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SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:

NAME - ARPAN TELLEWAR


DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ROLL NO. - 0208CS081020
GGCT BRANCH - CS
SEM - 6TH
Sensor Network Protocols Today
Appln
EnviroTrack
Hood TinyDB
FTSP Regions
Diffusion
Transport SPIN
TTDD Deluge Trickle Drip
MMRP TORA
Routing
CGSR Ascent Arrive MintRoute
AODVDSR ARA GSR GPSR GRAD
Scheduling DSDV DBF TBRPF
Resynch
SPAN GAF FPS
Topology PC ReORg
Yao
PAMAS SMAC WooMac
TMAC BMAC
Link WiseMAC Pico

Bluetooth 802.15.4
Phy eyes
RadioMetrix CC1000
RFM nordic
Types of solutions
• MintRoute
– Network protocol includes link functionality
– Link Estimation

• S-MAC
– Link protocol includes network functionality
– Neighborhood maintainance
Types of solutions
• UNPF
“Unified Network Protocol Framework”
– Requires all combinations of link/network
protocols to be combined
– Each application or protocol combination
requires new UNPF implementation
Properties of SP
• SP provides mechanisms for network protocols
to operation
– Network protocols may introduce policy

• Three key elements of SP:


– Data Reception
– Data Transmission
– Neighbor Management
Message Reception
Receive

SP

• Message arrives from link


• SP dispatches
• Network protocols establish
– naming/addressing
– filtering
Message Transmission
Send Receive
Msg Pool

SP

• Messages placed in shared message pool


– All entries are a promise to send a
packet in the future
• Messages include
– Pointer to first packet and # of packets
• “Message Futures” – Similar to Lazy Task Creation
– Control information: reliability and urgency
– Feedback information: congestion and phase
Neighbor Management
Neighbors Send Receive
Neighbor Table Msg Pool

SP

• SP provides a shared neighbor table


– Cooperatively managed
– SP mediates interaction using table
• No policy on admission/eviction by SP
• Scheduling information
SP Architecture
Network Network Network Network
Service Protocol 1 Protocol 2 Protocol 3
Manager

Neighbors Send Receive

Neighbor Table Msg Pool


SP
Estimator

Estimator
SP Adaptor A SP Adaptor B
Link

Link
Data Link A Data Link B

PHY A PHY B
Neighbor Table Message Pool
Neighbor Required Link Network sp_message_t
1
destination address_t
2
message 1st TOSMsg to send

control
quantity # of pkts to send
address address_t urgent on or off
time on local time node wakes reliability on or off
time off local time node sleeps

feedback
listen true or false phase ∆ adjustment
quality estimated link quality congestion true or false

Neighbor Table Msg Pool

SP
SP Message Futures
1) Submit an SP Message
Network Protocol
SP Message packets
for Transmission
2) Message added to
1st packet
message pool
(1) Next Packet 3) SP requests the link
Handler transmit the 1st packet
(5)
4) Link tells SP the
transmission completed
Send (6) 5) SP asks protocol for next
Msg Pool packet
Message (2) 6) Protocol updates packet
SP Dispatch msg* entry in message pool
com
tran

t
plet

ec
smi

(3) (4)
p
ins
ed
t

Link Protocol
TinyOS Implementation of SP

• Neighbor table
– Iterator (max, get, etc)
– Commands Network
• Insert, Remove • MessageService
Pool P
• Adjust Manager pointers
– SP message
• Find Neighbors stored
– Events – nextPacket() event
• Admit – Control and feedbackNeighb
• Evicted stored in message
• Expired structure
SP
Link Protocols
• Slotted
– Communication is synchronized
– Data transfers occur in “slots”
– S-MAC, T-MAC, TRAMA, 802.15.4, etc

• Sampled
– Communication is unsynchronized
– Data transfer wakes up receiver
– B-MAC, Aloha with Preamble Sampling, Mica1 LPL,
CC2500, Reactive Radio, PAMAS
Slotted Protocols: 15.4 Beacons
• 15.4 Protocol
CSMA Contention Period
– Each node beacons on its
own schedule

Beacon

Beacon
Data

Data
Ack
– Other nodes “scan” for 15.4
beacons, synchronize sleep

• SP Superframe Duration

– Neighbor information Beacon Frame Duration

inserted by 15.4
– Instructs 15.4 to wake
during other beacon
periods
Sampling Protocols: BMAC LPL
wakeup
• Periodically samples the
channel for activity
• Messages are sent at
wakeup time
• Receivers can
synchronize to senders
• Subsequent messages
“piggybacked” on long
messages

wakeup
wakeup

wakeup

packet

Node 1 sleep TX [preamble] sleep sleep


time
wakeup

wakeup
wakeup

wakeup
packet

Node 2 sleep RX sleep sleep


time
Network Protocols
• Collection Routing (MintRoute)
• Dissemination (Trickle)
• Aggregation (Synopsis Diffusion)
MintRoute
Send Receive Intercept

MultiHop Neighbors

MultiHop Engine

MintRoute
SP Message forwarding queue
1st packet
Send Update
Choose Next Packet
Route Neighbor
Parent Handler
Beacons ETX

Send Receive

Neighbors Send Receive


SP
Neighbor Table Msg Pool
Neighbor Message
Functions Dispatch
Link
Estimator

Link Protocol
Trickle

• Suppression mechanism assumes message broadcasts


are immediate and atomic
• Cancel command in SPSend is required due to:
– Transmission delays from SP, collision avoidance, TDMA slots
– Slotted protocols require broadcast emulation.

• Sampling Protocol • Slotted Protocol

(1)
(5)
(2)

(4)
(3)
Synopsis Diffusion

• Requires a gradient to the collection point


Collaborative Implementation

MintRoute
Gradient Synopsis Diffusion
Maintaining Hop Count
Manager

Neighbors Send Receive


SP
Neighbor Table Msg Pool
Neighbor Message
Functions Dispatch
Link
Estimator

Link Protocol
Results: mica2 Throughput
16000
1

14000 0.9

Percentage of Channel Capacity


12000 0.8

0.7
Throughput (kbps)

10000
0.6
8000 0.5

6000 0.4

B-MAC 0.3
4000 SP
SP+CC 0.2
2000 SP+LPL+CC
SP+LPL+CC+Phase 0.1
Channel Capacity
0 0
0 5 10 15 20
Nodes(n)
Results:
Combining Network Protocols (mica2)

• Neither MR nor SD know about each other


• SP’s message pool allows batching and power savings
• Overall power savings of 35%
extends node lifetime by over 54%
Open Issues
• Time Synchronization
– Pass post-arbitration time stamping
– Data correlation
– Protocol synchronization
Conclusion
• Effective link abstraction, SP, allows
network protocols to run efficiently on
varying power management schemes
– Low Power Listening
– Slotting
• Multiple network protocols benefit from
coexistence
THANK YOU