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Long Term Neuro-muscular

Adaptations to resistance
training
Overload Principle
Adaptation and Specificity
§ Muscles adapt differently based
on the type of overload placed
on them.
§ Specify the training regimen to
elicit the desired adaptations.
Specificity of Training
§ Training should “overload” the
system / muscle type that the
individual wishes to train!
§ IE: Energy systems, muscle fiber
type, and sport specificity.
Muscle Fiber Types
Muscle Fiber Types
Muscle Fiber Types and Performance
§ Genetics
§ Specificity of Training
§ Fiber Conversion
* Power = Force X Velocity *
Types of Contractions
Types of Training
Fatigue
Glucose Anaerobic

Energy H+

Pyruvic Acid (2) Lactic Acid (2)


ATP
Inter Cellular Fluid
Mitochondria
CO2 & H+
Fatty
Acids Aerobic
Acetyl Co-A (2)
Amino
Acids

Energy ATP
Krebs
CO2
Cycle H+ To ETC
DOMS
Adaptations to Strength Training
§ Neural Adaptations (First 8-12
weeks)
§ Learn Movement (Motor Learning)
§  Coordination
§  Motor Unit Recruitment
§  Coordination of Motor Unit
§ Neuromuscular inhibition (GTO ,
Muscle Spindles)
Muscular Adaptations
§ Muscle Fibers (Physical Changes)
§ Increase in Size: Hypertrophy
(Particularly Type II)
§ Directly proportional to the
VOLUME of overload
§ Volume = Resistance X
Repetitions
§ Increase in Number: Hyperplasia (?)
Neural Control
• Initial increase in expression of strength due to improved
neural control of muscle contraction.
Neural Drive
§ Electromyographic studies indicate lower level in EMG
activity to muscular force ratio.
§ Muscle produced more force with lower amount of EMG
activity.
§ More force with less neural drive.
§ The increase in maximal neural drive to muscle
increases maximal strength.
Muscle Hypertrophy
§ Muscle enlargement is generally paralleled by
increased muscle strength.
§ Increased muscle strength is NOT always paralleled by
gains in muscle size.
§ Increase in cross-sectional fiber area of both ST and
FT muscle fibers.
§ FT fiber area appears to increase to greater extent
than ST fiber area.
§ Zoe Smith weighs in at
58kg but can clean and
press 100kgs
Connective Tissue and Bone

§ Supporting ligaments, tendons and fascia


strengthen as muscle strength increases.
§ Connective tissue proliferates around individual
muscle fibers, this thickens and strengthens
muscle’s connective tissue harness.
§ Bone mineral content increases more slowly, over
6- to 12-month period.
Muscle Fiber Conversion?
§ Studies are inconclusive???
§ Most show no change or very little
§ Appears that IIb  IIa w/ intense
aerobic training
§ Largely genetic and relatively stable
(Absolute Number)
Energy System Adaptations
Capillary Supply
§ Increase number of capillaries in a muscle helps
support metabolism and contributes to total
muscle size.
§ Improved capillarization has been observed with
resistance training by body builders but
decreased in power and weight lifters.
§ Increase of capillaries linked to intensity and
volume of resistance training.
§ Time course of changes in capillary density slow
(more than 12 weeks).
Gains in the Beginning of a Program
Steroids

8-12 Weeks
Strength

Steroids
Progress

Hypertrophy

Neural Adaptations

Training Duration
Other Adaptations
Other Adaptations
Other Adaptations
Specificity of Training
Specificity of Training
Strength
§ Strength is a function of:
§ Neural Factors
§ Type of fibers engaged
§ Anthropometrics/Biomechanics
§ Size of Muscle (CSA) *
Frequency Systems
Lifting Systems
Recommendations
Body Composition
Adaptations

For the most part,


– Small decreases in body fat


– Minimal increases in total body mass
– Minimal increases in FFM, about 0.3 kg/weekly
Recommendations
§ ALWAYS allow 48 hours for complete
recovery !
§ Start slow !
§ NEVER overload a sore muscle !