Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy

• Describes the structures of the body:
– what they are made of – where they are located – associated structures


• Is the study of:
– functions of anatomical structures – individual and cooperative functions

How are living things organized?
• Atoms: – are the smallest chemical units • Molecules: – are a group of atoms working together • Organelles: – are a group of molecules working together • Cells: – are a group of organelles working together • Tissues: – are a group of similar cells working together • Organs: – are a group of different tissues working together • Organ systems (11): – are a group of organs working together • Organism: – is an individual

Organizing a Muscle

• • • • •

Protein molecules (chemical level) Protein filaments (organelle level) Muscle cells (cellular level) Cardiac muscle tissue (tissue level) Heart (organ level)

• The body is divided into 11 organ systems • All organ systems work together • Many organs work in more than 1 organ system • Homeostasis: All body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment • Systems respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range (body temperature, fluid balance) • Failure to function within a normal range results in disease

How are living things regulated? Mechanisms of Regulation
• Autoregulation (intrinsic):
– automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ

• Extrinsic regulation:
– responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems

Maintaining Normal Limits
• Receptor: receives the stimulus • Control Center: processes the signal and sends instructions • Effector: carries out instructions • Negative Feedback: response of the effector negates the stimulus • Positive Feedback: response of the effector reinforces the stimulus

Working Together

Table 1–1

Anatomical Landmarks

What are the anatomical terms used to describe body sections, regions, and relative positions?

Superficial characteristics: surface parts – can be names or adjectives

• Anatomical position:
– hands at sides, palms forward

• Supine:
– lying down, face up

• Prone:
– lying down, face down

Quadrants and Regions
• 4 abdominopelvic quadrants around umbilicus • 9 abdominopelvic regions

Figure 1–7a

Which Direction?
• Lateral:
– side view

• Frontal:
– front view

• Anatomical direction:
– refers to the patient’s left or right
Figure 1–8

3 Dimensions
• Plane: – a 3dimensional axis • Section: – a slice parallel to a plane

Figure 1–9

What are the major body cavities and their subdivisions?

The Ventral Body Cavity
• Coelom:
– divided by the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

Figure 1–10a

Isolating the Organs
• Serous membranes:
– consist of parietal layer and visceral layer

Dividing the Cavities
• Thoracic cavity:
– divided by the mediastinum into 2 pleural cavities

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