CASTING

Casting process: Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity ; upon solidification, metal takes the shape of the cavity.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

CASTI
Al ost all etals can be cast the ( or nearly in) the final shape desired, only inor finishing required. With appropriate control of aterial and process para eters, parts can be cast with unifor properties throughout. ‡Intricate shapes ‡Internal cavities, hollow parts ‡Very large/very s all
‡Engine blocks ‡Cylinder heads ‡Trans ission housings ‡Pistons ‡Turbine disks ‡Railroad and auto otive wheels ‡Orna ental artifacts
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Temperature & Density for Castings

FIGURE 5.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Two-Phased Alloys FIGURE 5. Dark and light grains have their own compositions and properties. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . consisting of two sets of grains: dark and light. grain boundaries. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system. and the particles are lead as a second phase. such as lead-copper alloy. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. The grains represent lead in solid solution of copper. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.2 (a) Schematic illustration of grains. and particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system.

the second circle shows the formation of dendrites. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each have one freezing or melting temperature. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and the bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries. 0-13-227271-7 .Phase Diagram for Nickel-Copper FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.3 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained by a low rate of solidification.

Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram FIGURE 5. (b) Detailed view of the microstructures above and below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F). Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.4 (a) The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. this diagram is one of the most important phase diagrams.

Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface. (b) solid-solution alloys. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous nucleation of grains(Inoculation-TiB2. 5th ed. AlSi).5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals. Pearson Education ISBN No. with preferred texture at the cool mold wall. 0-13-227271-7 .Texture in Castings FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone. 0-13-227271-7 .6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Alloy Solidification & Temperature FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed.7 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Apelian. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. 0-13-227271-7 .Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron FIGURE 5. (b) equiaxed dendritic. Source: After D.

two phase. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Source: After D. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. and (b) plane front. single phase. (b) equiaxed dendritic. Pearson Education ISBN No. Apelian. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . FIGURE 5.Cast Structures FIGURE 5. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic(rheocasting).

10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Mold Features FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting. 0-13-227271-7 .

Flemings. and M. Wulff. which is based on this principle.C.Skin on Casting Chvorinov¶s Rule: FIGURE 5. J.F. 5th ed. Taylor. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: After H. the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting.12 Solidified skin on a steel casting.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. the dissolved gases are expelled from the solution. hen a metal begins solidify. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Defects in casting Porosity ± due to gases ± smooth bubbles ‡Gases have much greater solubility in liquid metals than in solids. Precautions: Flushing or purging ith inert gas Adding deoxidizers Pour in vacuum condition ± due to shrinkage ± rough voids Use internal/external chills Impurities ± oxides ‡reaction of the molten metal ith environment spalling of the mold and core surface Precautions: Filtered out during processing of molten metal Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

1 Volumetric solidification expansion for various cast metals. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Shrinkage TABLE 5. 5th ed. contraction or Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .

Chills FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal. Pearson Education ISBN No. as shown in (c).35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. (b. 0-13-227271-7 . c.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities. Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . remature interruption of pouring due to workman¶s error Hot Tearing Occurs due when casting is not allowed to shrink freely Misrun incomplete filling of the mold due to low pouring temperature Flash Leak metal forms when the cope and drag do not match Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Cold Shut ‡Interface in a casting that lacks complete fusion because of the meeting of two streams of partially solidified metal Insufficient quantity of liquid metal in the ladle. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

oxide scales Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . adhering sand layers. 5th ed. laps.‡ Defective surface Surface folds. Pearson Education ISBN No. scars.

5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association. Pearson Education ISBN No.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings.Design Modifications FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.13 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Compare with various tables of properties in Chapter 3.Cast Material Properties FIGURE 5.

General Characteristics of Casting

TABLE 5.2 General characteristics of casting processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Typical Applications & Characteristics

TABLE 5.3 characteristics.

Typical

applications

for

castings

and

casting

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Properties & Applications of Cast Iron

TABLE 5.4 irons.

Properties and typical applications of cast

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.5 Typical properties of nonferrous casting alloys. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

14 Microstructure for cast irons. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) ferritic nodular iron. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes.Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form. and (c) ferritic malleable iron. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Product on of Iron and St l Iron Ore Limestone Coke Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Melting Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

inclusion) ‡Uniform fine grained structure Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. fuel oil. 0-13-227271-7 . ‡Good for small amount of casting ‡Composition controlled ‡Electromagnetic stirring adv esp.Melting Practice and Furnaces ‡Need major investment ‡Fuel: Gas. fossil fuel ‡High production rate ‡Operate continuously ‡Less pollution ‡Good for ferrous ‡High melting rates ‡Good for large charge ‡~2000 ºC melting temp. 5th ed. for alloying purpose Levitation melting ‡No need crucible ‡ no contamination (oxide. Pearson Education ISBN No. ‡Humidity problem! ‡Composition controlled ‡~3000 ºC melting temp. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid ‡No gas porosity © 2008.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Killed Steel (Al+Si) Fully deoxidized steel Chemical and mechanical properties are uniform No porosity iping problem-Scrap!! Semi-killed Steel(Al) Some porosity ittle pipe-less scrap ess cost Rimmed Steel No piping Gasses form blo holes close to outer rim of the ingot Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.INGO Castin The first step in metal processing is the shaping of the molten metal into a ingot for further processings. 0-13-227271-7 .

8 Casting Processes. and their dvantages and Limitations.Casting Processes Comparison T BLE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. higher productivity ‡Less cost ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maybe cut into desired lengths by shearing Or it may be fed directly in to a rolling mills (I-beam) Cleaning/Pickling by chemicals to remove surface oxides Cold rolling to improve surface finish/strength Coating to reduce corrosion (galvanizing) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Continuous-Casting ‡Molten metal travels through water-cooled copper molds ‡Begin to solidify as it travels downward along a path supported by rollers ‡No piping and micro structural /mechanical variations ‡More efficient. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

(d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. and heat treated (when necessary). Pearson Education ISBN No. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part. (b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a).Sand Casting FIGURE 5. used to create patterns. which are pasted together.16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and the casting is cleaned. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders' Society of America. the casting is removed from the mold. (l) After the metal solidifies. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. inspected. (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. (h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. 5th ed.

Ability to allow gasses to escape Collapsibility-Ability to allow metal to shrink and free the casting Fine grain Better mold strength Better surface finish Coarse grain Better permeability Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Ability to retain given shape Permeability.Sands-SiO2: ‡ Sand characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Refractoriness.Ability to withstand high temperatures Cohesiveness. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No.‡ Types of patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ One piece. 5th ed.(LOM)/ Stereolithography (SLA) Strength and durability depends on number of castings Coated with parting agent to help removal Core: used for casting with internal cavities Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and loose piece Materials Wood-inexpensive Metal Plastics Laminated Object Mfg. 0-13-227271-7 . split. match plate. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

5th ed.Sand Mold Types: ‡ ‡ Green molding: Sand+Clay+Water Á Least expensive method Skin Dried Method: Drying skin with torches ÁGood for large casting to obtain higher mold strength ÁBetter surface finish -Higher mold distortion -susceptible to hot tearing due to lower collapsibility -production rate slower due to the drying time ‡ Cold-Box Method: Sand+Organic Binder Á Better dimensional accuracy -expensive Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Expendable Molding Process Sand Casting Steps 1 ± SAND COMPACTING : Compact the sand by hand hammering or ramming it around the parting agent coated pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .Sand casting example : Fence Spear Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .Match-plate pattern ‡ Filling mold flask with green sand before ramming Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

5th ed. weighted -to prevent the separation of the mold sections under the pressure exerted when the molten metal is poured into the mold cavity Flashed part due to separated mold sections Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. clamped. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.WEIGHTED DOWN: The two halves of mold are closed.2 ± CORE PLACEMENT: Cores have been placed in position 3 .

0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.‡Completed drag half of mold in flask Completed cope half of mold in flask. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Sand impression in cope half of mold for spear casting. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Completed green sand mold in snap flask. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Completed green sand mold with flask removed. Finished cast iron spear reproduction Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

5th ed.POURING: ‡ ‡ ‡ Deliver the molten metal into mold cavity 5 ± FINISHING PROCESS: After solidification. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. shearing and abrasive wheels Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. sawing.4 . Pearson Education ISBN No. casting is shaken out of its mold Sand and oxide layers adhering to the casting are removed by vibration (shaker) or by sand blasting ‡ -Risers and gates are cut-off by oxy fuel-gas cutting.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. process can be labor intensive Single use of mold Cast iron engine blocks Very large propellers for ocean liners Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Sand Casting Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ Advantages ‡ Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General tooling costs are low Sand in most cases can be reused in some form Can handle a wide variety of metals Relatively easy process to obtain net shape or near-net shape ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part tolerances +/. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.2-3 mm Poor surface finish Limited design freedom In hand ramming.

-Expensive patterns and equipment required. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid accuracy © 2008. Pearson Education and surface finish.Shell-Molding Process Pattern: Metal (Ferrous/Aluminum) : heated ~250 ºC : coated with parting agent Mixture: Sand+2-4% Thermosetting Resin Binder ‡Gear housings ‡Cylinder heads ‡Connecting rods +Small parts with good dimensional5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 +High production rate -Part size limited. . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. ISBN No.

Plaster Molding ‡Mg / Al / Zinc / Cu ‡ Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of Paris (gypsum ± Talc-Silica Flour) ‡ Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold Disadvantages: ‡ Advantages: +Good dimensional accuracy.Mold making time relatively long (16 hours preheat). cross-sections in ‡casting Kalpakjian Schmid © 2008.Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures (Max 1200ºC) . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . thin Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Mold must be baked to remove moisture . surface finish +Capability to make intricate shapes.Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: . .

~700 kg.Aluminum Oxide-Silicon Oxide-Bonding Agent FIGURE 5. . ‡Ferrous and other high temp. 5th ed. shapes. Pearson Education ISBN No.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid +Close tolerance parts. Alloys.Ceramic Mold Manufacture Slurry: Fine Grained Zircon. cutters for machining. 0-13-227271-7 +Good surface finish. Tool Steel ‡Impellers. -Limited size. Stainless Steel . © 2008. +IntricateManufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. dies for metal working.

0-13-227271-7 .75 mm) complex shapes with uniform properties ‡ l Zr Ti Hf ‡Low and high alloy steels andEngineering Materials.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. Note that the mold has a bottom gate.Vacuum-Casting Process ‡ Mixture: Fine Sand+Urethane +Amine Vapor (for curing) FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for stainless steel Superalloys for gas turbines Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Blackburn. ‡Mold held with a robot arm ‡ artially immersed into molten metal ‡Metal beginds to solidify within a fraction of a second Thin walled(0. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. 5th ed. Source: After R. Pearson Education ISBN No.

S pattern removed ‡ attern is then coated with a refractory slurry ‡Coated pattern is dried and placed in a flask ‡Flask is filled with loose fine sand to support pattern ‡Sand is compacted ‡Without removing the S pattern. molten metal is poured into the mold. ‡ S pattern is vaporized immediately and fills the cavity completely replacing the space previously occupied by the S pattern Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Evaporative Pattern Casting Steps ‡Raw S beads are placed in a preheated l die ‡ S expands and takes the shape of die cavity ‡Die is then cooled and opened. 0-13-227271-7 ‡Cylinder heads. crank shafts. machine bases . manifolds. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. brake components.

5th ed. and accuracy.Investment Casting FIGURE 5. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. almost any metal cast. excellent surface finish Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. . Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. molds. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Intricate shapes. 0-13-227271-7 Part size limited.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). expensive patterns. and labor. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed. October 1990. 25. Pearson Education ISBN No. p. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom). Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 . ASM International.

kitchenware. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Semipermanent mold casting: sand cores Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.PERMANENT MOLD CASTING -Usually metal molds -Machined -Refractory slurry coating -Water cooling -Mostly automated and high volume production engine parts. gears etc.

0-13-227271-7 .‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Advantages: + Economical for large production quantities + Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish + Thin sections are possible + Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting + Low porosity. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. high production rate. ‡ Disadvantages: ± Generally limited to metals with low metal points ± Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process.23 The pressure casting process. Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated. 0-13-227271-7 . FIGURE 5. 5th ed. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.

Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure.25 Schematic illustration of the coldchamber die-casting process. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . These machines are large compared to the size of the casting. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5.6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pipes. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. .26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process.Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. 0-13-227271-7 Equipment is expensive. Large cylindrical parts with good quality. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. cylinder liners. high production rate. part shape limited. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. 0-13-227271-7 .27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. 5th ed. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process.

This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.H. Kear. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. (c) Courtesy of ASM International. Source: (a) and (b) After B.Turbine Blade Casting FIGURE 5. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification.

Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. (c) A single-crystal silicon ingot produced by the Czochralski process.30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) floatingzone method.Crystal Growing FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp. 0-13-227271-7 .

0-13-227271-7 . (b) Photograph of nickel-alloy production through melt-spinning. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Melt-Spinning Process FIGURE 5.

Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Austenite-Pearlite Transformation FIGURE 5. (c) Microstructures obtained for a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate. 5th ed. (b) Isothermal transformation diagram obtained from (a) for a transformation temperature of 675°C (1247°F).32 (a) Austenite to pearlite transformation of iron-carbon alloys as a function of time and temperature. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Courtest of ASM International.

0-13-227271-7 .Phase Diagram for Aluminum-Copper FIGURE 5. (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.33 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Outline of Heat Treating TABLE 5. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .7 Outline of heat treatment processes for surface hardening.

Heat Treatment Temperature Ranges FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.34 Temperature ranges for heat treating plain-carbon steels. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

8 Casting Processes. and their Advantages and Limitations. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008.Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum FIGURE 5. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum.

Economics of Casting FIGURE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: The North American Die Casting Association. Note that because of the high cost of equipment. Pearson Education ISBN No.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. 5th ed.

5th ed. produced by the lost-foam casting process. (b) a robot pouring molten aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. Kalpakjian ‡ Schmid © 2008. In the pressurized lost-foam process. Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine.Lost-Foam Casting of Engine Blocks FIGURE 5. the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa).

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