1436_10591_1076121644_LESSON Standard RP Cockney Estuary English | Accent (Sociolinguistics) | Pygmalion (Play)

Varieties of English

‡ Standard English ‡ RP ‡ Cockney ‡ Estuary English

‡ Students are exposed to a number of varieties of English. ‡ Help in understanding them can play an important and particularly useful part in the study of English as a foreign language (EFL). ‡ English, like every language, is subject to variation.

What is the difference between a dialect and an accent?

‡ A dialect describes features of grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. ‡ An accent refers to the description of aspects of pronunciation which identifies where a speaker is from, regionally or socially.

. ‡ Temporal: In what time (present or historical) the speech community exists.Three variables of dialect are: ‡ Geographical: Where the speech community is based. ‡ Social: What social group/s the speech community belongs to.

Accents ‡ It is not just a case of pronouncing things differently. ‡ Not all speakers share the same set of phonemes ‡ We don·t always use them in the same place .

. Look at the example: ± Farther and father: ± these are pronounced identically by most people in England (except in the South West and parts of the North of England.As a result«. ‡ Many words are pronounced identically by some speakers and differently by others.) .

Can you think about a definition of standard? Can you try to expalin what Standard English is? .

the ¶professional class·. 3. spoken in situations where published writing is most influential. 2.STANDARD ENGLISH Standard is the kind of English which is: 1. especially in education (and especially at University level). spoken ¶natively· (at home) by people who are most influenced by published writing . . written in published work.

‡ Secondly. we can go a bit further than this. Standard can be combined with many different accents. Standard is probably spoken natively by about 10% of the population. . ‡ First.On the social distribution of Standard. including regional accents.

writers. pronunciation. It includes word choice. ‡ Standard English is especially helpful when writing because it maintains a fairly uniform standard of communication which can be understood by all speakers and users of English regardless of differences in dialect. also known as Standard Written English or SWE.‡ Standard English. educators. ‡ Publishers. punctuation. This is why it is sometimes called Standard Written English. and usage. and spelling. and others have over the years developed a consensus of what standard English consists of. . word order. is the form of English most widely accepted as being clear and proper.

‡ BRITISH ENGLISH ‡ spoken ‡ RP written standard regional dialects standard regional accents regional dialects related regional accents .

Fourth Edition. (The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin Company. Ramsaran in Gramley-Patzold) ‡ A pronunciation of British English.RP: SOME DEFINITIONS ‡ A kind of standard. not a norm from which other accents deviate. Until recently it was the standard form of English used in British broadcasting. nor a target towards which foreign learners need necessarily aim. 2000). originally based on the speech of the upper class of southeastern England and characteristic of the English spoken at the public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge Universities. . not necessarily deliberately imposed or consciously adopted. but a standard in the sense that is regionally neutral and does undeniably influence the modified accents of many British regions (S.

income and profession. the accent presented as a model for the learner will most typically be received pronunciation (RP) ‡ ¶Received·: in the 19th century the sense was that of ´accepted in the most polite circles of societyµ. but RP has remained the accent of those in the upper reached of the social scale.‡ When British English is taught to foreign learners. as measured by education. . ‡ British society has changed a good deal since that time. or title.

Near-RP Conservative RP Advanced RP Adoptive RP .‡ It has traditionally been the accent of those educated at public schools . Other way of defining it: ‡ Oxford English ‡ Queen·s English ‡ BBC English ‡ RP is not a uniform. homogeneous pronunciation but it has different variants: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General RP .

‡ Received Pronunciation: social accent ‡ Standard English: (Superdialect) .‡ A regional accent can be used when speaking Standard English as well as when speaking a regional dialect.

countries. except historically: ‡ Its origins were in the speech of London and the surrounding area ‡ It is impossible to tell from this pronunciation where an RP speaker comes from. is NOT the accent of any particular region. .RP unlike prestige accents in other .

in beauty and clarity». [. Jones. EFL model. It is based on my own (Southern) speech. 1960.. But Daniel Jones underlined: I do not consider it possible at the present time to regard any special type as ¶Standard· or as intrinsically ¶better· than other types.] is often used to designate this type of pronunciation.. Jones: Rp is easily understood almost everywhere in the Englishspeaking countries». the type described in this book is certainly a useful one. This term is adopted here for want of a better». p.. ‡ The scholarly treatment argument: RP is the basis of linguistic treatment of English pronunciation.] The term ¶Received Pronunciation· [. An Outline of English Phonetics. that generally used by those who have been educated at ¶preparatory· boarding schools and the ¶Public Schools·.WHY RP: ‡ The aesthetic argument: Wylde (1934): RP is superior from the character of its vowel sounds. to any other form of English. 12) ‡ The intelligibility argument D. 9th edn. ‡ The social argument: RP as a status symbol . as far as I can ascertain. and is. (D. Nevertheless..

‡ Long-standing association of RP with affectation. has been blamed for the perceived rise of ¶sloppiness· in pronunciation and disregard for ¶proper· grammar. social snobbery ‡ The influence of non-standard and foreign accents and dialects of English (and of EIL). along with a general deterioration in standards in other modes of behavior. .

unlike the true Cockney accent.Cockney ‡ Cockney represents the basilectal end of the London accent and can be considered the broadest form of London local accent. ‡ While many Londoners may speak what is referred to as "popular London" (Wells 1982b) they do not necessarily speak Cockney. ‡ The popular Londoner accent can be distinguished from Cockney in a number of ways. and can also be found outside of the capital.(Wells 1982b) ‡ It traditionally refers only to specific regions and speakers within the city. .

opposed to the tougher countryman and by the 17th century the term. ‡ Today's natives of London. One explanation is that "Cockney" literally means cock's egg. ‡ It was originally used when referring to a weak townsman. ‡ The etymology of Cockney has long been discussed and disputed. came to mean a Londoner. a misshapen egg such as sometimes laid by young hens.‡ The term Cockney refers to both the accent as well as to those people who speak it.`Cockney Pride'.) . especially in its East End use the term with respect and pride . through banter.

.‡ The Cockney accent is generally considered one of the broadest of the British accents and is heavily stigmatized. of other areas. ‡ Currently. "East Enders" and the characters· accents and lives within this television program provide wonderful opportunities for observers of language and culture. ‡ It is considered to epitomize the working class accents of Londoners and in its more diluted form. ‡ The area and its colourful characters and accents have often become the foundation for British "soap operas" and other television specials. the BBC is showing one of the most popular soaps set in this region.

). though the r is not pronounced) and poor etc. in self-conscious speech it's articulated very strongly. and by labiodentals [f] and [v] respectively. So. hammer = ¶ammer l is pronounced only when a vowel-sound follows (so no l is pronounced in hole. Examples: house = ¶ouse. (spelled with r followed by a consonant. brother = bruvver. Glottal stop (the ¶t· sound is not pronounced in intervocalic or final positions. Examples: thin = fin. (spelled with r not followed by a consonant. bath = barf The long vowels are all diphthongs. Voiceless th is often. TH fronting Another very well known characteristic of Cockney is th fronting which involves the replacement of the dental fricatives.S. etc. there are some words where the omission of ¶t· has become very accepted. though again the r is not pronounced).). three = free. accents have this same feature. Scotland = Sco'land. but not always.The most striking features of Cockney are: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ r is pronounced only when followed immediately by a vowel-sound.) Dropped ¶h· at beginning of words (Voiceless glottal fricative): h is usually omitted (home in the demonstration words). Monophthongization This affects the lexical set ¶mouth· vowel. etc. Notice especially the difference between force etc. no r is pronounced in flowers. etc. Voiced th is likewise often but not always pronounced as v (breathe. pronounced as f (breath. statement = Sta'emen.). (Some New England accents and Southern U. network = Ne·work ‡ ‡ ‡ . Examples: Gatwick = Ga·wick.

Listen ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ fleece. fiddle three. choose. other . mouth. breath. hole. price. door bowl. home north. little. face. lace rice. grease chase. breathe. police. poor. flowers note. coal model. nice lose. porch more. force. thanks mother. shoes round. goat.

´ ‡ ( Rhyming slang.) . and traditionally by its own development of "rhyming slang.‡ Cockney is characterized by its own special vocabulary and usage. is still part of the true Cockney culture even if it is sometimes used for effect.

.Rhyming slang ‡ Cockney rhyming slang is an amusing. Since then the slang has continued to grow and reflect new trends and wider usage. It began 200 years ago among the London east-end docks builders. Cockney rhyming slang then developed as a secret language of the London underworld from the 1850's. notably leading to Australian rhyming slang expressions. widely underestimated part of the English language. and American too. Many original cockney rhyming slang words have now entered the language and many users are largely oblivious as to their beginnings. when villains used the coded speech to confuse police and eavesdroppers.

‡ Cockney rhyming slang uses substitute words. as is usual. as a coded alternative for another word. doc .the cockney rhyming slang for the word 'look' is 'butcher's hook'). When only the first word of the replacement phrase is used. The final word of the substitute phrase rhymes with the word it replaces (for example . usually two. the meaning is difficult to guess (ie 'butchers' = 'look').

wot say we pop round the Jack. I'll stand you a pig and you can rabbit on about your teapots.COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG ‡ 'Allo me old china . I'll buy you a beer (pig's ear) and you can talk (rabbit and pork) about your kids (teapot lids). We can 'ave some loop and tommy and be off before the dickory hits twelve. We can have some soup (loop de loop) and supper (Tommy Tucker) and be gone before the clock (hickory dickory dock) strikes twelve.what do you say we pop around to the bar (Jack Tar). to translate ‡ Hello my old mate (china plate) . or. .

put on me whistle and the bloody dog went. It was my wife (trouble and strife) telling me to get the kids (teapot lids). found my way up the stairs (apples and pears).‡ "Got to my mickey. ‡ "Got to my house (mickey mouse). It was me trouble telling me to fetch the teapots. put on my suit (whistle and flute) when the phone (dog and bone) rang." which really means. found me way up the apples." .

You will hear several established terms used in conversation throughout Britain: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ "Let's have a butchers at that magazine" (butcher's hook = look) "I haven't heard a dicky bird about it" (dickie bird = word) "Use your loaf and think next time" (loaf of bread = head) "Did you half-inch that car?" (half-inch = pinch. or own) "Are you telling porkies?" (porkies = pork pies = lies) "Are you going to rabbit all night?" (rabbit and pork = talk) "Scarper lads! The police are coming" (scarpa flow = go) . he's a bit mutton" (mutt'n'jeff = deaf) "I'm going on my tod" (tod sloan = alone.Cockney rhyming slang is so prevalent in British English that many people unwittingly employ it in everyday speech. meaning steal) "You will have to speak up.

encouraged by the media as a profitable commodity. with numerous new examples popping up in everyday in speech.‡ Since the 1980s there has been a resurgence in the popularity of rhyming slang. . The popularity of 'new laddism'. has led to a wealth of rhyming slang taking hold throughout the United Kingdom. usually employed by eager and cocky (sic) adolescents and especially young male adults in an attempt to strengthen their identity. Some make a bold attempt to infiltrate language use at a national level. 'girl power' and youth culture in general in the 1990's.

currently used expressions: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ruby murray = curry barnet fair = hair currant bun = sun hampstead heath = teeth deep sea diver = fiver (a monetary note) mince pies = eyes china plate = mate pen and ink = stink septic tank = yank (a person from the U.S.) whistle and flute = suit . but older.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ayrton Senna = tenner (a monetary note) Claire Rayners = trainers (the footwear) Darren Gough = cough Damon Hill = pill David Gower = shower Gary Ablett = tablet (ecstasy pill) Gary Glitter = shitter (anus) Gianluca Vialli = charlie (cocaine) Jack Dee = pee Janet Street-Porter = quarter (a weight of drugs) Tony Blair (s) = flairs or hair Here's a small selection of general.

Song Starz in their eyes ‡ They'll be making sure you stay amused They'll fill you up with drugs and booze Maybe you'll make the evening news And when you're tripping over your dreams They'll keep you down by any means and by the end of the night you'll be stifling your screams Since you became a VIPerson It's like your problems have all worsened Your paranoia casts aspersions On the truths you know And they'll just put you in the spotlight And hope that you'll do alright Or maybe not Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? So why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Starz in their eyes? Remember they said you'd show them all Emphasise the rise but not the fall And now you're playing a shopping mall Your mum and dad they can't believe What you appear to have achieved While the rest of these users are just laughing in their sleeves Since you became a VIPerson It's like your problems have all worsened Your paranoia casts aspersions On the truths you know And now the tabloids use your face To document your fall from grace And then they'll tell you that that's just the way it goes That's just the way it goes Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from the dog and duck karaoke machine And Saturday night's drunken dreams .

‡ Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from your private bedroom dance routines And Saturday night's drunken dreams Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? So why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Starz in their eyes? Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from the dog and duck karaoke machine And Saturday night's drunken dreams (When I grow up im going to be famous) Behind the steel barrier and sequence and glitter Five inch heels still knee deep in the litter Each of them a bitter bullshitter. getting lost in the camera Well footprints are fools gold. Used to be satisfied but now you feel like Mick Jagger. coating you bladder A whole lot happier a whole lot sadder. Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from the dog and duck karaoke machine And Saturday night's drunken dreams Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from your private bedroom dance routines And Saturday night's drunken dreams . diamonds crusts on their one off plimsolls So little time for these one off arseholes Rigour mortis Ken and Barbie dolls. That you've come a long way from the place that you started So why'd you wanna go and get so down hearted Welcome to the kingdom of the blagger Uncutting you nose clean. Wrapped up in the cloak of fake glamour. A pair of big shades and a push up bra. It's such a short gap between the gutter and stars.

Professor Higgins is a man who can say where a person comes from by his or her accent. SHAW) ‡ George Bernard Shaw·s Pygmalion tells a story of a phonetics professor Henry Higgins. Higgins stresses that Eliza has to abandon her "Kerbstone English that will keep her in the gutter to the end of her days" and learn how to speak beautifully. and accent was a very good marker of one·s social class. In the play (and film) the emphasis in changing one·s social class is more on learning to speak the right accent than on other significant factors. In Shaw·s days (that is at the beginning of the 20th century) Britain was a very classridden society. who makes a bet with Colonel Pickering that he can transform Eliza Doolittle.B.Pygmalion (G. . a thick-accented Cockney flower girl or a "squashed cabbage leaf" (as he himself describes her) into a fine duchess within three months.

.‡ Preface: ‡ It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without making some other Englishman despise him».

if she has a good ear and a quick tongue I'll take her anywhere and I'll pass her off as anything.bartleby.com/138/index.html ‡ "In six months in three.‡ PYGMALION script available at: http://www. I'll make a queen of that barbarous wretch!" .

. You disgrace to the noble architecture of these columns! You incarnate insult to the English language! I could pass you off as. aristocratic lady just by being taught proper English: ‡ You see this creature with her curbstone English. The English that will keep her in the gutter till the end of her days. he can teach Eliza Doolittle to speak articulately so that she will be transformed into a pure-speaking lady. Well. He wagers with the Colonel that within six months. so that no one will suspect her Cockney origins when she is passed off as a duchess at an Embassy Ball.[To Eliza] Yes. . She will become a proper.‡ So the Professor makes an initial challenge toward Pickering which becomes the cornerstone of the film's plot. ah.. which requires better English. the Queen of Sheba. sir. I could even get her a job as a lady's maid or a shop assistant. in six months. you squashed cabbage leaf. I could pass her off as a duchess at an Embassy Ball.

. How kind of you to let me come! Henry Now once again. once again where does it rain? Eliza On the plain! On the plain! Henry And where's that soggy plain? Eliza In Spain! In Spain! The three The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain! ‡ The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain! Henry In Hartford. she's got it! By George..The rain in Spain The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain! Henry By George. Hereford.? Eliza Hurricanes hardly happen. and Hampshire. where does it rain? Eliza On the plain! On the plain! Henry And where's that blasted plain? Eliza In Spain! In Spain! ‡ . she's got it! Now.

everything is destroyed except The Drunken Clam.html ‡ When a hurricane strikes Quohog. and Stewie tries to teach Nigel's Cockney-accented 3-year-old daughter how to speak proper English. As it happens.org/movie/51Family_Guy_304_One_If_By_Clam_Two_If_By_Sea.‡ Griffin episode ‡ http://watchfamilyguyonline. . which is bought out by a Brit who turns it into an English pub. pub owner Nigel Pinchley and his family move in next door to the Griffins.

‡ Emergence of a new replacement variety first dubbed ¶Estuary English· by Rosewarne (1984) ‡ Estuary English is a name given to the form(s) of English widely spoken in and around London and. more generally. . in the southeast of England ³ along the river Thames and its estuary.

If one imagines a continuum with RP and London speech at either end..] a variety of modified regional speech.‡ [.. It is a mixture of non-regional and local south-eastern English pronunciation and intonation. ¶Estuary English· speakers are to be found grouped in the middle ground. (Rosewarne 1984) .

It comprises features of RP as well as non-standard London English thus borrowing the positive prestige from both accents without committing itself to either. social compromise is also reflected in the linguistic makeup of EE. EE is reported to be used by speakers who constitute the social "middle ground" (Rosewarne 1984. the second to sound less 'posh'. This definition includes speakers who want to conform to (linguistic) middle class norms either by moving up or down the social scale. 29). This vagueness makes it extremely difficult to pin EE down linguistically. The first group aims at EE in order to sound more 'posh'. 4).‡ From a geographical point of view. then became "the most influential accent in the south-east of England´ (Rosewarne 1984. . 29). 29) and is now spreading "northwards to Norwich and westwards to Cornwall" (Rosewarne 1994. both avoiding the elitist character of RP This . EE is said to have been first spoken "by the banks of the Thames and its estuary" (Rosewarne 1984. From a sociological point of view.

ucl.‡ Estuary English ‡ web site (regularly maintained by J.C. web sites and "light journalism.ac. lectures. Wells): http://www." .uk/home/estuary/home.phon.htm Provides numerous web links to "scholarly articles. papers.

so this made her feel sorry for the beautiful bird.ku.htm Listening activity: Comma gets a cure Well. she wiped her off with a cloth and laid her on her right side. here's a story for you: Sarah Perry was a veterinary nurse who had been working daily at an old zoo in a deserted district of the territory. Finally. on her first morning. so she was very happy to start a new job at a superb private practice in North Square near the Duke Street Tower. Almost immediately. The goose's owner. kept calling. picked up her kit and headed for work. Before long. Sarah was sentimental. the goose began to tire.edu/~idea/index. In no time. Harrison-a millionaire lawyer-thought it was a fair price for a cure. The woman gave Sarah an official letter from the vet. . "Comma. but Mrs. which was surprising. Mary Harrison. Once Sarah had managed to bathe the goose. checked herself in the mirror and washed her face in a hurry. Sarah warned that this course of treatment might be expensive-either five or six times the cost of penicillin. She ate a bowl of porridge. because normally you would only expect to see it in a dog or a goat.‡ ‡ ‡ International Dialects of English Archive Founded 1997 http://web. which made an unsanitary mess. When she got there. she administered ether. Comma was strong and huge. but Sarah had a different idea. so Sarah was able to hold onto Comma and give her a relaxing bath. so it would take some force to trap her. she felt stressed. First she tried gently stroking the goose's lower back with her palm." which Sarah thought was an odd choice for a name. then singing a tune to her. Then she put on a plain yellow dress and a fleece jacket. Comma. The letter implied that the animal could be suffering from a rare form of foot and mouth disease. there was a woman with a goose waiting for her. Even so. That area was much nearer for her and more to her liking. Then Sarah confirmed the vet's diagnosis. that itchy goose began to strut around the office like a lunatic. I can't imagine paying so much. she remembered an effective treatment that required her to measure out a lot of medicine. Her efforts were not futile.

Ah. (age 18) at a local grammar school. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The following sounds heard in the recording are fairly typical of a shift away from traditional toward ¶relaxed· RP . He has lived most of his adult life in Brighton and works as a local government officer. near Addlestone. Surrey and educated to A-Level . working. and then we moved into the. ah. this little little cottage on the estate looking at watching the animals. eventually moving down to Brighton. or more. I was born in Surrey. which involved me living. Transcription Well. uh in a little town called Woking. I remember my father chasing a fox in the garden. er. I think. and I·ve been here«about«25 years. Anyway we lived there for a while. by the gamekeeper. where my grandfather worked. when I was about three. The speaker recalls that his accent was closer to ¶pure· RP when growing up in Surrey than in its current incarnation. just in the. Brighton is a student city and the influence of many younger ¶Estuary English· speakers is probably significant. CURE and SQUARE vowels are often realised as monophthongs. and then my father got er. And we lived there until I« got a permanent job. I lived with my parents. in 1957..LISTEN 1 The subject is a 49 year-old white male speaker of ¶contemporary· RP born in Woking. I was um. that had been shot. for three years in a«caravan on a caravan site. um« until the birth of my brother. sometimes smoothing it into a monophthong. my grandfather was the gamekeeper on the estate. Retraction and lowering of first vowel in FACE diphthong Raising of first vowel in MOUTH diphthong Retraction of first element of PRICE vowel. His occupation also entails a fair amount of telephone-based conflict resolution and he admits to regularly micro-adjusting his natural accent in both class directions in order to better establish a rapport with colleagues and complainants. Slight centring of GOOSE vowel with fairly relaxed lip rounding relative to advanced RP .. Um. ‡ ‡ ‡ . and. a house. and then. Affricated intervocalic /t/ The intermittent occurrence of a labiodental or ¶weak· r is a feature of the speaker·s idiolect and not particularly characteristic of either of his regions of origin. my grandfather gamekeeper. in Addlestone. gamekeeper·s cottage on an estate. Er. and we lived there for a couple of years. and I remember there being lots of dead animals around. overseas in other parts of the world.

often heading towards SQUARE. Slight retraction of NURSE (see beautiful bird ). or crunching of /t/ and /r/ at the final syllable onset of territory . and coalescence. She also remarks that her accent derives more from the general populace of her social environment than her family members or close personal friends. Fairly open DRESS vowel relative to RP. having grown up in a low income area. She attended private school on an assisted place and university in 1997. Labiodental variant of both voiced and unvoiced th . it veered closer to contemporary RP. Alveolar-palatal coalescence. . Elision of 3rd syllable. Intervocalic glottal replacement of /t/. especially in medial position. Unrounded GOAT vowel with both elements quite centralised. Others /t/s are often slightly dentalised or affricated. now living in nearby Brighton. towards a long STRUT. It has almost no discernible lip rounding and is not far from Primary Cardinal 2. The following features can be heard in the recording: The GOOSE vowel is advanced.to a greater extent than the centralised variant in Contemporary RP. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Her accent is a good example of the much-contested category Estuary English . East Sussex. many of whom speak an Estuary variant considerably closer to Standard RP. SQUARE is usually monophthonised. She describes herself as working class. Cure at the end of the set passage is realized with THOUGHT vowel. She notes that while attending private school. This is very common in Estuary accents and not unusual in Contemporary RP. Replacement of dark l with FOOT vowel.almost fronted. resulting in an dropped yod and affricate onset for Duke .Listen 2 ‡ The subject is a 28 year old white female born and raised in Portslade. Retracted first element and slight monophthongisation of PRICE vowel. due to overwhelming social pressure to conform to the same speech system as the vast majority of her fellow pupils. the year before student grants were withdrawn by the UK government. g is dropped from ing verb participle endings.

in this country by my parents for not speaking The Queen s English . If I m in. it s not fair to say that to me. I always try. accepted way of behaving. Running time: 04:04 . when I grew up in a place in Portslade. I want to be accepted for who I really am. to be polite and I probably try and sound a little bit more innocent than I really am to try and mask the threatening effects but I won t try and speak in a more proper way to get respect. but she s too big to tell off . working in a shop. erm. to fit in with a much more conventional. umm. er. I ve always been corrected. I ve never accepted that. where it s normal to speak like this. as most children are. and if people find it threatening. I still argue with my dad about it. so it should be stamped out or otherwise you won t be allowed to take part in polite society. ah. that s not really my problem. er dropping my aitches and t s. I don t really hold a lot of I don t think that idea holds a lot of water. for dropping their t s and says I know your sister does it. and I ll say you know.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ I think that my accent is um. though in words for a reason despite the fact that lots of other letters like g. it s. And I have quite a strong political belief that I won t alter my accent for other people despite having been sent to a private school erm my family having aspirations. Erm. h and other expressions in English language are silent deliberately. He tells my brothers off. to decide on your own to do that is in some way anarchistic. a true reflection of where I come from in the social spectrum in this country and I have quite in my area. in my shop I work in.

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