CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system. grain boundaries. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper. and the particles are lead as a second phase. 0-13-227271-7 .Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5.2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. such as lead-copper alloy. Pearson Education ISBN No. consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light.

and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. the second circle shows the formation of dendrites. Pearson Education ISBN No.3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature.

Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams. Pearson Education ISBN No.4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F).

AlSi). 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. with preferred texture at the cool mold wall.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals.Texture in Castings FIGURE 5. and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2. Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) solid-solution alloys. 0-13-227271-7 .

Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Source: After D. 5th ed. Apelian.Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) equiaxed dendritic. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. 0-13-227271-7 .

single phase. Source: After D. and (b) plane front. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting). Apelian. (b) equiaxed dendritic.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front.Cast Structures FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. FIGURE 5. two phase. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features.Mold Features FIGURE 5.

11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. Flemings. Wulff. J. Taylor. 0-13-227271-7 .C. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. Pearson Education ISBN No.F. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: After H.12 Solidified skin on a steel casting. which is based on this principle.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5. 5th ed. and M. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids. hen a metal begins solidify. Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals. contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Shrinkage TABLE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage.Chills FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). 0-13-227271-7 . as shown in (c). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal. 5th ed.

d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. c. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . (b. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. laps. Pearson Education ISBN No. oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. scars. 5th ed.‡ Defective surface Surface folds. adhering sand layers. 0-13-227271-7 .

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings.Design Modifications FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America.Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. 5th ed. Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Pearson Education ISBN No.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

5th ed. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form. Pearson Education ISBN No. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C).14 Microstructure for cast irons. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) ferritic nodular iron. (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. 0-13-227271-7 . This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. and (c) ferritic malleable iron.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. ‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008. fuel oil. inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide. fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5. and their dvantages and Limitations.8 Casting Processes. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

(a) A mechanical drawing of the part.16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (l) After the metal solidifies. and heat treated (when necessary). Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place.Sand Casting FIGURE 5. (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. 5th ed. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. and the casting is cleaned. inspected. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. which are pasted together. Pearson Education ISBN No. (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled. the casting is removed from the mold. 0-13-227271-7 . (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. used to create patterns. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a).

Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .Ability to retain given shape Permeability.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness. 5th ed.Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness.

5th ed.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. split. and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg.‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece. match plate. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 . clamped. weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask.

Completed green sand mold with flask removed. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Completed green sand mold in snap flask.Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

4 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting. shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . sawing.POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming.Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008. Pearson Education and surface finish. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. . 0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited. -Expensive patterns and equipment required. ISBN No.Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed.

5th ed. thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes.Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: .Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy. cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat). .Mold must be baked to remove moisture .Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) .

. Stainless Steel . 5th ed. Alloys. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. -Limited size. +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. dies for metal working. ~700 kg. cutters for machining. ‡Ferrous and other high temp.Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5. shapes.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. Tool Steel ‡Impellers.Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon.

Note that the mold has a bottom gate. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process.75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: After R. Blackburn.

0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads.Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened. brake components. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern. manifolds. ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. machine bases . crank shafts. molten metal is poured into the mold.

Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. Intricate shapes. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 Part size limited. excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Investment Casting FIGURE 5. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. almost any metal cast. 5th ed.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). expensive patterns. molds. . and accuracy. and labor.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom). 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 25. ASM International. p. October 1990.Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . gears etc. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. kitchenware. Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. high production rate. 5th ed.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity. Pearson Education ISBN No.

FIGURE 5. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.23 The pressure casting process. Pearson Education ISBN No.Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 .24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process. 5th ed.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting. 5th ed. because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5.25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process.

Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. part shape limited. high production rate. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Large cylindrical parts with good quality. cylinder liners. 5th ed.26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process. . Pipes.Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. 5th ed. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed.Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. 5th ed. Source: (a) and (b) After B. Kear. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. (c) Courtesy of ASM International.H.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. (c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. 0-13-227271-7 .Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5. (b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning.

32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. 5th ed. (b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F). Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtest of ASM International. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate.Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5.

(b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system. 5th ed.Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening.

0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels.Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5.

8 Casting Processes.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . and their Advantages and Limitations.

Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum.

39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that because of the high cost of equipment. Source: The North American Die Casting Association. 0-13-227271-7 .Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

In the pressurized lost-foam process. the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa). 5th ed. produced by the lost-foam casting process.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine. Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5. (b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

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