CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and the particles are lead as a second phase. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system. and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system. grain boundaries. 0-13-227271-7 . such as lead-copper alloy. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. 5th ed. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. Pearson Education ISBN No.Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5. consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light.

The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals.Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature.3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification. and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . the second circle shows the formation of dendrites. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F).4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams.Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2. AlSi). 5th ed. with preferred texture at the cool mold wall. (b) solid-solution alloys. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals. 0-13-227271-7 .Texture in Castings FIGURE 5.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. 5th ed. Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone.

Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. (b) equiaxed dendritic. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Apelian. Pearson Education ISBN No. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Source: After D. 5th ed.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic.

and (b) plane front. single phase. Apelian. Source: After D.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front.Cast Structures FIGURE 5. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting). two phase. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. (b) equiaxed dendritic. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. 0-13-227271-7 .

10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Mold Features FIGURE 5.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

J. Taylor. Pearson Education ISBN No. and M.C.12 Solidified skin on a steel casting. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.F. Flemings. Wulff.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5. which is based on this principle. 5th ed. Source: After H. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. hen a metal begins solidify.Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids. Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

Shrinkage TABLE 5. contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals.

Pearson Education ISBN No.Chills FIGURE 5. as shown in (c). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal.35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). 0-13-227271-7 . used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. 5th ed. (b. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. 0-13-227271-7 . d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities. c.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.‡ Defective surface Surface folds. 0-13-227271-7 . adhering sand layers. scars. oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. laps.

Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Design Modifications FIGURE 5.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3.Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) ferritic nodular iron. and (c) ferritic malleable iron.14 Microstructure for cast irons. 5th ed.Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form. 0-13-227271-7 .

5th ed.Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. ‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp. Pearson Education ISBN No. inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp. fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp. fuel oil. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

8 Casting Processes.Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and their dvantages and Limitations. 5th ed.

5th ed.Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient. Pearson Education ISBN No. higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

(g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. used to create patterns. (h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. and the casting is cleaned. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. 5th ed. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place.Sand Casting FIGURE 5. (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part. inspected. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. 0-13-227271-7 . which are pasted together. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a).16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. the casting is removed from the mold. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. and heat treated (when necessary). Pearson Education ISBN No. (l) After the metal solidifies.

Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Ability to retain given shape Permeability.

0-13-227271-7 . and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg.‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. split. Pearson Education ISBN No.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. match plate.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. clamped. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Completed green sand mold with flask removed. Completed green sand mold in snap flask.

POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification. 0-13-227271-7 . casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting. shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.4 . sawing. 5th ed.

Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/. process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming.

. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008. -Expensive patterns and equipment required. Pearson Education and surface finish. 0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited.Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed. ISBN No.

Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat).Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: . 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes.Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy. thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Mold must be baked to remove moisture . .Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) . Pearson Education ISBN No. cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008.

shapes.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. Tool Steel ‡Impellers.Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon. cutters for machining. 5th ed. © 2008. -Limited size.Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. ~700 kg. ‡Ferrous and other high temp. Stainless Steel . +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. dies for metal working. Alloys. . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts.

Source: After R. Pearson Education ISBN No. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0.Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. 0-13-227271-7 . Blackburn. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal.75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials.

Pearson Education ISBN No. crank shafts. S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern.Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened. 0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads. brake components. 5th ed. ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. machine bases . manifolds. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. molten metal is poured into the mold.

0-13-227271-7 Part size limited. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. Intricate shapes. expensive patterns.Investment Casting FIGURE 5. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). molds. and accuracy. . and labor. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. almost any metal cast.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . 25. October 1990. ASM International. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. p.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom).

kitchenware. gears etc. Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed. ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. high production rate.

23 The pressure casting process. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels.24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process. 0-13-227271-7 .Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . These machines are large compared to the size of the casting. because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure. 5th ed.25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process.

5th ed.Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys.

5th ed. Large cylindrical parts with good quality. high production rate.Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. part shape limited. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pipes. .26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process. cylinder liners. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive.

(b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.

Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.H.29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: (a) and (b) After B. Kear. (c) Courtesy of ASM International. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. Pearson Education ISBN No. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached.

30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp. (c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process. 5th ed.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. (b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

(b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F).Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5. Source: Courtest of ASM International. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system. (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening. 0-13-227271-7 .Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5. 5th ed.

0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5. 5th ed.34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

8 Casting Processes. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. and their Advantages and Limitations. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify. 0-13-227271-7 .Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. Source: The North American Die Casting Association. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs. 5th ed.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note that because of the high cost of equipment. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . In the pressurized lost-foam process. 5th ed. the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa). Pearson Education ISBN No.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5. (b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. produced by the lost-foam casting process.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine. Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

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