids (20 in no.) Classification based on biological function:1. Structural Proteins:- Keratin, collagen 2. Dynamic or Functional Proteins:- Enzymes Classification based on shape of proteins:1. Fibrous proteins:-muscle contractile proteins (myosin), elastic functionality (elastin, collagen) 2. Globular protein:-water soluble, roughly spheriodal Or globoidal in shape, enzymes, hormones, immunglObulins etc.