CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper. grain boundaries. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. such as lead-copper alloy. 5th ed. and the particles are lead as a second phase.

the second circle shows the formation of dendrites.Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals. and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries.3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F). Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material.

AlSi). Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. with preferred texture at the cool mold wall. 5th ed.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals. (b) solid-solution alloys.Texture in Castings FIGURE 5. and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic.Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. Apelian. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Source: After D. (b) equiaxed dendritic. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: After D. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. FIGURE 5.Cast Structures FIGURE 5.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. and (b) plane front. two phase. single phase. Apelian. (b) equiaxed dendritic. 0-13-227271-7 . and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting). Pearson Education ISBN No.

Mold Features FIGURE 5.10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting.Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

and M. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Flemings. Taylor.F. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. 0-13-227271-7 .12 Solidified skin on a steel casting. J. the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure.C. Wulff. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: After H. which is based on this principle. 5th ed.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. hen a metal begins solidify. Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Shrinkage TABLE 5. contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Chills FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal. Pearson Education ISBN No.35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). as shown in (c). Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Pearson Education ISBN No. c. d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.

remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. adhering sand layers.‡ Defective surface Surface folds. laps. scars.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .Design Modifications FIGURE 5. Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association.

13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys.Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. 0-13-227271-7 .

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

0-13-227271-7 . This cast iron solidified as white cast iron.14 Microstructure for cast irons. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon.Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. and (c) ferritic malleable iron. (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. 5th ed. (b) ferritic nodular iron. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form.

0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp. fuel oil. Pearson Education ISBN No. inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008. ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide. 5th ed. ‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas. 0-13-227271-7 .

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings. Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5.8 Casting Processes. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and their dvantages and Limitations. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient. 0-13-227271-7 . higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

(l) After the metal solidifies. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. (h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. and the casting is cleaned. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled. which are pasted together. used to create patterns. the casting is removed from the mold. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers.16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed.Sand Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and heat treated (when necessary). inspected. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Ability to retain given shape Permeability.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness.Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness.

0-13-227271-7 .‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. split.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg. match plate.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed.Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No.Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 . clamped. 5th ed.WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed.

‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Completed green sand mold in snap flask. 0-13-227271-7 . Completed green sand mold with flask removed.

sawing. 5th ed. shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting.POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.4 . 0-13-227271-7 .

Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/.2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008. . -Expensive patterns and equipment required. Pearson Education and surface finish. ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited.Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed.

surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes. 5th ed. .Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy. 0-13-227271-7 .Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) .Mold must be baked to remove moisture . Pearson Education ISBN No.Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat). cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008.Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: . thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold.Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon. shapes.Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5. . cutters for machining. Alloys. Pearson Education ISBN No. dies for metal working. 5th ed. -Limited size. Stainless Steel . ‡Ferrous and other high temp. ~700 kg. © 2008. +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Tool Steel ‡Impellers. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts.

(a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. Pearson Education ISBN No. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process.75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials. Source: After R. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Blackburn. 5th ed.Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .

Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened. molten metal is poured into the mold. crank shafts. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads. manifolds. Pearson Education ISBN No. brake components. machine bases . ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern.

Investment Casting FIGURE 5.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). almost any metal cast. excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and labor. . Intricate shapes. molds. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. 0-13-227271-7 Part size limited. 5th ed. and accuracy. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. expensive patterns.

5th ed.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. 0-13-227271-7 . 25. 5th ed. October 1990. p. ASM International. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom).Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5.

gears etc. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . kitchenware. 5th ed.PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . high production rate. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .23 The pressure casting process. FIGURE 5.Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels.

These machines are large compared to the size of the casting.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process.

Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process. cylinder liners. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive. Large cylindrical parts with good quality.26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. 5th ed. Pipes.Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. high production rate. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. . part shape limited.

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces. 0-13-227271-7 . The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. Pearson Education ISBN No.Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

(b) method to produce a single-crystal blade.29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. Source: (a) and (b) After B. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5. Kear. (c) Courtesy of ASM International.H.

0-13-227271-7 . Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process.30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry.

0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. (b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning.Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate.Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: Courtest of ASM International. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. (b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process.

Pearson Education ISBN No.7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels. as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. and their Advantages and Limitations.8 Casting Processes.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note that because of the high cost of equipment. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs.Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. Source: The North American Die Casting Association. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes.

In the pressurized lost-foam process. 5th ed.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine. produced by the lost-foam casting process. (b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa). Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5.

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