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'  , ( (/0, 12th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, New


Jersey USA, 2004, ISBN 0-13-607790-0
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 Intro to the basic quantities and
idealizations of mechanics
 Newton¶s laws
 SI unit system
 Numerical calculations procedure
 eneral guide for problem solving
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|echanics is a branch of physics that is concerned with the state of
rest or motion of bodies that are subjected to the action of forces
|echanics

Rigid-body Fluid
Deformable-body

Rigid-body mechanics

Statics Dynamics

Statics deals with the equilibrium of bodies that are either at rest
or move with constant velocity. Dynamics is dealing with bodies
in accelerated motion

3
The subjects of statics developed very early in history because its
principles can be formulated simply from measurements of geometry
and force

Archimedes alileo alilei


(287-212 B.C.) (1564-1642.)
Pendulums, falling
Lever principle bodies

Newton Euler
(1642-1727) D¶Alembert
Langrange
3 Fundamental laws
«and others«
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Basic quantities
 
is used to locate the position of a point in
space and describe the size of a physical system
 is conceived as a succession of events
 is a measure of a quantity of matter that is
used to compare the action of one body with that
of another
 is considered as µpush¶ or µpull¶ exerted by
one body or another.
- Direct contact (eg. A person pushing a wall)
- Distant action (gravitational, electrical, magnetic
forces)
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Idealizations
We use some idealizations in order to simplify the
application of theory
D It has a mass, but its size can be neglected
(eg size of earth is insignificant as compared to the size
of its orbit)
When a body is modelled as a particle, mechanics
become simpler since the geometry of the body is not
involved in the analysis of the problem
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Idealizations
Y'
can be considered as a combination of a large number of
particles in which all the particles remain at a fixed distance from one
another, both before and after applying a load
Y   force represents the effect of a loading which is assumed
to act at a point on a body. (eg. Contact force between wheel and ground)
["5 )& " 

The basis of engineering mechanics is formed by Newton¶s three laws
of motion. These laws, based on experimental observation, apply to
the motion of a particle as measured from a   
reference
frame.

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A particle originally at rest, or moving in
a straight line with constant velocity, tends to
remain in this state provided the particle is not
Subjected to an unbalanced force
["5 )& " 

 6 "
A particle acted upon by an u  force 4 experiences an
acceleration that has the same direction as the force and a magnitude
directly proportional to the force

47m
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The mutual forces of action and reaction between two particles
are equal, opposite, and collinear
["5 & "* '
 
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4 is force of gravitation between two particles


1is constant of gravitation measured
experimentally, 66.73*10-12 m3/(kg s2)
8represent the mass of each particle
 is the distance between the two particles
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Weight
According to the equation described, any two particles
have a mutual attractive (gravitational) force acting between them

For a particle located at the surface of the earth (or close enough) the
only gravitational force, of significant magnitude, is that between the
earth and the particle. This force is termed 
.
If we put m1  m and m2  |e (mass of earth) and r is distance between
the particle and the earth¶s center

Letting g |e/r2, then 7*


 
  
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SI is used throughout

Rules for use


(please read carefully page 10)
[ 
& & & 

á   
  Each term in an equation must be expressed
in the same units
à
 
uNumber of significant figures determines accuracy of
the number. Use 
 
   
'u 
 uAny numerical figure ending in five or greater is
rounded up and a number less less than five is rounded down
u  Do not round off calculations until expressing the final
result. Round off the answer to three significant figures
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 Read the problem carefully and correlate physical situation with


theory
 Tabulate the problem data and draw diagrams
 Apply the relevant principles, generally
with equations
 Solve the equations and report the answer
 Judge the answer in technical terms and
common sense to determine whether the
answer seems reasonable
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 To show how to add forces and
resolve them into components
using the Parallelogram Law
 Cartesian vectors
 Introduce dot product
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A is any positive or negative physical quantity that can be


completely specified by its magnitude (eg. length, mass, time)
A  is any physical quantity that requires both a magnitude
and a direction for its complete description (eg. force, moment)