POWER AND POLITICS

WHAT IS POWER?

A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A¶s wishes´ Dependency: - B¶s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.

 Focuses influence downward.CONTRASTING LEADERSHIP AND POWER Leadership  Focuses on goal achievement. Power  Used as a means for achieving goals.  Requires follower dependency.  Requires goal compatibility with followers.  Used to gain lateral and upward influence. .

BASES OF POWER A ) Formal power B) Personal Power .

REWARD POWER Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable.FORMAL POWER COERCIVE POWER A power base dependent on fear.  LEGITIMATE POWER The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization.  .

 .PERSONAL POWER  EXPERT POWER Influence based on special skills or knowledge. REFERENT POWER Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits.

you make them dependent on you.DEPENDENCY: KEY TO POWER ³ If someone possesses something that others require. but that you only have it. and thus you gain the power´ .

WHAT CREATES DEPENDENCY? Importance of resource Scarcity of resource of resource Nonsubstitutablity .

POWER TACTICS ³Way in which individuals translate power bases into specific action´ Legitimacy Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Exchange Persona appeals Pressure coalitions .

PREFERRED POWER TACTICS BY INFLUENCE DIRECTION Upward influence: Rational Persuasion Downward influence: Rational Persuasion Inspirational Appeals Pressure Consultation Ingratiation Exchange Legitimacy .

CONT«. Lateral influence: Rational persuasion Consultation Ingratiation Exchange Legitimacy Personal appeals Coalitions .

or an employee. etc. ‡ Power is central to understanding sexual harassment as it comes from a supervisor. ‡ It includes unwelcome advances.SEXUAL HARASSMENT: UNEQUAL POWER IN THE WORKPLACE ‡Sexual harassment is defined as any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual¶s employment. a coworker. ‡58% of women report having experienced potentially harassing behaviors and 24% report having experienced sexual harassment at work. request for sexual favors. .

‡Raise employees awareness. ‡Offenders are terminated. . ‡Investigate complaint.WAYS TO REDUCE SEXUAL HARASSMENT: ‡Make Policies. ‡Ensure employees that they will not be retaliated.

.Clusters of individuals who temporarily come together to a achieve a specific purpose.POWER IN GROUP: COALITIONS Coalitions:.

Seek to maximize their size to attain influence. more frequently if task are standardized and routine ‡Seek ‡Occur ‡Occur . a broad and diverse constituency for support of their objectives more frequently in organization with high task and resource interdependencies .

Activities that are not required as part of one¶s formal role in the organization. .POLITICS: POWER IN ACTION Definition of organizational politics Political behavior: . but that influence. or attempt to influence. the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization.

Legitimate political behavior: Normal everyday politics Illegitimate political behavior: Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game. .

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR Factors contributing to political behavior Individual factors Organizational factors .

INDIVIDUAL FACTORS High-self monitors Internal locus of control High match personality Organizational investment Perceived job alternatives Expectation of success .

ORGANIZATIONAL FACTOR ‡Reallocation of resources ‡Promotion opportunities ‡Low trust ‡Role ambiguity ‡Unclear performance evolution system ‡Zero.sum reward practice ‡Democratic decision making ‡High performance pressures ‡Self-serving senior managers .

FACTOR THAT INFLUENCE POLITICAL BEHAVIOR .

EMPLOYEES RESPONSE TO ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS .

Avoiding Action Avoiding Blame Avoiding Change 2. .DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOR 1. 3.

IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT ³The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them´ .

IM TECHNIQUES ‡Conformity ‡Excuses ‡Apologies ‡Self-Promotion ‡Flattery ‡Favors ‡Association .

These techniques are majorly used in:Interview success Performance evaluations .

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