TIME MANAGEMENT

Time Processes
Activity Definition

Schedule Control Activity Sequencing

Schedule Development

Duration Estimation

Project Time Management Processes  

Identifying and documenting the activities so that the project objective will be met Processes include:  Activity sequencing  Activity duration estimating  Schedule development  Schedule control

Activity Definition ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ WBS Scope statement Historical data & expert judgment Constraints & assumption Inputs ‡ ‡ Decomposition Templates Tools & Techniques ‡ ‡ Activity List (including all activities) Updated WBS Outputs .

Work Breakdown Structure  ´Project best understood by breaking it down into its partsµ DeliverableDeliverable-Oriented Grouping of project elements Defines the total scope of the project Start at top. progressively break work down (tree structure) Packages give clear work assignments     .

WBS Example .

Activity Sequencing  Involves identifying and documenting interactive and logical relationships .

Activity Sequencing ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡     Activity list Product description Mandatory dependencies Discretionary dependencies External dependencies Milestones Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) Condition Diagramming Method Network templates Inputs Tools & Techniques ‡ ‡ Project network diagrams Activity list updates Outputs .

soft logic External: involve relationships between project and external activities  Must determine dependencies to use critical path analysis . hard logic Discretionary: defined by the project team.Activity Sequencing  Review activities & determine dependencies    Mandatory dependencies: inherent in the nature of the work.

Task Dependency Types Ref: MS Project 2003 .

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)      Activities are represented by boxes Arrows show relationships between activities More popular than ADM method as used by PM software Better at showing different types of dependencies In PDM. finish-to-start is the most common relationship finish-to- .

Activity Diagramming Method (ADM)      Also called activity on arrow (AOA) Uses arrows to represent activities Connects activities with nodes Uses only finish-to-start dependencies finish-toMay require dummy activities to define relationships .

Conditional Diagramming Method    Allows for looping and conditional branching Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) System Dynamic models Network Templates ‡ Standardized networks to speed up preparation of project network diagrams ‡ Portions of a network are often called subnets or fragnets ‡ Useful when a project includes several identical features .

. The person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of a specific activity should make or at least approve the estimate.Activity Duration Estimating   Activity duration estimating involves assessing the number of work periods likely to be needed to complete each identified activity.

Activity Duration Estimating ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Updated Activity list Network Diagram Historical information Resource Capabilities & Requirement Identified risk Constraints Assumptions Expert Analogous Quantitatively bases Reserve Inputs     ‡ ‡ Tools & Techniques Duration Estimates & Basis Activity list updates Outputs .

A B C C D.Exercise  Develop a critical path diagram and determine    the duration the critical path slack times Activity Assess customer's needs Write and submit proposal Obtain approval Develop service vision and goals Train employees Quality improvement pilot groups Write assessment report A B C D E F G Prec. E F Weeks 2 1 1 2 5 5 1 .

Tim e 6 .H 4 19 28 E xpected Tim e= O pt.F 1 4 7 G. Tim e + 4(M ost Likely Tim e) + P ess.Time Estimates/Pert Duration Calculation for Single Activity Task A B C D E F G H I Immediate Predecesors Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic None 3 6 15 None 2 4 14 A 6 12 30 A 2 5 8 C 5 11 17 D 3 6 15 B 3 9 27 E.

Schedule Development Estimating  People doing the work must estimate PM·s Role Provide team with info  Check estimate  Formulate reserve  .

Plan Schedule Resource Requirements Outputs .Schedule Development ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Activity List Update Duration Estimates Calendars Risk management plan Inputs ‡ ‡ ‡ CPM PERT Compression Tools & Techniques ‡ ‡ ‡ Schedule Mgmt.

Other Topics       Critical Path Method Program Evaluation and Review Technique Monte Carlo Simulation Slack Duration Estimate Resource Leveling Heuristics .

Activity A: LF =15. EF = 5  LF ² EF = 15 ² 5 = 10 . Single estimate. Focus of CPM is on calculating float.CPM     Calculates deterministic early and late start and finish date.

Pessimistic and Most Likely But very popular for cost estimating obtaining MEAN and standard deviation (P.  .O technique)  PERT is seldom used today.4L.PERT/ Crashing  Weighted average duration estimate  Optimistic.

Schedule Compression  Two techniques are mentioned and Fast Tracking  Crashing .

Crashing  Focus on reducing costs  Focus is on critical path Crashing (Duration Compression) Analyze cost and schedule trade-offs trade Determine most compression for least cost.  (Crash Cost ² Normal Cost)/(Crash time ² Normal time)  .

 Risky-If the design is changed we have to Riskystart the coding phase again from scratch.Fast Tracking  Focus is on ´parallel processingµ  Half way through design we start coding phase. .

  . Is needed to provide realistic data to measure performance. Rebase lining: When a schedule delay is too severe.Schedule Control  Schedule updates: any modification to the schedule information used to manage the project Revisions: special categories of schedule update and are changes to the start and finish dates.

Schedule Control ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Schedule Management Plan Resources Requirements Progress Report Schedule Inputs ‡ ‡ ‡ Change Control Reporting Measurement Systems Tools & Techniques ‡ ‡ Activity List (include all activities) Updated WBS Outputs .

Glossary      Heuristics: rules of thumb or guidelines that have been learned through experience and trial and error Time constrained schedule: A project schedule that is fixed. Resource constrained scheduling: is a special case of resource leveling where the heuristic involved is a limitation on the quantity of resources available Critical Chain: A combination of the project·s critical path and the scare resources that together constitute the constrains that needs to be managed Theory of constraints: The tendency by those persons responsible for executing activities to be too conservative in their duration estimating. resulting in extended project durations and overestimation of the required production resources such as staff specialists or unique equipment .

Sample Questions 1. P= 7 days. What is the standard M=4 days. M=4 days. deviation for this task? a) 5/6 of a day b) 2/3 of a day c) 1 ½ days d) 5 2/3 days ..The estimate for a task is O= 3 days.

Explanation The standard deviation is computed by (P-O)/6. Therefore. the answer is: (P= (4)/6=2/3 of a day .

.Sample Questions 2.A heuristic is best described as a: a) Control tool b) Scheduling method c) Planning tool d) Rule of thumb .

.Sample Questions 3.Which estimating method uses one time estimate for each task? a) PERT b) CPM c) Monte Carlo d) Control charts .

2000 PMI .References  PMBOK.

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