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Digital Subscriber Line (DSL

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‡ After traditional modems reached their peak data rate, telephone companies developed another technology called DSL to provide higher-speed access to the internet. ‡ DSL is a family of point-to-point technologies to provide high-speed data transmission over traditional telephone lines. These technologies are ADSL, VDSL, HDSL and SDSL.

But the filters installed at the end of the line by the telephone company limits the bandwidth to 4 KHz (sufficient for voice communication. ‡ Therefore conversion for POTS to DSL usually requires just changing the equipment and removing the filter at the exchange and not the wiring of the local loop. .1 MHz. But the question arises how does DSL reach a data rate that was never achieved with traditional modems?? ‡ The answer is that twisted-pair local loop is actually capable of handling bandwidths up to 1. This is the factor which makes DSL technology so attractive.Using existing local loops ‡ DSL uses existing local loops.

Thus voice transmission continues even if the data equipment fails.Equipment used in DSL ‡ Only the equipment at the subscriber end and at the exchange are replaced for DSL. The wiring remains the same. It may consist of just a low-pass and bandpass filter. ‡ At the subscriber¶s end: ‡ Line Splitter: It splits up the voice and data transmission for telephone and DSL modem respectively. .

DSL Equipment ‡ DSL Modem: It usually uses Ethernet 10BaseT data format so that it can be connected to an Ethernet port of a PC. It just converts one standard into another. It just converts the incoming data into Ethernet format and vice versa. its not a modem in a strict sense. DSL modem does not convert analog to digital signals or vice versa. router or hub etc. . So in reality.

many customers get connected to the Main Distribution Frame/Facility (MDF) which acts as a splitter. ‡ DSLAM: DSL Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) converts the data into the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) data format to be transmitted to the ATM switch which distributes it to the ISPs (Internet Service Providers) for access to the Internet. It sends voice traffic to the Voice Telephone Network and data traffic to DSLAM. .Equipment at the Local Carrier¶s End ‡ Main Distribution Frame (MDF): Using local loop.

7 km to be achieved. This enables a range of about 3. This limits the length of the line to 1km and repeaters have to be used for longer distances. ‡ Standard T1 line uses alternate mark inversion coding (AMI) which occupies a bandwidth of 1. . ‡ HDSL uses the 2B1Q coding scheme to provide a data rate of 2 Mbps over 2 twisted pair lines within a bandwidth that extends only up to about 196 kHz.High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) ‡ HDSL was designed as an alternative to the T-1 line (1.544 Mbps).5 MHz and is very susceptible to attenuation.

If the receiver¶s clock is out of synchronization. there are transitions in the signal that alert the receiver to the beginning. . middle or end of the pulse.HDSL ‡ A long string of 0s in the case of AMI might desynchronize the receiver. Another advantage of 2B1Q is that it also includes timing information in the data being transmitted which means that in 2B1Q. these alerting points can reset the clock.

Bipolar AMI Encoding .

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) ‡ SDSL uses the same coding scheme as HDSL i. it divides the available bandwidth equally between the downstream and upstream directions.e.e. 2B1Q. . ‡ SDSL was developed to provide the same type of service as HDSL but over a single twisted-pair line. its symmetric (like HDSL) i. ‡ As the name suggests.

the user requires far more capacity for downstream than for upstream transmission. Thus. ‡ ADSL is carrier-based unlike HDSL or SDSL which use coding. ‡ Typically while using Internet. as the name suggests is asymmetric. ADSL provides a perfect fit for the Internet requirement. which refers to the fact that ADSL provides more capacity downstream (from the carrier¶s central office to the customer¶s site) than upstream (from customer to carrier). .Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) ‡ ADSL.

ADSL Design ‡ Frequency division multiplexing ± Lowest 25kHz for voice ‡ Plain old telephone service (POTS) ± Use echo cancellation or FDM to give two bands (upstream and downstream).5km . ± Use FDM within bands ‡ Range 5.

ADSL Channel Configuration .

the entire frequency band for the upstream channel overlaps the lower portion of the downstream channel.Echo Cancellation in ADSL ‡ Echo cancellation is a signal processing technique that allows transmission of digital signals in both directions on a single transmission line simultaneously. This has 2 advantages: . ‡ When echo cancellation is used. In essence. a transmitter must subtract the echo of its own transmission from the incoming signal to recover the signal sent by the other side.

The echo cancellation design is more flexible for changing upstream capacity. . 2. more of the downstream bandwidth is in the ³good´ part of the spectrum. ‡ Disadvantage The need for echo cancellation logic on both ends of the line adds to the cost and complexity of the equipment.The higher the frequency.Echo Cancellation in ADSL ‡ Advantages 1. With the use of echo cancellation. The upstream channel can be extended upward without running into the downstream: instead the area of overlap is extended. the greater the attenuation.

36Mbps ± Impairments bring this down to 1.Discrete Multitone (DMT) ‡ Standard modulation technique for ADSL which combines QAM and FDM.5Mbps to 9Mbps . ‡ Multiple carrier signals at different frequencies ‡ Some bits on each channel ‡ 4kHz subchannels ‡ Send test signal and use subchannels with better signal to noise ratio ‡ 256 downstream subchannels at 4kHz (60kbps) ± 15.

DMT Transmitter .

Very-High-Bit-Rate DSL(VDSL) ‡ An alternative approach to ADSL ‡ Uses DMT ‡ Bit rate of 50-55 Mbps downstream and 1.5 Mbps upstream. .5-2.