CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper. consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light. grain boundaries. and the particles are lead as a second phase. and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system. such as lead-copper alloy. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

the second circle shows the formation of dendrites. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification. 0-13-227271-7 . The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature. and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries.Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 .4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material.Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F).

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Texture in Castings FIGURE 5. with preferred texture at the cool mold wall. 5th ed. AlSi). Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2. (b) solid-solution alloys.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal.Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Apelian. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: After D. (b) equiaxed dendritic. 0-13-227271-7 .

(b) equiaxed dendritic. two phase.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. 0-13-227271-7 . and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting). and (b) plane front. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. FIGURE 5.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Apelian. single phase. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: After D. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Cast Structures FIGURE 5.

Mold Features FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features. 0-13-227271-7 .

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting. 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. and M. J. Wulff. which is based on this principle. Source: After H. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.12 Solidified skin on a steel casting. Taylor.C. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Flemings.F.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5. the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids. Pearson Education ISBN No. Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. hen a metal begins solidify.

Shrinkage TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). 0-13-227271-7 . used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage.Chills FIGURE 5. as shown in (c). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations. 5th ed. c.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities. (b.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

adhering sand layers. scars. 5th ed.‡ Defective surface Surface folds. oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. laps. 0-13-227271-7 .

Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Design Modifications FIGURE 5.

Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. 0-13-227271-7 .13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5.

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

5th ed.5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5.

0-13-227271-7 .14 Microstructure for cast irons. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). Pearson Education ISBN No. (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. (b) ferritic nodular iron. and (c) ferritic malleable iron. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008. fuel oil.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas. ‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp. ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp. 5th ed. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide. inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings. 0-13-227271-7 . Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.8 Casting Processes. and their dvantages and Limitations. 0-13-227271-7 .Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Pearson Education ISBN No. (l) After the metal solidifies. 5th ed. (h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner.Sand Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. inspected. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. which are pasted together. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). used to create patterns. (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. 0-13-227271-7 .16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and the casting is cleaned. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. the casting is removed from the mold. and heat treated (when necessary). (a) A mechanical drawing of the part. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness.Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness.Ability to retain given shape Permeability. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . match plate. split. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. clamped. Pearson Education ISBN No.WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed. 5th ed. weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 .

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Completed green sand mold with flask removed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Completed green sand mold in snap flask. 0-13-227271-7 . Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. sawing. casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting.4 . Pearson Education ISBN No.POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming.Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. ISBN No. Pearson Education and surface finish. . 0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited. -Expensive patterns and equipment required. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008.Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed.

Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat). thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. .Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy. surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes.Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: .Mold must be baked to remove moisture .Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) . 0-13-227271-7 .

Stainless Steel . . Tool Steel ‡Impellers. 5th ed. +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. shapes. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. ‡Ferrous and other high temp. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts. dies for metal working. Pearson Education ISBN No.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. © 2008. Alloys. ~700 kg. cutters for machining.Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon.Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5. -Limited size.

19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. 0-13-227271-7 . (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal.Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0.75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials. Blackburn. 5th ed. Source: After R. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

crank shafts. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. molten metal is poured into the mold.Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened. 5th ed. ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. manifolds. brake components. 0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads. S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern. machine bases .

0-13-227271-7 Part size limited. 5th ed. excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. molds. Pearson Education ISBN No.Investment Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. almost any metal cast. Intricate shapes. . and labor. expensive patterns. and accuracy.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

p. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. October 1990. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 25. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. ASM International.Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom).

PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts. Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. kitchenware. gears etc. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . high production rate. Pearson Education ISBN No.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity. ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process.23 The pressure casting process. 5th ed. Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . FIGURE 5.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting. 5th ed.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure. Pearson Education ISBN No.

6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .

part shape limited. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. cylinder liners. Pipes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. high production rate. Large cylindrical parts with good quality. .Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5.26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive.

5th ed. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process.

This process combines the advantages of casting and forging. 0-13-227271-7 .Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

(c) Courtesy of ASM International. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. 5th ed.29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. Kear. Pearson Education ISBN No.Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5. Source: (a) and (b) After B.H.

5th ed. (c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process. 0-13-227271-7 .30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG. 5th ed. (b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning.31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Source: Courtest of ASM International.32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate. (b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F). 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system. 5th ed.

Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels. as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

8 Casting Processes. and their Advantages and Limitations. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum.Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note that because of the high cost of equipment. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: The North American Die Casting Association. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs.Economics of Casting FIGURE 5.

Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. In the pressurized lost-foam process. 5th ed. produced by the lost-foam casting process.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine. 0-13-227271-7 .Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa). Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

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