CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light.2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. grain boundaries. such as lead-copper alloy. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system. and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper. and the particles are lead as a second phase.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries. the second circle shows the formation of dendrites. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature. 0-13-227271-7 .3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. 5th ed. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals.

Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5.4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F). Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams. 0-13-227271-7 .

Texture in Castings FIGURE 5. Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) solid-solution alloys. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals. AlSi). 5th ed. with preferred texture at the cool mold wall. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal.Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: After D.Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) equiaxed dendritic. Apelian. Pearson Education ISBN No. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic.

0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Source: After D. two phase. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting).Cast Structures FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. single phase. Apelian. FIGURE 5. and (b) plane front. (b) equiaxed dendritic. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic.

10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Mold Features FIGURE 5.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting.

0-13-227271-7 .12 Solidified skin on a steel casting. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. Flemings. Source: After H. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. J. Wulff. 5th ed. the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5. which is based on this principle.C. Pearson Education ISBN No. Taylor.F. and M.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . hen a metal begins solidify. the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals. 0-13-227271-7 .Shrinkage TABLE 5. 5th ed. contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .Chills FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. as shown in (c). Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal.

Pearson Education ISBN No. d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities. c. Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings.

remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

laps. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.‡ Defective surface Surface folds. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . adhering sand layers. scars.

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .Design Modifications FIGURE 5.

5th ed. Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3.13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5.

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. 0-13-227271-7 . and (c) ferritic malleable iron.14 Microstructure for cast irons.Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. 5th ed. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. Pearson Education ISBN No. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) ferritic nodular iron. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form.

Pearson Education ISBN No.Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp. ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp. fuel oil.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008. fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp. inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide. 0-13-227271-7 .

INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.8 Casting Processes. and their dvantages and Limitations. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

5th ed. higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

which are pasted together. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. (l) After the metal solidifies. (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled. the casting is removed from the mold. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. (h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. inspected. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). and heat treated (when necessary). used to create patterns. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves.Sand Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part. and the casting is cleaned. (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place.16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting.

Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Ability to retain given shape Permeability.

match plate. and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. split. 0-13-227271-7 .‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No.Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 . weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed. Pearson Education ISBN No. clamped.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Completed green sand mold with flask removed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Completed green sand mold in snap flask.

sawing. 5th ed.4 . shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting. 0-13-227271-7 .

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/. process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming.

Pearson Education and surface finish. 0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited.Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed. . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008. -Expensive patterns and equipment required. ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) . cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. . Pearson Education ISBN No.Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat).Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: .Mold must be baked to remove moisture . surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes.Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy. thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts.Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon. © 2008. cutters for machining. dies for metal working. Alloys.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. Stainless Steel . ~700 kg. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. Pearson Education ISBN No. ‡Ferrous and other high temp. 5th ed. shapes. Tool Steel ‡Impellers. +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. -Limited size.Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5.

Source: After R. 5th ed.Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. Pearson Education ISBN No.75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. 0-13-227271-7 . Blackburn. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0.

molten metal is poured into the mold. machine bases . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened. crank shafts. brake components. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads. ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern. manifolds.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Investment Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 Part size limited. . molds. and labor. almost any metal cast. 5th ed. and accuracy. Intricate shapes. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). Pearson Education ISBN No. expensive patterns. excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. ASM International.Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 25. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. October 1990. p. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom).

kitchenware. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. gears etc. Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. high production rate.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. 5th ed. Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . FIGURE 5.23 The pressure casting process.

These machines are large compared to the size of the casting.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process. 5th ed. because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. 0-13-227271-7 .Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. . Pipes. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive. 5th ed. cylinder liners. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. part shape limited. Pearson Education ISBN No. Large cylindrical parts with good quality.26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. high production rate. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process.

5th ed. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. Pearson Education ISBN No.Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. Kear. (c) Courtesy of ASM International. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: (a) and (b) After B.H. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached.Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp. (c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning.31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG.

0-13-227271-7 . Source: Courtest of ASM International. Pearson Education ISBN No. (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate. (b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F). 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5.32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process.Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5.7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

8 Casting Processes. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . and their Advantages and Limitations.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. 0-13-227271-7 .

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: The North American Die Casting Association. 0-13-227271-7 .Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. Note that because of the high cost of equipment. Pearson Education ISBN No.

In the pressurized lost-foam process. 0-13-227271-7 .40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. produced by the lost-foam casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5. Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa).

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