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Topic Sentence Vs. Thesis Statement
Topic Sentence Applies to paragraph Gives overview of what the paragraph is about Has topic and controlling idea Every paragraph has one Thesis Statement Applies to Essay States the main point or argument of an essay Has topic and controlling idea Every essay has one in the Introduction
What is an Essay Introduction?
What do you think?
Writing the Introduction to an Essay Introductions Must contain a thesis statement Are at the beginning of an essay Give overview of essay topic Capture the interest of the reader .
Interesting or Funny Story Surprising Statistics or Facts Historical Background .Types of Introductions Funnel ² from general to specific Dramatic.
The Hook .
Hook: explanation It·s important to capture the reader·s attention. How does this change how you write? . it·s useful to think of it as something that might be published. Using one of these introduction strategies will help you ´hookµ your reader in. Consider: Who is your audience? What do you think they would find interesting? How will you capture and hold their interest? Rather than simply writing your paper as an assignment to be graded.
Paragraph should end with the thesis statement for the research project. By starting with a broad topic sentence.Funnel Start with a broad topic sentence and narrow down the topic sentence-by-sentence until the end of the introductory paragraph. the writer starts with what the reader should already know and moves toward what the reader doesn·t know. . but should after reading the paper.
Writing a Funnel Broad topic: Moving to a new country Start the paragraph with something the reader knows: Moving to a new country can be exciting. . Essay·s thesis statement: Although not everyone experiences culture shock in exactly the same way. Support: General ideas that the reader is familiar with. moving to more specific ideas that support the paper·s thesis. many experts agree that it has roughly five stages.
and feeling a different climate against their skin stimulates their senses as never before. business travelers. Soon. 2 3 . and delight turns into discomfort. hearing the foreign sounds of a new language. Although not everyone experiences culture shock in exactly the same way. many experts agree that it has roughly five stages. Suddenly. however. Seeing new sights. Cultures shock is more than jet lag or homesickness. diplomats and students alike. people somehow feel more alive.Funnel 1 Moving to a new country can be an exciting. new experiences seem stressful rather than stimulating. eating new food. This is the phenomenon known as culture shock. and it affects nearly everyone who enters a new culture ² tourists. this sensory bombardment becomes sensory overload. In a new environment. even exhilarating experience.
Funnel Practice Broad topic: A computer is necessary for college students. Topic sentence: Support: Thesis statement: .
When they got closer. the crew of a fishing boat noticed smoke on the horizon. rather. offered scientists an extraordinary opportunity to learn how life takes hold on a sterile landmass. it was from an undersea volcano about to erupt. Interesting or Funny Story On November 14. eventually creating an island about 1 square mile in area and 560 feet in height. 1963. they discovered that the smoke was not from a boat on fire.000 feet into the air. as the island is named. The volcano continued to erupt for about four years. and pumice were blown 1.Dramatic. cinders. ash. . The birth of Surtsey. Thinking that another fishing boat was on fire. they went to investigate. The fishermen had witnessed a rare event ² the violent birth of an island. The next day. a few miles off the southern coast of Iceland.
It·s the best news in years! Studies in two prestigious scientific journals say dark chocolate is good for you. .Surprising Statistics or Facts Got high blood pressure? Try a truffle. What is the next health food going to be? Ice cream Sugar cookies? There are so many conflicting news stories about which foods are good for you that it is often difficult to make the right choices at the supermarket. powerful cholesterol-fighting compounds. Worried about heart disease? Buy a bon-bon. It seems that eating a small piece of dark chocolate regularly can reduce the risk of heart disease because dark chocolate ² but not milk chocolate or white chocolate ² contains high amounts of flavenoids.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. and Latin America. the United States has seen immigrants come from many different parts of the world. Eastern Europe. In the twentieth century.Historical Background The Pilgrims who arrived in Massachusetts in 1620 came to find religious freedom. Later in the nineteenth century. Indeed. the first immigrants from China came as contract laborers to build the railroads connecting East and West. Their ability to adjust to life in their adopted land has depended on several factors. . large numbers of African men and women were brought as slaves to work on large plantations in the South. and they have come fro many different reasons. political and economic refugees arrived from Asia. Immigrants from northern and southern Europe came in the early nineteenth century to escape poor economic conditions at home.
an earthquake in Tangshan. Iran suffered more than 80.000 people worldwide and cause millions of dollars worth of property damage. China. killed over 250.000 people.000 deaths in two massive quakes in 1990 and 2003. Scientist keep trying to find ways to predict earthquakes . earthquakes kill 10. In an average year.Introduction Practice 1 Currently under study are four main methods for predicting when and where the next Big One will occur. In 1976. What type of introduction is this? Which sentence is the Thesis Statement? .so far without much success.
In 1976. Scientist keep trying to find ways to predict earthquakes . China.000 deaths in two massive quakes in 1990 and 2003. killed over 250.so far without much success.000 people.Introduction Practice 1 In an average year. . Iran suffered more than 80. an earthquake in Tangshan.000 people worldwide and cause millions of dollars worth of property damage. Currently under study are four main methods for predicting when and where the next Big One will occur. earthquakes kill 10.
Thesis Statement Practice Three of the advantages of living in a large city over a small town are ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ .
More Practice Write an Introductory Paragraph using the thesis statement you just developed for: Three of the advantages of living in a large city over a small town are « .
63).Types of Support Examples Statistics Quotes (Sources) It is no secret that performance enhancing drugs have been used by Olympic athletes for decades. the head of the International Olympic Committee·s m edical commission. 1994. .Body . In 1993. Prince Alexandre de Merode of Belgium. stated ´I believe that as many as 10% of all [Olympic] athle tes «are regular users of performance enhancing drugsµ(Bamburger & Yaeger. p.
Conclusions Purpose Signals the end of the essay. thus a concluding transition signal is needed Reminds reader of the main points by Leaves the reader with your final thoughts on the topic .
. For these reasons.... To conclude... To summarize.. In short.... In conclusion. Summary Restate the thesis OR Summarize the main points Final comment Suggest result or consequence Make a prediction Suggest a solution. In summary.Parts of a Conclusion Concluding transition signal All in all. In brief. make a recommendation or a call for action Quote an authority on the topic .......
As a result. . financial aid for students is down. the nation will waste the intelligence. Fewer and fewer future members of the workforce are able to educate themselves beyond high school. although the costs of attending college are up. imagination and energy of a large segment of the present college-age generation.Writing a Final Comment Suggest result or consequence In conclusion.
Cont. sources of financial aid for students have been disappearing. the costs of attending college have been rising while. .Writing a Final Comment. fewer and fewer families will be able to send their children through four years of college. at the same time. If this trend continues. Make a prediction To sum up.
S. its citizens must demand that government increase its financial support of colleges and universities and restore financial aid programs. Suggest a solution. system of higher education is in trouble. the U. To reverse this trend. For many students. Cont. four years of college is no longer possible because of increasing costs and decreasing financial aid. . The future depends on it. make a recommendation or a call for action In brief.Writing a Final Comment.
As Horace Mann stated in his Fifth Annual Report. ´A nation·s economic wealth will increase through an educated public. with the result that many can no longer afford to go to college. . even if it requires higher taxes.Writing a Final Comment. If our nation is to prosper. Cont. costs are rising and financial aid is declining. Quote an authority on the topic In summary.µ It is therefore in the self-interest of business to pay the taxation for public education. increased government funding for education is essential.
Conclusion Pitfalls Introducing new information Not restating the thesis/summarizing main points Not making a final comment/only using one type .
There are a couple of helpful strategies that you can use. and the development of thesis and topic sentences and ideas. sentence order within a paragraph.REVISION STRATEGIES It·s important to revise (literally ´re-envisionµ) your paper after you·ve finished producing a draft. typos. Revision happens on TWO LEVELS: Global & Local Global Revision has to do with organization. IT IS IMPORTANT TO WORK ON GLOBAL REVISION BEFORE YOU MOVE ON TO LOCAL REVISION. Can you guess why? . Local Revision has to do with sentence level concerns like grammar and syntax issues. and word choice. paragraph formation.
Here·s how it works: .Global Revision Strategy: The Reverse Outline You·ve probably done an initial outline BEFORE writing a paper. too? A reverse outline is the single most useful revision strategy for catching global paper issues. but have you done one AFTER.
REVERSE OUTLINE Step #1: Number each paragraph in your paper sequentially Step #2: Take out a clean piece of paper and write out the corresponding numbers Now go. paragraph by paragraph. through the paper and try to summarize in ONE SENTENCE what you actually write/accomplished in each paragraph .
Looking at all of the sentence summaries together. You may have more than one topic idea. if you have off-topic paragraphs or tooshort paragraphs. . if the paragraphs are in the best order for smooth. you can easily see where you·ve been redundant or repetitive.What kinds of things does the Reverse Outline tell us? If you are having a hard time summarizing the paragraph in one sentence. where you·re missing information. natural transitions. you may have tried to accomplish too much in that paragraph. and if you have covered everything you set out to do in the paper.
You can use any number of metaphors to describe how a paper works and this is one« .Envisioning your paper I find it helpful to create visual images of a successful and unsuccessful paper.
The Jellyfish .
Without it. Think of this as the BODY or CORE of your Jellyfish. I can almost guarantee that if you have no thesis idea. your paper is in serious trouble before even getting started. all over the place before coming to an unsatisfactory end.IMPORTANT: Thesis Idea Your thesis idea and statement is the single most important aspect of your paper. unfocused and disorganized. your paper will meander. the jellyfish cannot survive! . IF YOU DO NOT HAVE ONE.
Topic Sentence Tentacles .
Supporting Ideas Each tentacle represents a single idea that serves to support and explain your thesis idea. It is it·s own developed point. . but it MUST tie back to the thesis idea.
but it Just doesn·t fit in this paper More than one topic Idea in a paragraph Topic idea That doesn·t tie Into the thesis idea«be Sure to make a clear connection! Underdeveloped Paragraph/topic idea .Mutant Tentacles! Warts! Fish Parts! Off topic! Maybe you wrote Something really good.
it·s also a good way to stay engaged in both your mind and your body. It employs ´kinesthetic learningµ which focuses on both mind and body working together. This is not only a great way to play with organization. Then start rearranging the paragraph in different ways to see what order works the best. This revision strategy requires that you print out your paper«and then CUT IT UP! Cut out each paragraph and place all of them on a big table.Global Revision Strategy: Cut and Rearrange You·ve probably already noticed how important it is to print out your paper in order to review and revise. . You see things in print that you simply do not see on the computer screen.
it·s time to move on to local revision. Reading your paper out loud is a great way to catch grammatical and syntactical errors.Local Revision Strategies: Read Out Loud When you·ve arranged your paper in the best possible way. .
sometimes you read what you THINK you wrote. . it·s a good indication that something·s not quite right.Reading your paper out loud Reading your paper out loud can help you catch awkwardly worded sentences. This is an even better option. not what is actually on the page. have someone else read it out loud. When you read your own writing. Alternatively. because they DON·T know your paper. If you find yourself stumbling over words.
starting from the last sentence of the paper. read each sentence outloud until you get to the beginning of the paper. . Decontextualizing each sentence helps you see and hear grammatical errors because (again) you·re reading what you wrote versus what you THINK you wrote.Read out loud back to front This isn·t to say you should read the words backward or the sentences«! However.
Citations MLA style In-Text citations Author·s name mentioned in sentence Basic in-text citation Works Cited is in alphabetical order .
London: Oxford U. Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).P. 1967. Print. Lyrical Ballads.. William. . Wordsworth.In-Text Citations ² Author Name in Sentence Author directly stated and page number cited Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).
In-Text Citations ² Basic Citation Author not stated and only cited Human beings have been described as "symbolusing animals" (Burke 3). . Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life. Kenneth. 1966. and Method. Print. Burke. Literature. Berkeley: U of California P.
This information was found on page 267 .µ Book Information: Gray. Standard Publications. Boston. Question 2: Bob Gray says ´All birds on the island of Hawaii fly well. Birds in Flight.In-Text Citation Practice Question 1: Most of the birds could already fly well. 1986. Bob.
Henley. Medium of Publication. 1999. The Hummingbird House. Patricia. Title of Book. Print. Firstname. .Works Cited Page Alphabetical order Lastname. Year of Publication. Place of Publication: Publisher. Denver: MacMurray.
Works Cited Practice Book Author: Edward Cornish Title: Futuring: The Exploration of the Future City of Publication: Bethesda. Maryland Publisher: World Future Society Date: 2004 .
Persuasive Strategies Ethos Pathos Logos Kairos .
Ethos ² making yourself seem trustworthy and believable
Pathos ² appealing to your audience·s emotions
Logos ² using logic, numbers, facts, and data
Kairos ² building a sense of urgency
Ethos - Me Pathos ² You/Them Logos - Logic Kairos - Time
Identify the Thesis, or Claim as it is called in argument Look for Reasons why someone would believe the argument ² reasons that validate the claim Determine what kind of Support is used to back up the argument ² facts, examples, quotes, statistics, etc. Identify the Persuasive Strategy
What are Fallacies? Incorrect or misrepresented part of an argument Can be an error in structure of argument Can be an error in logic Can be an error in support Fallacies are something that makes an argument completely or partially invalid. If there are fallacies in your argument. . your audience may not be convinced you have a good argument.
Types of Fallacies We Will Examine Hasty Generalizations Ad Populum Slippery Slope Ad Hominem Red Herring .
So. . all Americans and British people are excellent writers.Hasty Generalization Example Many books in English are written by American and British authors.
Hasty Generalizations Occurs when a person makes a judgment about a something based on only a small bit of information about the subject Hasty generalizations often occur about a population or group of people. such as in the example of American and British writers .
Ad Populum Example Everybody thinks that Barak Obama is a good president. .
but just be careful to evaluate support . popular opinion can be true if it is from a reputable source like a doctor.Ad Populum Occurs when an argument is assumed to be true because most people believe it You might know this argument in the form of popular opinion or peer pressure Sometimes.
.Slippery Slope Example Global warming will lead to the destruction of the earth.
regardless of any conditions or factors No reason is given for this middle ground to be bypassed .Slippery Slope When a person asserts that one event must necessarily follow another. inevitably Bypasses the middle argument and assumes that A will lead to B.
Ad Hominem (against the man) Example My opponent is stupid. . therefore global warming doesn·t exist.
Ad Hominem Literally translates ´Against the Manµ A person employing this type of argument is ignoring the issue and attacking their opponent Used as a distraction from the real issue at hand .
. therefore we don·t need to worry about global warming.Red Herring Example Polar bears are tough animals.
Red Herring Red Herrings are the introduction of irrelevant information or issues that distract from the argument at hand Leads attention away from the real argument and engages it in a completely separate issue in order to win sympathy or approval .
Fallacies in Advertising .
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