CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system. grain boundaries. 5th ed. consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. such as lead-copper alloy. and the particles are lead as a second phase. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system.Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. the second circle shows the formation of dendrites.Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F).Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams. 5th ed.4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Texture in Castings FIGURE 5.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals. Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2. AlSi). (b) solid-solution alloys. with preferred texture at the cool mold wall. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5. Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone. 0-13-227271-7 .6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) equiaxed dendritic. Apelian. Source: After D. 5th ed. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Pearson Education ISBN No.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic.

two phase. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) equiaxed dendritic. FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: After D. and (b) plane front. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Cast Structures FIGURE 5.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Apelian. 5th ed.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. single phase.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Mold Features FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features. 5th ed.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting.

0-13-227271-7 . which is based on this principle. the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. and M. J.F.12 Solidified skin on a steel casting. 5th ed.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. Pearson Education ISBN No. Flemings. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.C. Taylor. Source: After H. Wulff. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

0-13-227271-7 .Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. 0-13-227271-7 . hen a metal begins solidify. Pearson Education ISBN No.Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids. 5th ed. Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals. Pearson Education ISBN No.Shrinkage TABLE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .

0-13-227271-7 .35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). as shown in (c). Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Chills FIGURE 5.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . c. d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. (b.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

scars. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. adhering sand layers.‡ Defective surface Surface folds. oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. laps.

Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.Design Modifications FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. Pearson Education ISBN No. Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3.Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5.

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5.5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys.

14 Microstructure for cast irons. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form.Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). (b) ferritic nodular iron. 5th ed. and (c) ferritic malleable iron. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. fuel oil. ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. ‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp. fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp. 0-13-227271-7 .

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

8 Casting Processes.Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. and their dvantages and Limitations.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient. 5th ed. higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. inspected. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. and heat treated (when necessary). (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. used to create patterns.16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting. (h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner.Sand Casting FIGURE 5. which are pasted together. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and the casting is cleaned. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). (l) After the metal solidifies. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. the casting is removed from the mold. 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness. 5th ed.Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Ability to retain given shape Permeability.

Pearson Education ISBN No.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg. match plate.‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece. 5th ed. split. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 .2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 . clamped. weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. 0-13-227271-7 . Completed green sand mold with flask removed. Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Completed green sand mold in snap flask. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting. shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. sawing. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .4 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification.

2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/. Pearson Education ISBN No.

ISBN No. Pearson Education and surface finish.Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited. . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. -Expensive patterns and equipment required.

Mold must be baked to remove moisture . thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) . 0-13-227271-7 . cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008.Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat).Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: .Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy. Pearson Education ISBN No. . surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes. 5th ed.

shapes. Pearson Education ISBN No.Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon. 5th ed. © 2008. cutters for machining. Stainless Steel .18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. Alloys. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts. .Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5. +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. ‡Ferrous and other high temp. Tool Steel ‡Impellers. -Limited size. dies for metal working. ~700 kg.

Blackburn. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0. Pearson Education ISBN No.Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. Source: After R.

5th ed. manifolds. crank shafts. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. machine bases . 0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads. S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern. Pearson Education ISBN No. molten metal is poured into the mold. brake components. ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened.

excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and labor. . expensive patterns.Investment Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and accuracy. Pearson Education ISBN No. almost any metal cast.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 Part size limited. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. molds. Intricate shapes.

Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

25. ASM International. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom).Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. October 1990. p. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Advanced Materials and Processes.

gears etc. Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. kitchenware.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity. high production rate. ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . FIGURE 5.23 The pressure casting process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process.

5th ed.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process. because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting.

6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .

Large cylindrical parts with good quality. . Pipes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. cylinder liners.Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. part shape limited. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. high production rate.

The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process.Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. 5th ed. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5. 5th ed.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.

(c) Courtesy of ASM International. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. 0-13-227271-7 .29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. Source: (a) and (b) After B. Kear. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5.H. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. (c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp.30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG.Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. 5th ed. (b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning.

(b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F). Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. Source: Courtest of ASM International. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system.

7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5.

0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels. as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

8 Casting Processes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. and their Advantages and Limitations.

0-13-227271-7 . Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum.

Pearson Education ISBN No.Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note that because of the high cost of equipment. Source: The North American Die Casting Association.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs. 0-13-227271-7 .

In the pressurized lost-foam process. Pearson Education ISBN No.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. (b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. produced by the lost-foam casting process. the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa). Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

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