CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

and the particles are lead as a second phase. consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light. and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system. such as lead-copper alloy.Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. grain boundaries. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper.

and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries. 0-13-227271-7 . the second circle shows the formation of dendrites. Pearson Education ISBN No.Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature.

0-13-227271-7 . Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams. 5th ed.4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram.Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F).

AlSi).5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals. with preferred texture at the cool mold wall.Texture in Castings FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) solid-solution alloys. 5th ed. and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) equiaxed dendritic. Pearson Education ISBN No. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Source: After D.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Apelian.

single phase.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Apelian. Source: After D.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. and (b) plane front. 5th ed. two phase. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) equiaxed dendritic.Cast Structures FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting).

10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Mold Features FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 .Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5. 5th ed.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. Taylor. Flemings. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: After H. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5.F. which is based on this principle. and M.12 Solidified skin on a steel casting.C. J. Wulff. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. hen a metal begins solidify. Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids.

contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals.Shrinkage TABLE 5. 5th ed.

as shown in (c). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners).Chills FIGURE 5.

0-13-227271-7 .37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b. c. Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations. d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities. 5th ed.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. laps. adhering sand layers. oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . scars. Pearson Education ISBN No.‡ Defective surface Surface folds.

Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Design Modifications FIGURE 5. 5th ed.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America.Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5.13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5.

0-13-227271-7 . (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form.14 Microstructure for cast irons. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C).Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) ferritic nodular iron. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. and (c) ferritic malleable iron. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp. fuel oil. ‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp. ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings. Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

8 Casting Processes. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5. and their dvantages and Limitations. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

0-13-227271-7 . higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part. inspected. 0-13-227271-7 . (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. and heat treated (when necessary). (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled. Pearson Education ISBN No.Sand Casting FIGURE 5. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. 5th ed. (h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. and the casting is cleaned. the casting is removed from the mold.16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. used to create patterns. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. (l) After the metal solidifies. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. which are pasted together. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America.

Ability to retain given shape Permeability.Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. match plate. and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg.‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. split. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed.2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 . Pearson Education ISBN No. clamped.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. 0-13-227271-7 . Completed green sand mold with flask removed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Completed green sand mold in snap flask.

5th ed. shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.4 . casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. sawing.POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming. 5th ed. process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed. -Expensive patterns and equipment required. Pearson Education and surface finish. . ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) . 0-13-227271-7 .Mold must be baked to remove moisture . thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008. surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes. .Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat).Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: .Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts. © 2008. ~700 kg. ‡Ferrous and other high temp. Tool Steel ‡Impellers. shapes.Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon. Stainless Steel . Pearson Education ISBN No. dies for metal working.Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5. cutters for machining. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. -Limited size. 5th ed. +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. .18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. Alloys.

Blackburn. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0. Source: After R. 0-13-227271-7 . Note that the mold has a bottom gate.75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. machine bases . S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern.Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened. molten metal is poured into the mold. ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. manifolds. 0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads. crank shafts. 5th ed. brake components. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. . and labor. Pearson Education ISBN No.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. almost any metal cast. expensive patterns. Intricate shapes. and accuracy. molds.Investment Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 Part size limited. 5th ed. excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.

Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

25. p. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. October 1990. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom). ASM International. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes.Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. kitchenware. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts. gears etc. Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. high production rate.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity.

Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.23 The pressure casting process. FIGURE 5.24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure.25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

Pearson Education ISBN No. .26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. Pipes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive. cylinder liners.Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. Large cylindrical parts with good quality. high production rate. part shape limited. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging. 5th ed.Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. Source: (a) and (b) After B. 0-13-227271-7 . Kear. 5th ed.Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (c) Courtesy of ASM International.H. Pearson Education ISBN No.

(c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. 5th ed.30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method.

(b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG. 5th ed.31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Source: Courtest of ASM International. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5. (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate.32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F).

33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5.7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening.

Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5. as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels.

and their Advantages and Limitations.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.8 Casting Processes. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

5th ed.Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

die casting is economical mainly for large production runs. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note that because of the high cost of equipment. Source: The North American Die Casting Association.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes.Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

(b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5. the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa). 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. In the pressurized lost-foam process. Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. produced by the lost-foam casting process.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine.