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What is Biogas Digestion?
Biogas Digestion is the process of taking biogas to produce electricity, heat, or hot water Biogas means a gas formed by carbon dioxide and methane from breakdown of organic materials such as manure.
Bacteria breaks down manure or other waste products to create biogas. .What is a Digester? Digester is a vessel or container where the biogas process takes place. Products may be fed into the chamber such as manure or the container could be used to cover a place that is already giving off biogas such as a swamp or a landfill.
History of Biogas .
Reasons of Interest in Biogas Anaerobic Digester systems Improved Technology in systems has led to reliability Good way to manage manure given the odor and environmental concerns associated with manure Government has subsidized programs for systems Potential to sell credits to utilities and utilities continue interest in green energy .
Biogas Process .
Design of a Digester .
and hydrogen ± Methanogenic produces biogas .How Digester Works Temperature must be kept between 65 degrees and 150 degrees 4 Types of bacteria breakdown the waste ± Hydrolytic breaks organic material to simple sugar and amino acids ± Fermentative then converts to organic acids ± Acidogenic convert to carbon dioxide. acetate.
Combined Heat and Power Also known as cogeneration Using the heated water for other purposes such as heating buildings or creating additional energy .
Sources of Biogas Wetlands Sewage Sludge Landfills Plant Material Animal Waste .
TYPES OF BIOGAS DIGESTER SYSTEMS .
Number of United States Operating Anaerobic Digesters by Technology .
Better for smaller operations . They are used for larger amounts of manure Plug Flow Digester.Is used for ruminant animal manure and requires little maintenance. Complete Mix Digester Are larger vessels that can either be above or below ground.
The digester is temperature controlled and a media is placed inside the digester. fixed film digester a tank designed as part of a manure management system to handle manure up to 3 percent solids. This design allows the microbial populations to attach to the media and grow as a biofilm (fixed film). thus preventing the microbes from being removed with the effluent .
the first digester in the thermophilic temperature range and the second digester in the mesophilic temperature range. methane production and odor reduction. . temperature-phased anaerobic digester (TPAD) two tanks designed as part of a manure management system. The digesters are heated. This will maximize biological activity for the destruction of volatile solids.
. Decomposition of the manure occurs. covered lagoon digester an anaerobic lagoon is commonly used when manure has less than 2 percent solids. methane is produced and effluent odor is reduced. The lagoon is covered with a gas-tight cover to capture the biogas.
The gas typically fuels an engine-generator set or gas turbine to produce electricity. the equivalent of natural gas. Reforming the gas to hydrogen would make possible the production of electricity using fuel cell technology. and filters remove impurities. Dryers remove moisture from the gas. The gas also can fuel a boiler to produce heat or steam. . Further gas cleanup improves biogas to pipeline quality. A piping system connects the wells and collects the gas. A landfill gas-to-energy consists of a series of wells drilled into the landfill.
US Government Involvement .
§ 7545 .A.C. 2009 revised the new source performance standards to limit when owners/operators of stationary combustion turbines using biogas had to install emission controls and/or pretreatment systems to remove sulfur compounds Biogas is recognized as an advanced biofuel under 42 U.S.Regulations On March 20.
Financial Incentives Since 2003 USDA has awarded 37 million to anaerobic digestion systems .
EPA AGSTAR Study of Two farms Parameter Odor Greenhouse gas emissions With anaerobic digestion Substantial reduction Methane²substantial reduction (3.9%) (M.03 tons per cow-yr on a carbon dioxide equivalent basis) Nitrous oxide²No evidence of emissions with or without anaerobic digestion No significant reduction Oxygen demand²substantial reduction (8.4 lb per cow-day) Pathogens²substantial reduction (Fecal coliforms: ~99. avium paratuberculosis: ~99%) Nutrient enrichment²no reduction Ammonia emissions Potential water quality impacts Economic impact Significant increase in net farm income ($82 per cow-yr) .
Benefits and Concerns .
Benefits of Biogas Digester Systems Odor Reduction by using raw manure If Ammonia. is captured can be used to help plant growth by injecting it into the ground Reduction of Electricity for Farms Carbon Dioxide generated from biogas digester systems creates less greenhouse gas then methane gas used in initial process . a by-product of process.
Biogas Digester System Concerns Releases Nitrogen and ammonia into the atmosphere both of which hazardous Can release Hydrogen Sulfide a very toxic gas Methane released can create explosive atmosphere Should raw materials get into water supply can contaminate the water Transportation is of a concern because methane is explosive although new technology may allow it to be stored in powder form .
Oregon produces 1.000 have agreed to pay a small premium to use biogas energy Panda Ethanol Plant in Texas Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant in Portland.000 customers 4.S. Examples Central Vermont of 158.5 million kilowatts of energy per year .Current U.
Other Countries use of Biogas Nepal Africa Ecuador Sweden .
425 small biogas plants for individual use One plant costs approximately $593 USD (2009 estimate) Nepal has subsidized half the cost for farmers willing to build these biogas plants Nepal has targeted farmers with at least one cattle and owns a small piece of land .Nepal Since 2003 Nepal has built 94.
000 jobs since 2003 for those who build these small plants Reduces air pollution because biogas burns cleaner then wood Improves women and girls lives because the plants reduce overall work by about 3 hours then collecting and cooking with fire wood leaving more time for education .Benefits from Nepal's Prospective Saves from deforestation because main source of Nepal s farmers power is wood burning Has created 13.
400 people and cost $300k .Africa Biogas distributors cost about $50 per family Currently Nigeria is working on a biogas project that will provide gas to 5.
This contaminated underground water sources and created sever odors The project built a biogas digester that processed both human and animal waste .Ecuador Biogas Sewage Project A large education complex called Santa Maria del Fiat did not have proper sewage system and would simply dump waste in open spaces.
Power is also produced in the summer from local farmer s animal and vegetable waste The school sells the fertilizer by product and uses the fertilizer in the schools own orchid .Ecuador Biogas Sewage Project Continued The school also built a water reclamation system During school year the 500 students waste is used to produce over 40% of the school s gas electricity.
Sweden Biogas Train Train runs on entrails of slaughtered cows Costs 20% more to run on methane then diesel right now Sweden is 10 times ahead of its European counter parts for binding goals the European Commission as setup for use of bio-products by the end of the year 2010 Sweden also has 65 fleet of biogas buses .
Conclusions Biomass counts for only 4% of United States yearly energy use Biogas works best on small scale operations Has technology improves we will be able to use methane gas more efficiently Good way to put human and animal waste to good use .
gov/agstar/documents/2010_digester_update.html Slide 4-http://www.be/anglais/Assainissement%20et%20biogaz /biogas%20principle.za/biogas/biogas-history Slide 6.edu/basics.clearhorizonsllc.pdf Slide 7-http://www.biogas.psu.shtml Slide 10-http://www.epa.epa.htm Slide 9-http://www.Various sources see Slide 13-No need for citation .html Slide 12.html Slide 8-http://www.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/biogas.hydropur.biogas.energyrevolution.edu/terminology.Notes-Citations Slide 3-http://www.co.http://www.epa.oregon.psu.html Slide 5-http://www.com/html/products/diagram.gov/chp/basic/index.html Slide 11-http://www.gov/chp/basic/index.
SO2 EMISSION LIMIT FOR UNITS BURNING BIOGAS ADDED TO NSPS FOR STATIONARY COMBUSTION TURBINES (19 NO.oregon.psu.gov/agstar/documents/2010_digester_update. 4 Air Pollution Consultant 2.psu.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/biogas.edu/terminology.pdf .biogas.http://www.edu/terminology.biogas.No Citation needed Slide-21.edu/terminology.html Slide 19 -http://www.13) Slide 22-http://www.psu.Notes-Citations Continued Slide 14-http://www.html Slide 18-http://www.biogas.epa.epa.shtml# Landfill_Gas Slide 20.html Slide 17-http://www.edu/terminology.pdf Slide 23.biogas.epa.gov/agstar/documents/2010_digester_update.pdf Slide 15-http://www.gov/agstar/documents/nydairy2003.psu.html Slide 16-http://www.
141) Slide 32-http://sgp.org/download/SGPCaseStudiesBook. L.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4373440.html Slide 28-No need for a citation Slide 29-http://www.complete.html Slide 27-http://www.np/target-group Slide 31 Borders and Environment by Andrew P.co.edu/Portals/0/anaerobic.undp.edu/Safety. Morriss and E.Notes-Citations Continued Slide 24-No citation needed Slide 25-http://animalagteam.cfm .bspnepal.complete.pdf Slide 33-http://sgp.undp.msu.gov/kids/energy.org.biogas.pdf Slide 34-http://news.np/achievements Slide 30-http://www.bspnepal.com/2008/09/24/business/businessspecial2/ 24farmers.doe.eia.bbc.nytimes.stm Slide 35-http://tonto. Roger Meiners 39 Envtl.psu.org/download/SGPCaseStudiesBook.org.pdf Slide 26-http://www.cfm?page=biomass_home-basicsk.
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