CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light.2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. grain boundaries. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper. and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . and the particles are lead as a second phase. 5th ed. such as lead-copper alloy.

3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification. the second circle shows the formation of dendrites. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature.Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5. Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F). 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams.

(b) solid-solution alloys. Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. Pearson Education ISBN No. AlSi). 5th ed.Texture in Castings FIGURE 5. and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. with preferred texture at the cool mold wall.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone.Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: After D. 5th ed. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Apelian.Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. (b) equiaxed dendritic.

two phase. Apelian. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: After D. 0-13-227271-7 . single phase. Pearson Education ISBN No.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front.Cast Structures FIGURE 5. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting). (b) equiaxed dendritic. and (b) plane front. FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features. 0-13-227271-7 .Mold Features FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting.Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

F. which is based on this principle. Flemings. Pearson Education ISBN No.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5. J. the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. Taylor. Source: After H. 0-13-227271-7 .12 Solidified skin on a steel casting. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and M. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. 5th ed.C. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Wulff.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids. the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. hen a metal begins solidify.

5th ed.1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals. contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .Shrinkage TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed. used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. as shown in (c).35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Chills FIGURE 5.

d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities. 5th ed. (b. Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. c.

0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. 5th ed. remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. scars.‡ Defective surface Surface folds. adhering sand layers. 5th ed. laps. oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association. 0-13-227271-7 .38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Pearson Education ISBN No.Design Modifications FIGURE 5.

13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3.

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5.5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys.

(ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). (b) ferritic nodular iron. and (c) ferritic malleable iron.14 Microstructure for cast irons. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

0-13-227271-7 .Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed. fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008. ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. ‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp. fuel oil. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas. inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings. Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

and their dvantages and Limitations. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .8 Casting Processes.Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

(h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. the casting is removed from the mold.16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting. and the casting is cleaned. which are pasted together. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. and heat treated (when necessary). (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. (l) After the metal solidifies. used to create patterns. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers.Sand Casting FIGURE 5. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. Pearson Education ISBN No. inspected. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place.

0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Ability to retain given shape Permeability.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness. 5th ed.Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness.

match plate. Pearson Education ISBN No.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg.‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . split.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. clamped. 5th ed. weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask.

Completed green sand mold with flask removed. 5th ed.Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. Pearson Education ISBN No. Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Completed green sand mold in snap flask. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

0-13-227271-7 . casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting. sawing. Pearson Education ISBN No.4 .POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification. shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/. Pearson Education ISBN No. process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

ISBN No. -Expensive patterns and equipment required. . Pearson Education and surface finish.Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited.

Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: .Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat). .Mold must be baked to remove moisture .Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) . 5th ed.Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy. cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008. thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes. 0-13-227271-7 .

Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon. Stainless Steel . 5th ed. shapes. Pearson Education ISBN No. -Limited size.Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5. dies for metal working. +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Tool Steel ‡Impellers. Alloys. © 2008. ‡Ferrous and other high temp.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. ~700 kg. . cutters for machining. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Blackburn.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: After R. 5th ed. Note that the mold has a bottom gate.Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5.75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal.

Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened. crank shafts. ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. manifolds. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. molten metal is poured into the mold. S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern. machine bases . Pearson Education ISBN No. brake components. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. expensive patterns. Intricate shapes. and accuracy. and labor.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 Part size limited. excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. almost any metal cast. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. .Investment Casting FIGURE 5. molds.

5th ed.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

October 1990. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. 5th ed. p. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 25. 0-13-227271-7 .Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom). ASM International. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. gears etc.PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts. 0-13-227271-7 . kitchenware. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

high production rate.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process. FIGURE 5.23 The pressure casting process. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. 5th ed.Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated. 0-13-227271-7 .

because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process. 0-13-227271-7 . These machines are large compared to the size of the casting.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .

26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process.Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. Pipes. part shape limited. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive. Pearson Education ISBN No. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process. 5th ed. . cylinder liners. Large cylindrical parts with good quality. high production rate.

0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging.Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging. Pearson Education ISBN No.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. 5th ed.Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (c) Courtesy of ASM International. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.H. Kear. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. 0-13-227271-7 .29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification.Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5. Source: (a) and (b) After B.

(c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

(b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning.31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal.Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG. 5th ed.

(b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F).Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. Source: Courtest of ASM International. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process. 0-13-227271-7 .33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5.7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels.

0-13-227271-7 . and their Advantages and Limitations. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.8 Casting Processes.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 .36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5.

Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: The North American Die Casting Association. Note that because of the high cost of equipment. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . die casting is economical mainly for large production runs.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

In the pressurized lost-foam process. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. produced by the lost-foam casting process.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine.

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