CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Pearson Education ISBN No. grain boundaries.Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5. and the particles are lead as a second phase. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. such as lead-copper alloy. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system.2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper. consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light.

Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. the second circle shows the formation of dendrites. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature.3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification.

4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F). Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material.

with preferred texture at the cool mold wall. (b) solid-solution alloys. 0-13-227271-7 . and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Texture in Castings FIGURE 5. AlSi). Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5. Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Apelian.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic.Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) equiaxed dendritic. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Source: After D.

Cast Structures FIGURE 5. single phase.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Pearson Education ISBN No. and (b) plane front.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. FIGURE 5. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting). 5th ed. two phase. Apelian. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: After D. (b) equiaxed dendritic.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features.Mold Features FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

12 Solidified skin on a steel casting.C. 5th ed. Source: After H. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .F. Flemings. Taylor. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Wulff. and M. J. which is based on this principle. the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Pearson Education ISBN No. the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. hen a metal begins solidify. 5th ed.Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids.

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals. Pearson Education ISBN No.Shrinkage TABLE 5. contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal.Chills FIGURE 5.35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. as shown in (c). 0-13-227271-7 . used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage.

0-13-227271-7 .Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities. c. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b. 5th ed.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Pearson Education ISBN No. Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. 0-13-227271-7 .

‡ Defective surface Surface folds. oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. laps. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. scars. adhering sand layers. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Design Modifications FIGURE 5.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5.13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

5th ed.5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

(b) ferritic nodular iron. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). 0-13-227271-7 .Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. Pearson Education ISBN No.14 Microstructure for cast irons. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. and (c) ferritic malleable iron. 5th ed. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008. ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp. ‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp. 5th ed. fuel oil. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings.

8 Casting Processes. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. and their dvantages and Limitations. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient. Pearson Education ISBN No.

(a) A mechanical drawing of the part. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and the casting is cleaned. the casting is removed from the mold. (h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. Pearson Education ISBN No. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. used to create patterns. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. which are pasted together. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. (l) After the metal solidifies. 0-13-227271-7 . (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. 5th ed. inspected. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled.16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. and heat treated (when necessary).Sand Casting FIGURE 5.

Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness.Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .Ability to retain given shape Permeability.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

match plate.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg.‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. split.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

5th ed. clamped.WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed.Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. Completed green sand mold with flask removed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Completed green sand mold in snap flask. 0-13-227271-7 .

shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting. Pearson Education ISBN No.4 . 5th ed. sawing. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification.

0-13-227271-7 .2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/.

0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008.Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. . -Expensive patterns and equipment required. Pearson Education and surface finish. ISBN No.

.Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat). 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) . cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008.Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: .Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy. thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes.Mold must be baked to remove moisture . 5th ed.

Tool Steel ‡Impellers. Alloys. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. Pearson Education ISBN No. ‡Ferrous and other high temp. ~700 kg. . -Limited size. Stainless Steel . 5th ed.Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon. +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts.Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5. © 2008. dies for metal working.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. cutters for machining. shapes.

Blackburn. Pearson Education ISBN No.Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. Source: After R.75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads. Pearson Education ISBN No. ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. manifolds.Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened. S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern. machine bases . crank shafts. brake components. molten metal is poured into the mold.

Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 Part size limited. 5th ed.Investment Casting FIGURE 5.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. . Pearson Education ISBN No. Intricate shapes. expensive patterns. almost any metal cast. molds. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. and labor. and accuracy.

Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. October 1990. 25. 5th ed.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom). p.Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5. ASM International. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. kitchenware. 0-13-227271-7 . Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. gears etc.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity. ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. high production rate. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .23 The pressure casting process. FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process.

These machines are large compared to the size of the casting. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5.25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5.6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys.

part shape limited.Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive. Pipes. . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. high production rate.26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. Pearson Education ISBN No. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process. cylinder liners. Large cylindrical parts with good quality. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine.Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 .Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5. 5th ed. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging. Pearson Education ISBN No.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

H. (c) Courtesy of ASM International. Source: (a) and (b) After B. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. Kear. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. 0-13-227271-7 .Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5. 5th ed.29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification.

Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG.Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtest of ASM International. (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F).

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process.Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels. Pearson Education ISBN No.Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5.8 Casting Processes. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. and their Advantages and Limitations.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. 0-13-227271-7 . Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify. 5th ed.

Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: The North American Die Casting Association. Note that because of the high cost of equipment.

In the pressurized lost-foam process. 0-13-227271-7 . the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa). Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. produced by the lost-foam casting process. 5th ed.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

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