Presented By:Ashok Kumar Naresh Kumar

Warp-faced twill fabric.  Made from :-

Dyed Warp Undyed Weft 
Traditionally, the warp yarn is Indigo dyed.


and his contribution. 3 .  The contemporary use comes from the French word for Genoa. Italy (Gênes ).History The term ´Denimµ comes from the city of Nimes in France. Levi Strauss & Co. American Fabrics magazine declared Denim as world·s oldest fabrics in 1969.

 Strong and Durable. Creases easily. 4 .  Hard wearing.Characteristics  Long wearing.

Uses In apparel  jeans  skirts  shorts  light-weight jackets and suits  uniforms  work-cloths sportswear  caps 5 In home furnishings  Bedspreads  slipcovers  draperies .

 Raw Denim Raw denim is dark.Some important types of Denims  Cotton Serge or Organic Denim The traditional denim is 100 percent cotton serge. unwashed fabric that is stiff. more expensive than other raw denim.  Selvage Denim The premium type of raw denim with tight weaving and natural edges. 6 .

Stretch Denim The blend which usually includes 2 or 3 percent Spandex material. soft to the touch. Bull Denim Undyed fabric. more durable and long lasting. Silk Denim Blend of silk and denim gives the fabricbeauty. 7 . heavier. softness and durability.

Carding is done to remove any impurities and the short fibres so that cotton takes the form of a web.Spinning Process Opening and Blending of cotton fibres. Then drawing process produces a single. 8 . uniform sliver from a number of carded slivers.

3. Fabric take-up 9 . Beating. warp let off. indigo dyed yarn and the weft.  They are twill weaved.  The weft thread is inserted between two layers of warp sheets  Machine motions :     1.Weaving  The weaving process interlaces the warp. 4. Picking. 2.

Finishing After weaving. fabric goes for finishing processes which includesBrushing and singeing Dressing Making up 10 .

11 .Objective  To study the processes of denim washing. Sub-objective To study Chemical washes. To study Mechanical washes.

Denim Washing  1. Chemical washes Denim bleaching Enzyme wash Acid wash  2. Mechanical washes Stone wash Sand blasting 12 .

Limitations Difficult to control. Harmful to human health 13 .Chemical washes Denim bleach Strong oxidative(KMnO4) bleaching agent is added. Cause severe environmental pollution.

hems and pockets more noticeable.Enzyme wash It is environmentally friendly wash. Limitations Tendency to get yellow. Use of cellulose making the seams. Acid Wash It is done in a solution of sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate. 14 . Salt pepper effect occurs.

 Mechanical Wash  Stone Wash Freshly dyed jeans are tumbled with pumice stones. 15 . Outcome of a load of jeans is never uniform.  Limitations Quality of the abrasion process is difficult to control.

Stones used in Stone Washing 16 .

Sand blasting  Based on blasting material in granular.  It is a water free process therefore no drying required. 17 . powdered or other form through a nozzle at very high speed.

Recent Developments  Denim Processing & Finishing in Environmentally Friendly way. 18 .  Kurabo Earth Denim ² Making easy Money From Waste.  New sulphur dyes to improve colour fastness on denim.

Denim Brands  Diesel  Armani Jeans  Levi Strauss & Co.  Wrangler  Spykar  Flying Machine 19 .

20 .  Denims are long lasting fabric.  Environmentally friendly denims are developing.Conclusions  Enzyme washing are widely used.

 Secondary data base. 21 .  Study in Jodhpur.Methodology  Qualitative research.

com/india/manufacturers/d/ 22 .org/wiki/Denim  http://catalogs.wikipedia.References  http://en.htm  http://www.html  http://www.denim.h tml  http://www.html

Thank You 23 .

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