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**The AC motor have a number of advantages : The AC motor have a number of advantages :
**

Lightweight (20% to 40% lighter than equivalent DC motor) Lightweight (20% to 40% lighter than equivalent DC motor)

Inexpensive Inexpensive

Low maintenance Low maintenance

The Disadvantages AC motor : The Disadvantages AC motor :

* The power control relatively complex and more expensive * The power control relatively complex and more expensive

There are two type of AC motor Drives : There are two type of AC motor Drives :

1. 1. Induction Motor Drives Induction Motor Drives

2. 2. Synchronous Motor Drives Synchronous Motor Drives

AC motor Drives are used in many industrial and domestic

application, such as in conveyer, lift, mixer, escalator etc.

INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

Three-phase induction motor are commonly used in adjustable-speed

drives (ASD).

Basic part of three-phase induction motor :

Stator

Rotor

Air gap

The stator winding are supplied with balanced three-phase AC voltage,

which produce induced voltage in the rotor windings. It is possible to

arrange the distribution of stator winding so that there is an effect of

multiple poles, producing several cycle of magnetomotive force (mmf) or

field around the air gap.

The speed of rotation of field is called the synchronous speed [

s

, which

is defined by :

p

s

[

[

2

!

Ȧ

s

is syncronous speed [rad/sec]

N

s

is syncronous speed [rpm]

p is numbers of poles

Ȧ is the supply frequency [rad/sec]

f is the supply frequency [Hz]

N

m

is motor speed

p

f

N

s

120

!

or

The rotor speed or motor speed is :

) 1 ( S

s m

[ [

Where S is slip, as defined as :

S

m S

S

[

[ [

!

Or

S

m S

N

N N

S

The motor speed

Equivalent Circuit Of Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Of Induction Motor

Where :

Rs is resistance per-phase of stator winding

Rr is resistance per-phase of rotor winding

Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the

winding stator

Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the

winding rotor

X

m

is magnetizing reactance

R

m is

Core losses as a reactance

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

Stator copper loss :

s s cu s

R I P

2

3 !

'

2

'

) ( 3

r r cu r

R I P ! Rotor copper loss :

m

s

m

m

c

R

V

R

V

P

2 2

3 3 } !

Core losses :

S

R

I

r

r g

'

2

'

) ( 3 !

) 1 ( ) ( 3

'

2

'

S

S

R

I P P P

r

r cu r g d

! !

) 1 ( S P P

g d

!

- Power developed on air gap (Power fropmstator to

rotor through air gap) :

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

- Power developed by motor :

or

- Torque of motor :

m

d

d

P

T

[

!

s

g

S

g

P

S

S P

[ [

!

!

) 1 (

) 1 (

or

m

d

d

N

P

T

T 2

60

!

or

m s s i

I P J cos 3 !

g cu s c

P P P !

Input power of motor :

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

load no d o

P P P !

g cu s c

load no d

i

o

P P P

P P

P

P

! ! L

Output power of motor :

Efficiency :

) (

cu s c g

P P P ""

load no d

P P ""

S

P

S P

P

P

g

g

g

d

!

! } 1

) 1 (

L

If

and

so, the efficiency can calculated as :

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

) (

2 2 2

s s m

X R X ""

Generally, value of reactance magnetization X

m

>> value Rm (core

losses) and also

So, the magnetizing voltage same with the input voltage :

s m

V V }

Therefore, the equivalent circuit is ;

Xm

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

) (

) ( ) (

'

'

'

'

r s m

r

s

r

s m r s m

i

X X X j

S

R

R

S

R

R jX X X X

Z

!

Total Impedance of this circuit is :

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

Xm

The rotor current is :

2

1

2

'

2

'

'

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

r s

r

s

s

r

X X

S

R

R

V

I

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

2

'

2

'

2 '

3

r s

r

s s

s r

d

X X

S

R

R S

V R

T

[

Torque ± speed Characteristic

Three region operation :

1. Motoring :

2. Regenerating :

3. Plugging :

1 0 · · S

0 · S

2 1 · · S

Starting speed of motor is [m = 0 or S = 1,

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

Starting torque of motor is :

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

2

'

2

'

2 '

3

r s

r

s s

s r

st

X X

S

R

R

V R

T

[

Slip for the maximum torque S

max

can be found by setting :

0 !

dS

T d

d

So, the slip on maximum torque is :

? A

2

1

2

'

2

'

max

r s s

r

X X R

R

S

s !

¼

½

»

¬

«

!

2 '

2

2

max

2

3

r s s s s

s

X X R R

V

T

[

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

Torque maximum is :

And the maximum regenerative torque can be found as :

¼

½

»

¬

«

!

2 '

2

2

max

2

3

r s s s s

s

X X R R

V

T

[

Where the slip of motor s = - S

m

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

2

'

2

'

2 '

3

r s

r

s s

s r

d

X X

S

R

R S

V R

T

[

Speed-Torque Characteristic :

2

'

2

'

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

""

S

R

R X X

r

s r s

2

'

2 '

3

r s s

s r

d

X X S

V R

T

!

[

2

'

2 '

3

r s s

s r

st

X X

V R

T

!

[

For the high Slip S. (starting)

So, the torque of motor is :

And starting torque (slip S=1) is :

s

r

r s

R

S

R

X X "" ··

' 2

'

r s

s

d

R

S V

T

'

3

2

[

!

For low slip S region, the motor speed near unity or synchronous

speed, in this region the impedance motor is :

So, the motor torque is :

? A

2

1

2

'

2

'

max

r s s

r

X X R

R

S

s !

And the slip at maximum torque is :

The maximum motor torque is :

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

2

'

2

'

2 '

3

r s

r

s s

s r

d

X X

S

R

R S

V R

T

[

Stator Voltage Control

Controlling Induction Motor Speed by

Adjusting The Stator Voltage

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

2

'

2

'

2 '

3

r s

r

s s

s r

d

X X

S

R

R S

V R

T

[

Frequency Voltage Control

Controlling Induction Motor Speed by

Adjusting The Frequency Stator Voltage

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

2

'

2

'

2 '

3

r s

r

s s

s r

d

X X

S

R

R S

V R

T

[

If the frequency is increased above its rated value, the flux and torque

would decrease. If the synchronous speed corresponding to the rated

frequency is call the base speed [

b,

the synchronous speed at any other

frequency becomes:

b s

[ F [ !

And :

b

m

b

m b

S

F[

[

F[

[ F[

!

! 1

The motor torque :

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

2

'

2

'

2 '

3

r s

r

s s

s r

d

X X

S

R

R S

V R

T

[

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

2

'

2

'

2 '

3

r s

r

s b

s r

d

X X

S

R

R S

V R

T

ß ß ß[

If R

s

is negligible, the maximum torque at the base speed as :

'

2

2

3

r s b

s

mb

X X S

V

T

!

[

And the maximum torque at any other frequency is :

2

2

'

2

3

F [

s

r s b

m

V

X X S

T

!

At this maximum torque, slip S is :

'

'

r s

r

m

X X

R

S

!

ß

Normalizing :

'

2

2

3

r s b

s

mb

X X S

V

T

!

[

2

2

'

2

3

ß [

s

r s b

m

V

X X S

T

!

2

1

ß

!

mb

m

T

T

And mb m

T T !

2

F

Example :

A three-phase , 11.2 kW, 1750 rpm, 460 V, 60 Hz, four pole, Y-connected

induction motor has the following parameters : Rs = 0.1O, Rr¶ = 0.38O, Xs =

1.14O, Xr¶ = 1.71O, and Xm = 33.2O If the breakdown torque requiretment is

35 Nm, Calculate : a) the frequency of supply voltage, b) speed of motor at

the maximum torque

Solution :

Input voltage per-phase : volt V

s

265

3

460

! !

s rad x x f

b

/ 377 60 14 . 3 2 2 ! ! ! T [ Base frequency :

Nm

x x

x

N

P

T

m

o

mb

11 . 61

1750 14 . 3 2

11200 60

2

60

! ! !

Nm T

m

35 !

Base Torque :

Motor Torque :

a) the frequency of supply voltage :

2

1

ß

!

mb

m

T

T

321 . 1

35

11 . 61

! ! !

m

mb

T

T

ß

Synchronous speed at this frequency is :

b s

[ ß [ !

s rad x

s

/ 01 . 498 377 321 . 1 ! ! [

or

rpm

x

x

N N

b s

65 . 4755

2

01 . 498 60

! ! !

T

F

So, the supply frequency is :

Hz

x N p

f

b

S

s

52 . 158

120

65 . 4755 4

120

! ! !

b) speed of motor at the maximum torque :

At this maximum torque, slip S

m

is :

'

'

r s

r

m

X X

R

S

!

ß

Rr¶ = 0.38;, Xs = 1.14;, Xr¶ = 1.71; and ß ! I32I

101 . 0

71 . 1 14 . 1 321 . 1

38 . 0

!

!

m

S

So,

rpm S N N

S m

4275 ) 101 . 0 1 ( 65 . 4755 ) 1 ( ! ! !

or,

CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING

ROTOR RESISTANCE

(Rotor Voltage Control)

Wound rotor induction motor applications

cranes

CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING

ROTOR RESISTANCE

(Rotor Voltage Control)

Equation of Speed-Torque :

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¹

¹

º

¸

©

©

ª

¨

!

2

'

2

'

2 '

3

r s

r

s s

s r

d

X X

S

R

R S

V R

T

[

r s

s

d

R

S V

T

'

3

2

[

!

In a wound rotor induction motor, an external

three-phase resistor may be connected to its

slip rings,

These resistors Rx are used to control motor starting and stopping

anywhere from reduced voltage motors of low horsepower up to

large motor applications such as materials handling, mine hoists,

cranes etc.

The most common applications are:

AC Wound Rotor Induction Motors ± where the resistor is wired into the

motor secondary slip rings and provides a soft start as resistance is

removed in steps.

AC Squirrel Cage Motors ± where the resistor is used as a ballast for soft

starting also known as reduced voltage starting.

DC Series Wound Motors ± where the current limiting resistor is wired to

the field to control motor current, since torque is directly proportional to

current, for starting and stopping.

The developed torque may be varying the resistance Rx

The torque-speed characteristic for variations in rotor resistance

This method increase the starting torque while limiting the starting current.

The wound rotor induction motor are widely used in applications requiring

frequent starting and braking with large motor torque (crane, hoists, etc)

The three-phase resistor may be replaced by a three-phase diode rectifier

and a DC chopper. The inductor Ld acts as a current source Id and the DC

chopper varies the effective resistance:

) 1 ( k R R

e

!

Where k is duty cycle of DC chopper

The speed can controlled by varying the duty cycle k, (slip power)

The slip power in the rotor circuit may be returned to the supply by

replacing the DC converter and resistance R with a three-phase full

converter (inverter)

Example:

A three-phase induction motor, 460, 60Hz, six-pole, Y connected, wound rotor

that speed is controlled by slip power such as shown in Figure below. The

motor parameters are Rs=0.041 O, Rr¶=0.044 O, Xs=0.29 O, Xr¶=0.44 O and

Xm=6.1 O. The turn ratio of the rotor to stator winding is nm=Nr/Ns=0.9. The

inductance Ld is very large and its current Id has negligible ripple.

The value of Rs, Rr¶, Xs and Xr¶ for equivalent circuit can be considered

negligible compared with the effective impedance of Ld. The no-load of motor is

negligible. The losses of rectifier and Dc chopper are also negligible.

The load torque, which is proportional to speed square is 750 Nm at 1175 rpm.

(a) If the motor has to operate with a minimum speed of 800 rpm, determine

the resistance R, if the desired speed is 1050 rpm,

(b) Calculate the inductor current Id.

(c) The duty cycle k of the DC chopper.

(d) The voltage Vd.

(e) The efficiency.

(f) The power factor of input line of the motor.

volt V

s

58 . 265

3

460

! !

6 ! p

s rad x / 377 60 2 ! ! [

s rad x

s

/ 66 . 125 6 / 377 2 ! ! [

The equivalent circuit :

The dc voltage at the rectifier output is :

) 1 ( k R I R I V

d e d d

! !

m s

s

r

s r

n V S

N

N

V S E ! !

and

For a three-phase rectifier, relates Er and Vd as :

r r d

E E x V 3394 . 2 2 65 . 1 ! !

Using :

m s

s

r

s r

n V S

N

N

V S E ! !

m s d

n V S V 3394 . 2 !

If Pr is the slip power, air gap power is :

S

P

P

r

g

!

Developed power is :

S

S P

S

S

P

P P P

r r

r g d

) 1 ( 3

) ( 3 ) ( 3

! ! !

Because the total slip power is 3Pr = Vd Id and

m L d

T P [ !

So,

) 1 (

) 1 (

S T T

S

I V S

P

m L m L

d d

d

! !

! [ [

Substituting Vd from

m s d

n V S V 3394 . 2 !

In equation Pd above, so

:

Solving for Id gives :

m s

s L

d

n V

T

I

3394 . 2

[

!

Which indicates that the inductor current is independent of the speed.

From equation :

) 1 ( k R I R I V

d e d d

! !

and equation :

m s d

n V S V 3394 . 2 !

So,

m s d

n V S k R I 3394 . 2 ) 1 ( !

Which gives :

m s

d

n V S

k R I

S

3394 . 2

) 1 (

!

The speed can be found from equation :

m s

d

n V S

k R I

S

3394 . 2

) 1 (

!

as :

¼

½

»

¬

«

! !

m s

d

s s m

n V

k R I

S

3394 . 2

) 1 (

1 ) 1 ( [ [ [

¼

½

»

¬

«

!

2

) 3394 . 2 (

) 1 (

1

m s

s L

s m

n V

k R T [

[ [

Which shows that for a fixed duty cycle, the speed decrease with load

torque. By varying k from 0 to 1, the speed can be varied from minimum

value to [s

s rad

m

/ 77 . 83 30 / 180 ! ! T [

From torque equation :

2

m v L

K T [ !

Nm x 67 . 347

1175

800

750

2

!

¹

º

¸

©

ª

¨

!

From equation :

m s

s L

d

n V

T

I

3394 . 2

[

! The corresponding inductor current is :

A

x x

x

I

d

13 . 78

9 . 0 58 . 265 3394 . 2

66 . 125 67 . 347

! !

The speed is minimum when the duty-cycle k is zero and equation :

¼

½

»

¬

«

! !

m s

d

s s m

n V

k R I

S

3394 . 2

) 1 (

1 ) 1 ( [ [ [

)

9 . 0 58 . 265 3394 . 2

13 . 78

1 ( 66 . 125 77 . 83

x x

R

!

And : O ! 3856 . 2 R

INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

Three-phase induction motor are commonly used in adjustable-speed drives (ASD).

Basic part of three-phase induction motor :

Stator Rotor Air gap

The stator winding are supplied with balanced three-phase AC voltage, which produce induced voltage in the rotor windings. It is possible to arrange the distribution of stator winding so that there is an effect of multiple poles, producing several cycle of magnetomotive force (mmf) or field around the air gap. The speed of rotation of field is called the synchronous speed [s , which is defined by : s is syncronous speed [rad/sec] 2[ Ns is syncronous speed [rpm] [s ! or p is numbers of poles p is the supply frequency [rad/sec] f is the supply frequency [Hz] 120 f Ns ! Nm is motor speed p

The motor speed The rotor speed or motor speed is : [m [s (1 S ) Or Where S is slip. as defined as : [ [m S! S [S S NS Nm NS .

Equivalent Circuit Of Induction Motor Where : Rs is resistance per-phase of stator winding Rr is resistance per-phase of rotor winding Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the winding stator Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the winding rotor Xm is magnetizing reactance Rm is Core losses as a reactance .

Performance Characteristic of Induction Motor Stator copper loss : Rotor copper loss : Core losses : Ps cu ! 3 I s Rs 2 Pr cu ! 3 ( I r ) 2 Rr V V Pc ! 3 m } 3 s Rm Rm 2 2 ' ' .

Performance Characteristic of Induction Motor .Torque of motor : Pd ! Pg (1 S ) Pd Td ! [m ! or Pd 60 Td ! 2T N m ! Pg or Pg (1 S ) [S (1 S ) [s .Power developed by motor : Pd ! Pg Pr cu ! 3 ( I r ) S ' or .Power developed on air gap (Power fropm stator to ' rotor through air gap) : ' 2 Rr g ! 3 (I r ) S ' 2 Rr (1 S ) .

Performance Characteristic of Induction Motor I s cos Jm Input power of motor : Pi ! 3 s ! Pc Ps cu Pg Output power of motor : Po ! Pd Pno load Pd Pno load Po Efficiency : L ! ! Pi Pc Ps cu Pg .

Performance Characteristic of Induction Motor Pg "" ( Pc Ps cu ) Pd "" Pno load If and so. the efficiency can calculated as : Pd Pg (1 S ) L} ! !1 S Pg Pg .

the magnetizing voltage same with the input voltage : Therefore. Vm } Vs Xm .Performance Characteristic of Induction Motor Generally. the equivalent circuit is . value of reactance magnetization Xm >> value Rm (core losses) and also X m 2 "" ( Rs 2 X s 2 ) So.

Performance Characteristic of Induction Motor Total Impedance of this circuit is : R X m ( X s X r ) jX m ( Rs r ) S Zi ! ' R ' Rs r j ( X m X s X r ) S ' ' Xm The rotor current is : Ir ! 2 ' Vs «¨ Rr' ¸ ' ¬© Rs ¹ X s X r © S ¹ ¬ª º .

2 » ¼ ¼ ½ 1 2 .

Td ! 3 Rr' Vs2 2 «¨ Rr' ¸ S [ s ¬© Rs ¹ X s X r' ¹ © S º ¬ª .

2 » ¼ ¼ ½ Torque ± speed Characteristic .

Motoring : 2. Regenerating : 3. Plugging : 0e S e 1 S 0 1e S e 2 .Three region operation : 1.

Starting torque of motor is : Tst ! 3 Rr' Vs2 ' 2 «¨ R ¸ [ s ¬© Rs r ¹ X s X r' © S ¹ ¬ª º .Performance Characteristic of Induction Motor Starting speed of motor is [m = 0 or S = 1.

2 » ¼ ¼ ½ Slip for the maximum torque Smax can be found by setting : So. the slip on maximum torque is : S max ! s d Td !0 dS 1 ' 2 2 r ?R .

X X A .

2 s s Rr' .

Performance Characteristic of Induction Motor Tmax ! 3 Vs2 2 Torque maximum is : 2[ s « Rs Rs X s X r' ¬ .

» ¼ ½ 2 And the maximum regenerative torque can be found as : Tmax ! 3 Vs2 2 2[ s « Rs Rs X s X r' ¬ .

» ¼ ½ 2 Where the slip of motor s = .Sm .

Speed-Torque Characteristic : Td ! 3 Rr' Vs2 2 «¨ Rr' ¸ S [ s ¬© Rs ¹ X s X r' © S ¹ ¬ª º .

2 » ¼ ¼ ½ For the high Slip S. (starting) .

X X r' s 2 ¨ Rr' ¸ "" © Rs ¹ © S ¹ º ª 2 So. the torque of motor is : Td ! 3 Rr' Vs2 S [s X s X .

' 2 r And starting torque (slip S=1) is : Tst ! 3 Rr' Vs2 [s X s X .

' 2 r .

in this region the impedance motor is : 2 R' . the motor speed near unity or synchronous speed.For low slip S region.

the motor torque is : 3Vs2 S Td ! [ s R 'r S max ! s And the slip at maximum torque is : ?R .X X r' s r S "" Rs So.

X X A .

2 s s 1 2 2 ' r Rr' The maximum motor torque is : Td ! 3 Rr' Vs2 2 ' «¨ Rr ¸ S [ s ¬© Rs ¹ X s X r' © S ¹ ¬ª º .

2 » ¼ ¼ ½ .

Stator Voltage Control Controlling Induction Motor Speed by Adjusting The Stator Voltage Td ! 3 Rr' Vs2 ' 2 «¨ R ¸ S [ s ¬© Rs r ¹ X s X r' © S ¹ ¬ª º .

2 » ¼ ¼ ½ .

Frequency Voltage Control Controlling Induction Motor Speed by Adjusting The Frequency Stator Voltage Td ! 3 Rr' Vs2 ' 2 «¨ R ¸ S [ s ¬© Rs r ¹ X s X r' © S ¹ ¬ª º .

2 » ¼ ¼ ½ .

If the synchronous speed corresponding to the rated frequency is call the base speed [b. the flux and torque would decrease. the synchronous speed at any other frequency becomes: [ s ! F [b And : S! F[ b [ m [ !1 m F[ b F[ b The motor torque : Td ! 3 Rr' Vs2 2 «¨ Rr' ¸ S [ s ¬© Rs ¹ X s X r' © S ¹ ¬ª º .If the frequency is increased above its rated value.

2 » ¼ ¼ ½ Td ! 3 Rr' Vs2 ' 2 «¨ » Rr ¸ ' 2 S F[ b ¬© Rs ¹ .

X s F X r ¼ F © ¹ S º ¬ª ¼ ½ .

the maximum torque at the base speed as : Tmb 3 Vs2 ! 2 S [b X s X r' .If Rs is negligible.

And the maximum torque at any other frequency is : Vs 3 Tm ! 2 S [b X s X r' F 2 2 .

At this maximum torque. slip S is : Rr ' Sm ! F X s X r' .

Normalizing : Vs 3 Tm ! 2 S [b X s X r' F 2 2 .

Tmb 3 Vs2 ! 2S [b X s X r' .

And Tm 1 ! 2 Tmb F Tm F 2 ! Tmb .

11.71.2 kW. Y-connected induction motor has the following parameters : Rs = 0. four pole.38. b) speed of motor at the maximum torque Solution : Input voltage per-phase : Vs ! 460 ! 265 volt 3 Base frequency : [b ! 2 T f ! 2 x 3.11 ! ! 1.Example : A three-phase .and Xm = 33.If the breakdown torque requiretment is 35 Nm.1.11 Nm Tmb ! Base Torque : 2 N m 2 x 3.14 x 60 ! 377 rad / s 60 Po 60 x 11200 ! ! 61.2.14 x 1750 Motor Torque : Tm ! 35 Nm a) the frequency of supply voltage : Tm 1 ! 2 Tmb F F! Tmb 61. 1750 rpm. Calculate : a) the frequency of supply voltage.14. 60 Hz. 460 V.Xs = 1.Xr¶ = 1.321 Tm 35 .Rr¶ = 0.

Synchronous speed at this frequency is : [ s ! F [b [ s !1.52 Hz 120 b 120 b) speed of motor at the maximum torque : At this maximum torque.01 rad / s or 60 x 498. the supply frequency is : f s ! ! ! 158. slip Sm is : Sm ! Rr ' F X s X r' .01 N s ! F Nb ! ! 4755.321 x 377 ! 498.65 So.65 rpm 2 xT p NS 4 x 4755.

.321. Rr¶ = 0.101 1.38.14. Xs = 1..and F! So.38 Sm ! ! 0. 0.71. Xr¶ = 1.

.101) ! 4275 rpm .65 (1 0.71 1 or. N m ! N S (1 S ) ! 4755.14 1.

CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING ROTOR RESISTANCE (Rotor Voltage Control) .

Wound rotor induction motor applications cranes .

CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING ROTOR RESISTANCE (Rotor Voltage Control) 3 Rr' Vs2 2 «¨ Rr' ¸ S [ s ¬© Rs ¹ X s X r' © S ¹ ¬ª º Equation of Speed-Torque : Td ! .

an external three-phase resistor may be connected to its slip rings. 3Vs2 S Td ! [ s R 'r . 2 » ¼ ¼ ½ In a wound rotor induction motor.

cranes etc. The most common applications are: AC Wound Rotor Induction Motors ± where the resistor is wired into the motor secondary slip rings and provides a soft start as resistance is removed in steps. AC Squirrel Cage Motors ± where the resistor is used as a ballast for soft starting also known as reduced voltage starting.These resistors Rx are used to control motor starting and stopping anywhere from reduced voltage motors of low horsepower up to large motor applications such as materials handling. mine hoists. for starting and stopping. DC Series Wound Motors ± where the current limiting resistor is wired to the field to control motor current. since torque is directly proportional to current. .

The developed torque may be varying the resistance Rx The torque-speed characteristic for variations in rotor resistance This method increase the starting torque while limiting the starting current. The wound rotor induction motor are widely used in applications requiring frequent starting and braking with large motor torque (crane. hoists. etc) .

(slip power) .The three-phase resistor may be replaced by a three-phase diode rectifier and a DC chopper. The inductor Ld acts as a current source Id and the DC chopper varies the effective resistance: Re ! R (1 k ) Where k is duty cycle of DC chopper The speed can controlled by varying the duty cycle k.

The slip power in the rotor circuit may be returned to the supply by replacing the DC converter and resistance R with a three-phase full converter (inverter) .

wound rotor that speed is controlled by slip power such as shown in Figure below.9. which is proportional to speed square is 750 Nm at 1175 rpm. Xr¶=0. Y connected. and Xm=6. The inductance Ld is very large and its current Id has negligible ripple. The motor parameters are Rs=0.. The losses of rectifier and Dc chopper are also negligible. 460..Example: A three-phase induction motor.. The load torque. Rr¶=0.044 . (f) The power factor of input line of the motor. Xs=0. if the desired speed is 1050 rpm.29 .041 . (d) The voltage Vd. . six-pole. The no-load of motor is negligible. determine the resistance R. Rr¶. (a) If the motor has to operate with a minimum speed of 800 rpm.1 . Xs and Xr¶ for equivalent circuit can be considered negligible compared with the effective impedance of Ld. The value of Rs. The turn ratio of the rotor to stator winding is nm=Nr/Ns=0. (e) The efficiency.. 60Hz.44 . (c) The duty cycle k of the DC chopper. (b) Calculate the inductor current Id.

66 rad / s The equivalent circuit : .Vs ! 460 ! 265.58 volt 3 p !6 [ ! 2 x 60 ! 377 rad / s [s ! 2 x 377 / 6 ! 125.

3394 Er Nr ! S Vs nm Using : Er ! S Vs Ns Vd ! 2. air gap power is : Pg ! S Pr 3Pr (1 S ) S) ! Developed power is : Pd ! 3( Pg Pr ) ! 3( S S .The dc voltage at the rectifier output is : Vd ! I d Re ! I d R (1 k ) Nr E r ! S Vs ! S Vs nm Ns and For a three-phase rectifier.65 x 2 Er ! 2. relates Er and Vd as : Vd !1.3394 S Vs n m Pr If Pr is the slip power.

3394 S Vs n m TL[s Id ! 2.3394 S Vs n m . From equation : So.Because the total slip power is 3Pr = Vd Id and So. so Which indicates that the inductor current is independent of the speed.3394 S Vs n m Which gives : I d R (1 k ) S! 2.3394 S Vs n m and equation : Vd ! 2.3394 Vs nm In equation : Pd above. Vd ! I d Re ! I d R (1 k ) I d R(1 k ) ! 2. Pd ! TL [m (1 S )Vd I d Pd ! ! TL[m ! TL[m (1 S ) S Substituting Vd from Solving for Id gives : Vd ! 2.

3394 S Vs n m « I d R(1 k ) » [m ! [s (1 S ) ! [s ¬1 ¼ 2. the speed decrease with load torque.77 rad / s From torque equation : TL ! K v[ m 2 800 ¸ ¨ ! 750 x © ¹ ! 347.The speed can be found from equation : I d R (1 k ) S! 2. the speed can be varied from minimum value to [s [m ! 180 T / 30 ! 83. By varying k from 0 to 1.3394Vs nm ½ as : « TL[s R (1 k ) » [m ! [s ¬1 ¼ (2.67 Nm ª 1175 º 2 .3394Vs nm ) 2 ½ Which shows that for a fixed duty cycle.

67 x 125.3394 x 265.3394 Vs nm 347.13 A 2.From equation : TL[s Id ! The corresponding inductor current is : 2.3394 Vs nm ½ 78.58 x 0.3394 x 265. .13 R ) 83.3856 .77 ! 125.9 The speed is minimum when the duty-cycle k is zero and equation : « I d R(1 k ) » [m ! [s (1 S ) ! [s ¬1 ¼ 2.66(1 2.66 Id ! ! 78.58 x 0.9 And : R ! 2.

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