Chapter 5
Ethics in Business Research


Learning Objectives
Understand ‡ what issues are covered in research ethics ‡ the goal of ³no harm´ for all research activities and what constitutes no harm for participant, researcher, and research sponsor

5-3 Learning Objectives ‡ differing ethical dilemmas and responsibilities of researchers. and research assistants ‡ role of ethical codes of conduct in professional associations . sponsors.

‡ Protect the safety of the researcher and the team. ‡ Follow ethical standards when designing the research.5-4 Summary ‡ Ethics are norms or standards of behavior that guide moral choices about our behavior and our relationship with others. The goal of ethics in research is to ensure that no one is harmed or suffers adverse consequences from research activities. . ‡ Ensure the research team follows the design. Ethics differ from legal constraints. in which generally accepted standards have defined penalties that are universally accepted. ‡ Ensure the sponsor receives ethically conducted and reported research. As research is designed. several ethical considerations are balanced: ‡ Protect the rights of the participant or subject.

) ‡ In general. Begin data collection by explaining to the respondents the benefits expected from research. discomfort.5-5 Summary(Contd. pain or loss of privacy. Be certain that interviewers obtain the informed consent of the respondent. Explain that their rights and wellbeing will be adequately protected and say how that will be done. ‡ Many sponsors wish to undertake research without revealing themselves. When it is used. research must be designed so that a respondent does not suffer physical harm. debrief any respondent who has been deceived. Ethical researchers provide sponsors with the . The use of deception is questionable. Sponsors have the right to demand and receive confidentiality between themselves and the researchers. embarrassment.

‡ The research team¶s safety is the responsibility of the researcher . Researchers should require ethical compliance from team members in following research design. ‡ Many corporations and research firms have adopted a code of ethics.5-6 Summary(Contd. just a sponsors expect ethical behavior from the researcher. the American Psychological Association and American Political Association. the American Marketing Association. . Several professional associations such as American Association of Public Opinion Research. despite the sponsored preferred outcomes. The ethical researcher shows the data objectively.) design needed to solve managerial question.

5-7 Types of Ethical Violations Violating disclosure agreements Breaking confidentiality Padded invoices Misrepresenting results Deceiving participants Avoiding legal liability .

5-8 Procter & Gamble ‡ Admits to competitive intelligence gathering ‡ Contracted BI firm took documents from Unilever trash receptacles ‡ Out-of-court settlement rumored (and reported) at $10m .

5-9 Ethical Approaches Deontology Ethical standards Ethical Relativism .

5-10 Ethical Approaches How would you assess the P&G case using the two ethical approaches? Deontology Ethical Relativism .

5-11 Ethical Codes of Conduct .

5-12 Exhibit 5-1 Ethical issues at all stages of the research process .

5-13 Ethical Treatment of Participants Explain study benefits Explain participant rights and protections Obtain informed consent .

5-14 Components of Informed Consent ‡ Identify researchers ‡ Describe survey topic ‡ Describe target sample ‡ Identify sponsor ‡ Describe purpose of research ‡ Promise anonymity and confidentiality ‡ Give ³good-faith´ estimate of required time commitment ‡ State participation is voluntary ‡ State item-non response is acceptable ‡ Ask for permission .

5-15 Characteristics of Informed Consent Competence Knowledge Elements Voluntary Informed .

5-16 Ethical Responsibilities ‡ Special guidelines apply to children! ± Informed consent means parental approval .

5-17 Deception Disguising non-research activities Camouflaging true research objectives .

5-18 Debriefing Explain any deception Describe purpose Share results Provide follow-up .

5-19 Participant Confidentiality Obtain signed nondisclosure Nondisclosure of data subsets Minimize instruments requiring ID Restrict access to ID Reveal only with written consent .

5-20 Right to Privacy Right to refuse Prior permission to interview Limit time required .

5-21 Data Collection in Cyberspace Data Mining European Union .

Safe Harbor Agreement Notice Choice Access Security Onward Transfer Data Integrity Enforcement .5-22 The U.S.

5-23 Confidentiality Sponsor Nondisclosure Purpose Nondisclosure Findings Nondisclosure .

5-24 What to do if coerced? Educate on purpose Explain problems Emphasize fact-finding role Terminate relationship .

5-25 Effective Codes of Ethics Enforceable Regulate Specify Behavior Protect .

5-26 Key Terms ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Code of ethics Confidentiality Debriefing Deception Ethics Informed consent ‡ Nondisclosure ± Findings ± Purpose ± Sponsor ‡ Right to privacy ‡ Right to quality ‡ Right to safety .

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