ENTREPRENEURIALSHIP DEVELOPMENT

Prof. J M Ovasdi

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Evolution of the concept
‡ Entrepreneur a French word for an organizer of musical or other entertainments ‡ It was also used for military expeditions and civil engineering aspects ‡ In the 18th century the term was used in economic aspects also ‡ Richard Cantillon, an Irishman, living in France, introduced the term entrepreneur as his unique risk-bearing function in economics.
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Entrepreneur as a Risk-Bearer
‡ Richard Cantillon defined entrepreneur as a agent who buys factorof productions at certain prices in order to combine them into a product with a view to selling it at uncertain prices in future. ‡ Uncertainty a risk which cannot be insured against and is incalculable ‡ A risk can be reduced through the insurance principle, where the distribution of outcome in a group of instances is known ‡ Uncertainty is the risk which cannot be calculated
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new process ‡ Inventor & innovator inventor is one who discovers new methods and new materials.Entrepreneur as an Innovator ‡ Organizer coordination of the factors of production. new source of raw material. organization & supervision ‡ Innovator -.new product. new technology new market. Innovator utilizes inventions and discoveries in order to make new combination of products. services j m ovasdi 4 .

Characteristics of an entrepreneur ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Risk-bearer Hard work Desire for high achievement Highly optimistic Independence Foresight Good organizer Good judge of persons Innovative Leadership j m ovasdi 5 .

Difference between an entrepreneur and a manager Points Motive Status Riskbearing Rewards Innovation Entrepreneur To start a venture for personal gratification Owner of the enterprise Assumes all risks & uncertainty of the business Though uncertain gets all the profit Change-agent. Experience preferred 6 Qualifications Professional qualifications and experience not necessary. j m ovasdi . strategist Manager Provide her services to an entrepreneur A servant of entrepreneur No risk except punishment for non-performance Fixed salary and bonus for exceptional services Executes the plans of the entrepreneur Professional qualifications necessary.

j m ovasdi 7 .Functions of an entrepreneur ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Idea scanning and ideation Determination of the business objectives Product analysis and market research Determination of form of ownership/organization Promotional formalities for business set up Raising necessary funds Procuring machines and material Recruitment of workers Undertaking the business operations .

Gulshan Kumar Buyers who take over companies Life-timers family business extensions Intrapreneurs (from within) managers starting independent business ventures j m ovasdi 8 .new products/services. follower of successful people Drone lack of adaptation to environmental changes Solo operators self with a few employees Active partners joint venture with active participation Inventors research & innovation Challengers Karsan Bhai.Types of entrepreneurs ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Innovating.duplicating Fabian least risk taker. new markets Imitative -.

Difference between entrepreneur and intrapreneur Difference Dependency Entrepreneur Independent in his operations Raises funds himself Intrapreneur Dependent on the entrepreneur the owner Funds are not raised by her Raising of funds Risk Operation Bears the complete risk Bears partial risk Operates from outside She operates from not an employee within the organization j m ovasdi 9 .

and through the communicative and management skills to mobilize human. undertaken to initiate. maintain or increase profit by production or distribution j m ovasdi 10 .Entrepreneurship ‡ What an entrepreneur does is entrepreneurship ‡ It is an attempt to create value through recognition of business opportunity. financial and material resources necessary to bring a project to fruition ‡ It is the purposeful activity of an individual or a group of associated individuals. the management of risk-taking appropriate to the opportunity.

Entrepreneur & Entrepreneurship Entrepreneur ‡Person ‡Organizer ‡Innovator ‡Risk-bearer ‡Motivator ‡Creator ‡Visualizer ‡Leader ‡imitator Entrepreneur ship ‡Process ‡Organization ‡Innovation ‡Risk-bearing ‡Motivation ‡Creation ‡Vision ‡Leadership ‡imitation j m ovasdi 11 .

GROWTH OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA Prof. J M Ovasdi j m ovasdi 12 .

Pre-independence ‡ Till about 1750. prior to the Industrial Revolution India & China had over 40 % share of the world trade. that is. spices were traded world-over ‡ Indian entrepreneurs catered to all the needs of the common man and the nobility ‡ The surplus was exported by traders j m ovasdi 13 . Industrial revolution of Europe and North America killed the entrepreneurship of the rest of the world ‡ Indian textile. gems. carpets.

British Rule & IR ‡ Indian entrepreneurship suffered because of the decline of the Royal patronage ‡ East-India company rule they purchased raw material from India and after making cloth in England imported to India and other colonies ‡ The British rulers did not allow industries to be set up in India for fear of competition with British industries ‡ Daily need goods for the common man continued to be manufactured by the local artisans j m ovasdi 14 .

Other Factors ‡ Imposition of heavy duties on the import of the Indian goods in England ‡ Mass-manufactured low priced goods killed Indian craftsmanship ‡ Indian Railways were built to help British trade ‡ The Indian nobility who were the patrons of Indian crafts became crazy about foreign goods ‡ Indian craftsmen failed to adapt to the changing tastes and needs of the people. j m ovasdi 15 .

Attempts at Revival of Entrepreneurship
‡ Parsi community became the pioneers of entrepreneurship in India ‡ They set up a number of factories in and around Bombay to meet the needs of the British companies ship building, steel making, gunpowder in the second half of 19th century. ‡ Ranchodlal Chotalal set up a modern textile factory in Ahmedabad in 1861. Parsis set up a number of textile mills in Bombay ‡ In 1915 there were 96 textile mills 41 of Parsis, 23 by Hindus and 10 by Muslim entrepreneurs ‡ First major steel mill by set up by Jamshedji Tata in 1911. ‡ The dominant trading communities of Jains and Marwaries entered the scene after first World War.
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After the first World War
‡ Managing Agencies --In 1936 Dwarkanath Tagore set up the first joint-stock company Carr, Tagore & Co. for managing the steam tugs/boats ‡ After the First WW and more so during the II WW the British government encouraged the Indian entrepreneurs to set up factories to fill up the gap in production by British companies ‡ At this stage the traditional trading communities of India emerged as the big entrepreneurs Birlas, Modi, Bajaj, Mafatlal, Kirloskar, Chettiars
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After Independence
‡ After getting political independence, the Government of India focused on economic growth ‡ Government took a number of initiatives to put economy on the fast track ‡ Five Year Plans were designed and implemented for all round development in urban & rural sectors, big and small business ‡ Infrastructure like electric power, roads, railways, telephones etc needed immediate attention
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Development of SME ‡ From third Five Year Plan (1962-67) special emphasis was accorded to develop small-scale industries ‡ Various incentives & concessions were given in the form of capital. markets. and land to potential entrepreneurs ‡ Special concessions were granted for setting up small industrial units in backward areas to remove the regional imbalances in development j m ovasdi 19 . technical know-how.

727 in 1970 an increase of 17.Institutional Support to SMEs ‡ To facilitate the new entrepreneurs several institutions were set up like ‡ Directorate of Industries ‡ Financial Corporations ‡ Small-scale Industries Corporations ‡ Small Industries Service Institutes As a result of these initiatives the number of small-scale industries increased from 121.000 units in four years j m ovasdi 20 .619 in 1966 to 190.

1991 ‡ Since exports were much lower than the demand of imports emphasis was laid on encouraging importsubstitution to save foreign exchange to develop entrepreneurship and technical skills of the workers ‡ Heavy industries were set up as Public Sector Undertakings (PSU) ‡ Technology was imported for setting up big and small industries ‡ Automatically SMEs emerged to feed the heavy industries ‡ However the quota-permit industrial policy was a mistake.Comments on the Trade and Industrial Policies from 1947 . j m ovasdi 21 .

‡ What causes economic development ‡ The classical economists like Adam Smith. j m ovasdi 22 . capital & labour. They had no though for entrepreneurship.Role of Entrepreneurs in Economic Development ‡ Economic development means a process of upward change whereby the real per capita income of a country increases over a long period of time. and David Ricardo the rate of capital formation was the most important factor of economic development save more and invest in production of goods & services ‡ It depends on the personal interest & initiative of an individual where to invest & earn profit & create wealth ‡ Ricardo identified 3 factors of production machinery.

j m ovasdi 23 .Role of Entrepreneurship ‡ The emergence of USA. 1 Lakh. Gulshan Kumar revolutionized the audiocassette business with T-series. Japan. and Karsanbhai defeated the multinational HUL in detergent business by introducing Nirma ‡ Infosys was launched by six co-workers who sold the ornaments of their wives to raise Rs. world over had started as small enterprises ‡ In India. and Russia as great economic powers in the 20th century was due to the spirit of entrepreneurship of small innovator investors who were the drivers of great economic development ‡ Most of the big businesses.

largest number of entrepreneurs have been imitators rather than innovators great scope for duplicate/unbranded goods produced by jugad methodology. roads and other means of communication ‡ In India. j m ovasdi 24 .Role of Entrepreneurship ‡ There are certain barriers for entrepreneurs in underdeveloped regions ‡ Paucity of funds ‡ Lack of skilled labor ‡ Non-existence of minimum social and economic overheads ‡ Lack of infrastructural amenities electricity.

Role of Entrepreneurship
‡ Entrepreneurship promotes capital formation by mobilizing the idle saving of the public ‡ Provides immediate large-scale employment ‡ Promotes balanced regional development ‡ Helps reduce the concentration of economic power ‡ Stimulates the equitable distribution of wealth, income and even political power in the interest of the country ‡ Encourages effective resource mobilization of capital & skill which might otherwise remain unutilized and idle ‡ It includes backward & forward linkages which stimulate the process of economic development ‡ It promotes country s export trade (40% in India)
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Reasons for Growth of Entrepreneurship
‡ The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor report in 2007 observed high incidence of entrepreneurship throughout the world, particularly in China, India, Thailand. ‡ Industry structure post-capitalist society. Shift from capital intensive to knowledge intensive industry inspired by IT revolution. Ideas and not infrastructure are important ‡ Deregulation and Privatization China in 1980s, Russia, Eastern Europe and India in 1990s ‡ Growth of Services Sector- largest number of opportunities in this sector for entrepreneurs and jobs
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Reasons for Growth of Entrepreneurship
‡ Government Incentives & Subsidies ‡ Entrepreneurial Education (EDP) universities and technical institutes ‡ Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana (RGUMY) ‡ Increasing flow of Information ‡ Easier Access to Resources ‡ Return on Innovation IPR is a major boost to entrepreneurs willing to take risk ‡ High regards for Self-employment formerly government jobs were the first priority ‡ Acceptance of Ex- Entrepreneurs in jobs even after their failed ventures.
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Doing Business in India -. ‡ India is not considered to be business-friendly ‡ Major issues involved are the following j m ovasdi 28 .Some Issues ‡ John Galbraith. had called India the chaos that works . ‡ Starting a business in India is not an easy task. a noted economist who served as the Ambassador of the US in India. Funds may be available but there are lot of hurdles to be crossed before the business starts functioning.

Some Issues ‡ Bureaucracy bureau is a French word meaning office and the Greek suffix kratos. not only in bureaucracy and politics but in many other fields.Doing Business in India -. There are too many rules to be complied with for starting a business. bureaucracy refers to the rule of the office . ‡ Bureaucracy in India is very rule-minded . Too many clearances to be obtained. Businessmen frequently use bribe and other methods to get the government clearances ‡ Corruption is a way of life. means power or rule. j m ovasdi 29 . So.

Doing Business in India -- Some Issues
‡ Tribe of Middle-men acting as consultants they help and also cheat the businessmen for getting licenses and loans. ‡ Grey market and Counterfeit Goods grey market is the flow of goods through unauthorized channels (smuggling) to evade taxes. It creates problems for the manufacturers and the customers. Counterfeit goods are a substandard copy of the original. Also known as piracy. Pirated/counterfeit music and film CDs/DVDs are more in demand than the original products. ‡ Social Capital personal relationship pehchan connection, with the powerful people is more important than the quality of the product.

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Doing Business in India -- Some Issues
‡ The Doing Business report is published annually by the World Bank. About 178 countries are ranked and India s rank if 120 (2008 report). ‡ For enforcing contracts India s position is 177. the courts take too much time in deciding business related disputes ‡ Even for closing a business it is very difficult ‡ That is the reason for insufficient FDI in India. China gets 10 times more FDI than India.
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Why Start a Business
Dream come true Thrill of being your own boss Self esteem from job seeker to job giver No restraints on your innovative ideas Money is the most common reason for starting a business ‡ Exponential growth possible as against a timebound career ‡ Creating a successful business is an insurance cover and training opportunity for the next generation ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡
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Disadvantages You are alone You are the risk-bearer You can t blame others for bad decisions All losses are yours Work may not be satisfying Long hours at the establishment unlike employees ‡ Lack of success will affect self-esteem ‡ Difficult to exit from a failed business ‡ An employee may get a new jobs in a couple of months but starting a new business may take years. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ j m ovasdi 33 .

ambiguity. and uncertainty 5. Commitment and determination 2. Opportunity obsession 4. self-reliance and ability to adapt 6. j m ovasdi 34 . Tolerance of risk. Creativity. leadership 3.Entrepreneurial Characteristics & Skills ‡ Most common characteristics of entrepreneurs across the world 1. Motivation to excel and the skill to motivate subordinates to excel.

Being the eldest child in the family 6. Being a college graduate 7. 4. single parent without economic support j m ovasdi 35 1. 2. . 3. Being a widow.Demographic and Cultural Backgrounds Offspring of self-employed parents Being fired from more than one job Being an immigrant or a child of immigrants Previous employment in a firm with more than 100 people 5.

marketing.Entrepreneurial Skills 1. 2. 3. accountancy. and communication skills j m ovasdi 36 . 5. 8. Curiosity. 4. Craziness. 6. 7. and Creativity Real-time strategy and decision making Comfort with change and chaos Teamwork Good judge of people Tolerance of imperfections Extremely efficient negotiator Good mastery of the basics of finance.

Comfortable with life style changes 10. Comfortable with confrontations 14. Willingness to learn j m ovasdi 37 .Willing to break/bend/stretch laws 11. Dealing with failure 15. Prepared to make enemies 13. Patience to start from the scratch 12.Entrepreneurial Skills 9.

senior mangers taking VRS and starting their ventures Jagdish Khatter of MUL started his own venture. ‡ Experienced few years experience in family business or as employee for some years Narayan Murthy and five colleagues launched Infosys at the age of 35 years with practically no resources ‡ Mature Ex-CEOs. Normally the entrepreneur is from a business family. the ex. j m ovasdi 38 . Ashok Soota and Subroto Bagchi quit Wipro to start Mindtreee.CEO of Hyundai India.Types of Entrepreneurs Classification based on the Timing of Venture Creation ‡ Early Starters with little or no full-time work experience. started his own venture by buying the Daewoo plant in India. An extreme case of an early starter is Suhas Gopinath who listed his company Globals Inc. in the USA because Indian laws do not permit a minor to run a company. and B V R Subbu.

Birlas. and Singhanias are from these groups. Tatas. Murugappas. Road-transport business is dominated by Punjabis. j m ovasdi 39 . Sindhi. Gujarati.Types of Entrepreneurs ‡ Based on Socio-cultural Variables ‡ First-generation Entrepreneurs Dhirubhai Ambani and Narayan Murthy ‡ Entrepreneurs from Business Families few socio-ethnic family groups have dominated the business scene in India Parsee. Wadias. Chettiyar. particularly Sikhs.

service. lease and finance multi-branded cars. Carnation plans to pumps a whopping Rs1000 Cr for developing it s business model.Jagadish Khattar ‡ Ex IAS and the CMD of Maruti Udyog Limited has launched his new venture Carnation. tyres etc. Also they are planning to sell value added products and accessories like batteries. a network of multi-car sales and after sale service outlets. ‡ Carnation planning to focus on sales. j m ovasdi 40 .

Suhas launched a web site called CoolHindustan. ‡ Gopinath taught himself how to build websites and sold portals to bricks-and-mortar firms in the US. ‡ Achievements ‡ He has received awards from his home state. European Parliament and he has advised World Bank for the development of computer skills in Africa for generating employability in poor countries. making him the world's youngest CEO at that time. since Indian Laws do not permit minors to register a company.com at the age of 14. and incorporated his company in the USA. j m ovasdi 41 .Suhas Gopinath ‡ Born in Bengaluru (1986).

Small & Medium Industries ‡ Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries (Krishi Evam Gramin Udyog Mantralaya) and Ministry of Small Scale Industries (Laghu Udyog Mantralaya) have been merged into a single Ministry. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SUKSHMA LAGHU AUR MADHYAM UDYAM MANTRALAYA) since May 2007 j m ovasdi 42 . MINISTRY OF MICRO. namely.Micro.

Small & Medium Enterprises . ‡ The major advantage of the sector is its employment potential at low capital cost. j m ovasdi 43 . the micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) have been accepted as the engine of economic growth and for promoting equitable development.Micro. ‡ The labour intensity of the MSME sector is much higher than that of the large enterprises.The Engine of inclusive growth & development ‡ Worldwide.

Engines of Economic Development ‡ The MSMEs constitute over 90% of total enterprises in most of the economies and are credited with generating the highest rates of employment growth and account for a major share of industrial production and exports. In India too. In recent years the MSME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector. the sector has shown admirable innovativeness and adaptability to survive the recent economic downturn and recession. the MSMEs play a pivotal role in the overall industrial economy of the country. With its agility and dynamism. j m ovasdi 44 .

‡ In India too. the sector has shown admirable innovativeness and adaptability to survive the recent economic downturn and recession. ‡ With its agility and dynamism. j m ovasdi 45 . ‡ In recent years the MSME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector. the MSMEs play a pivotal role in the overall industrial economy of the country.MSME Importance ‡ The MSMEs constitute over 90% of total enterprises in most of the economies and are credited with generating the highest rates of employment growth and account for a major share of industrial production and exports.

Importance of MSME ‡ As per available statistics (4th Census of MSME Sector). ‡ It is estimated that in terms of value. j m ovasdi 46 . MSME sector accounts for about 45% of the manufacturing output and around 40% of the total export of the country. this sector employs an estimated 59.7 million (about 6 crore) persons spread over 26.6 crore) enterprises.1 million (2.

five crore or ‡ A medium enterprise. where the investment in plant and machinery is more than five crore rupees but does not exceed ten crore rupees j m ovasdi 47 . where the investment in plant and machinery does not exceed Rs 25 lakh ‡ A small enterprise.Definitions of MSMEs Production ‡ A micro enterprise. where the investment in plant and machinery is more than twenty five lakh rupees but does not exceed Rs.

where the investment in equipment is more than two crore rupees but does not exceed five crore rupees j m ovasdi 48 .Definitions of MSMEs Services ‡ In the case of the enterprises engaged in providing or rendering of services. or ‡ A medium enterprise. where the investment in equipment is more than ten lakh rupees but does not exceed two crore rupees. ‡ A small enterprise. where the investment in equipment does not exceed ten lakh rupees. as ‡ A micro enterprise.

j m ovasdi 49 . the cost of pollution control. industrial safety devices and such other items as may be specified. it is hereby clarified that in calculating the investment in plant and machinery.Clarification regarding investment limits ‡ For the removal of doubt. research and development. shall be excluded. by notification.

'Udyami Mitras'.RAJIV GANDHI UDYAMI MITRA YOJANA ‡ (A Scheme of Promotion and Handholding of Micro and Small Enterprises ) ‡ The objective of Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana (RGUMY) is to provide handholding support and assistance to the potential first generation entrepreneurs. in the establishment and management of the new enterprise. j m ovasdi 50 . who have already successfully completed EDP/SDP/ESDP or vocational training from ITIs. in dealing with various procedural and legal hurdles and in completion of various formalities required for setting up and running of the enterprise. through the selected lead agencies i.e.

which constitute an important segment of Indian economy in terms of their contribution to country s industrial production. employment and creation of entrepreneurial base. micro and small enterprises (MSEs) are recognized as an important/constituent of the national economies. Recognizing the importance of micro and small enterprises. the Central and State Governments have been implementing several schemes and programmes for promotion and development of these enterprises. j m ovasdi 51 . contributing significantly to employment expansion and poverty alleviation. exports.Background ‡ World over.

this segment is next only to agriculture. including the tiny or micro industries and service/business entities. have a long history of promoting inclusive.‡ The small scale industries in India. In terms of employment generation. collectively referred as micro and small enterprises (MSEs). spatially widespread and employment-oriented economic growth. j m ovasdi 52 .

the first generation entrepreneurs. national and state level Industrial Development Corporations. national and state level Entrepreneurship Development Institutes (EDIs). Micro. Small and Medium Enterprises Development Institutes (MSMEDIs) [earlier known as Small Industries Service Institutes (SISIs)]. to create new entrepreneurs by cultivating their latent qualities of entrepreneurship and enlightening them on various aspects necessary for setting up micro and small enterprises. j m ovasdi 53 .Entrepreneur Development Program ‡ Entrepreneurship development and training is one of the key elements for development and promotion of micro and small enterprises. Banks and other training institutions/agencies in private and public sector etc. particularly. ‡ Entrepreneurship Development Programmes (EDPs) of various durations are being organized on regular basis by a number of organizations e.EDP.g..

there are still wide spread variations in the success rate. in terms of actual setting up and successful running of enterprises. various Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs). ‡ However. by the EDP/SDP/ESDP trained entrepreneurs. skill development programmes (SDPs) and entrepreneurship-cum-skill development programmes (ESDPs).EDP. j m ovasdi 54 . other private training institutions are also organizing vocational training (VT) programmes.Entrepreneur Development Program ‡ Besides.

completing and complying with various formalities and legal requirements under various laws/regulations.Entrepreneur Development Program ‡ It has been observed that entrepreneurs particularly new entrepreneurs. there is a need to support and nurture the potential first generation as well as existing entrepreneurs by giving them handholding support. j m ovasdi 55 . tie-up with buyers and sellers etc. generally face difficulties in availing full benefits under available schemes of the Governments / financial institutions. In order to bridge the gap between the aspirations of the potential entrepreneurs and the ground realties. particularly during the initial stages of setting up and managing their enterprises.EDP. ‡ In selection of appropriate technology.

To provide handholding support and assistance to the potential first generation entrepreneurs.e. 'Udyami Mitras'. in dealing with various procedural and legal hurdles and in completion of various formalities required for setting up and running of the enterprise. through the selected lead agencies i.Objectives of Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana (RGUMY) 1. in the establishment and management of the new enterprise. who have already successfully completed or undergoing Entrepreneurship Development Training Programme (EDP) / Skill Development Training Programme (SDP)/ Entrepreneurship cum Skill Development Training Programme (ESDP) /Vocation Training Programmes (VT). j m ovasdi 56 .

Objectives 2. support. j m ovasdi 57 . to guide them regarding various promotional schemes of the Government. To provide information. procedural formalities required for setting up and running of the enterprise and help them in accessing Bank credit etc. guidance and assistance to first generation entrepreneurs as well as other existing entrepreneurs through an Udyami Helpline (a Call Centre for MSMEs).

Udyami Mitra: i.e. Micro.Udyami Mitras ‡ Eligibility ‡ Under RGUMY. National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) and State Industrial Development Corporations etc. iii. Udyami Mitras for rendering assistance and handholding support to the potential first generation entrepreneurs. j m ovasdi 58 . ii. Small and Medium Enterprises Development Institutes (MSMEDIs)/ Branch MSMEDIs. Following agencies/ organizations can be appointed as the lead agency i.e.g. Existing national level Entrepreneurship Development Institutions (EDIs). financial assistance would be provided to the selected lead agencies i. Central/ State Government public sector enterprises (PSEs) involved in promotion and development of MSEs e.

viii. involved in entrepreneurship development/ skill development. vii. Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) set up for cluster development involved in entrepreneurship development. v.Udyami Mitras iv. vi. j m ovasdi 59 . Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC). Other organizations/training institutions/NGOs etc. Capable associations of MSEs/SSIs. Selected State level EDIs and Entrepreneurship Development Centers (EDCs) in public or private sectors.

j m ovasdi 60 .e. District Industries Centers (DICs).Role and Responsibilities of Udyami Mitras ‡ The selected lead agencies i. Udyami Mitras would be expected to render assistance and handholding support for following services: ‡ Networking. to help the first generation entrepreneurs in setting up their enterprise. infrastructure providers on the other hand. coordinating and follow up with various Government departments/ agencies/ organizations and regulatory agencies on the one hand and with support agencies like Banks/financial institutions. technology providers.

Role and Responsibilities of Udyami Mitras ‡ Udyami Mitras are expected to help the first generation entrepreneurs in: ‡ a) Identification of suitable project/product/enterprise and preparation of bankable project report for the same ‡ b) Creation of the proprietorship firm/ partnership firm/ Company/ Society/ Self Help Group (SHG) etc. ‡ c) Filing of Memorandum (as prescribed under MSMED Act 2006). j m ovasdi 61 .

by networking with respective agencies e) Assistance and support in establishment of work shed/office. f) Sanction of Power load/connection. g) Selection of appropriate technology and installation of plant and machinery/office equipment etc. j m ovasdi 62 . admissible capital subsidy/ assistance under various schemes of the Central /State Government and other agencies/organizations/financial institutions/ Banks etc.Role and Responsibilities of Udyami Mitras d) Accessing bank loans.

. ‡ k) Arranging tie up with raw material suppliers.Role and Responsibilities of Udyami Mitras clearances / No Objection Certificates (NOCs) etc. ‡ i) Allotment of Income Tax Permanent Account Number (PAN) and Service Tax/ Sales Tax/ VAT registration etc. ‡ j) Sanction of working capital loan from the banks. ‡ h) obtaining various registrations/ licenses/ j m ovasdi 63 . from the concerned regulatory agencies/ Government departments/ local bodies/ Municipal authorities etc.

financial and operational problems. the Udyami Mitras would also monitor and follow up on the functioning of the enterprise for a further period of minimum 6 months and provide help in overcoming various managerial. and m) Establishing linkage with a mentor for providing guidance in future n) Creation of web page and email identity. (ii) Once the enterprise has been successfully set up. j m ovasdi 64 .Role and Responsibilities of Udyami Mitras l) Preparation and implementation of marketing strategy for the product/ service and market development.

Small and Medium Enterprise The main steps involve in setting up a Micro.Setting up a Micro. Small & Medium Enterprise are as below :‡ (a) Project Selection ‡ (b) Technology and Machinery (c) Arranging Finance (d) Unit Development (e) Filing of Entrepreneurs Memorandum (f) Approvals (g) Clearances (h) Quality Certification j m ovasdi 65 .

Women Entrepreneurs ‡ Traditionally. SHG. ‡ Limited career opportunities school teachers. clerks. j m ovasdi 66 . Indian women had their position restricted to the house-hold and lack of education and opportunities Abla nari ‡ Social stigma for working women. ‡ Empowerment of women through higher education. nurses. and institutional financial help have created room for women entrepreneurs. receptionists etc.

This can generate ideas about products and services that can make things easier. This is all the more true if one believes in the maxim. and improve quality of life of people. "Small is Beautiful" ‡ Opportunities emerge out of ideas that one comes across by thinking about lives of friends and neighbours. then one way is to start up a MSME unit.OPPORTUNITY. ‡ If one can see an opportunity to provide a product or service in a manner to generate sufficient surplus. j m ovasdi 67 .Setting up a new unit is a big challenge. ‡ The overriding reason for anyone to think of establishing a MSME unit can be summarised in one word .

Women Entrepreneurs ‡ The GoI has defined women entrepreneurs based on women participation in equity and employment of a business enterprise ‡ Enterprise owned and controlled by women having a minimum financial interest of 51 % of the capital and giving at least 51 % employment generated in the enterprise to women ‡ Women Entrepreneurs are those who think of a business enterprise. operate the enterprise and undertake risks and handle economic uncertainty involved in running a business enterprise. j m ovasdi 68 . combine the factors of production. organize. initiate it.

Supervision & leadership Internal assessment test profile of at least two women entrepreneurs j m ovasdi 69 . Coordination. Undertaking risks of economic outcome uncertainty 3. Exploration of the prospects of starting a new business enterprise 2. administration and control 5. Introduction of innovations or imitation of innovations 4.Functions of Women Entrepreneurs ‡ Frederick Harbison five functions 1.

event management j m ovasdi 70 . independently.Growth of Women Entrepreneurs ‡ In India Women Entrepreneurs is a new phenomenon ‡ Traditionally women entry into business is traced to an extension of their kitchen activities ‡ 3 Ps Pickle. ‡ With women professional education 3 Ps have become 3 Es Engineering. electronics. Powder and Pappad ‡ Push factor that compel women to take up their own business to tide over their economic difficulties and responsibilities ‡ Pull factors imply factors which encourage women to start an occupation or venture with an urge to do something. entertainment. and energy. More Es -education.

Women Entrepreneurs ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Examples Solar cookers in Gujarat Small foundaries in Maharashtra TV capacitors in Orissa Famous Indian Women Entrepreneurs Sumati Morarji Shipping Corporation Yamutai Kirloskar Mahila Udyog Neena Malhotra Exports Shahnaz Huaasain Beauty Clinics and Personal care products Kiran Mazumdar Shaw Bio-Technology j m ovasdi 71 .

000 in her garage in 1978 . Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw.Dr.on three counts biotechnology was then a new word. Chairman & Managing Director of Biocon Ltd.100 crore US$480 million). Her application for loans were turned down by banks then . the company lacked assets.10. j m ovasdi 72 . was educated at the Bishop Cotton Girls School and Mount Carmel College in Bangalore. Today.. She founded Biocon India with a capital of Rs. who became India's richest woman in 2004 (an estimated Rs. her company is the biggest biopharmaceutical firm in the country. and (most importantly) women entrepreneurs were still a rarity.the initial operation was to extract an enzyme from papaya.2. Kiran Mazumdar Shaw ‡ Entrepreneur Dr.

creative head of Balajji Telefilms. after her most famous venture 'Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi'. j m ovasdi 73 . which started airing on STAR Plus in 2000. she bagged the Hall of Fame award for her contributions to Indian TV. Ekta dominates Indian television with shows in multichannels. and sister of actor Tushar Kapoor. At the 6th Indian Telly Awards 2006.Ekta Kapoor ‡ Ekta Kapoor. She has been synonymous with the rage of soap operas on Indian TV. is the daughter of actor Jeetendra.

who has been with the India-based Centre for Science and Environment since 1982.Sunita Narain ‡ Sunita Narain. and publisher of the fortnightly magazine. ‡ Narain. j m ovasdi 74 . an environmentalist and political activist as well as a major proponent of the Green concept of sustainable development. is currently the director of the Centre. and the director of the Society for Environmental Communications. 'Down to Earth'. was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2005.

this situation is changing among Indian women and yet to face a tremendous change to increase the rate of growth in entrepreneurship. j m ovasdi 75 . The family members and the society are reluctant to stand beside their entrepreneurial growth. devoting enough time to perform all their responsibilities in priority. women lack confidence in their strength and competence. Only few women are able to manage both home and business efficiently.Major constraints faced by Indian Women Entrepreneurs a) Lack of confidence In general. To a certain extent. b) Socio-cultural barriers Women s family and personal obligations are sometimes a great barrier for succeeding in business career.

Government policies. financial assistance from public and private institutions and also the environment suitable for women to establish business units.Constraints Stiff competition in the market and lack of mobility of women make the dependence of women entrepreneurs on middleman indispensable. Other factors are family support. They are not fully aware of the changing market conditions and hence can effectively utilize the services of media and internet. c) Market-oriented risks j m ovasdi 76 . Many business women find it difficult to capture the market and make their products popular. attitude to take up risk and behavior towards the business society by shouldering the social responsibilities. d) Motivational factors Self motivation can be realized through a mind set for a successful business.

j m ovasdi 77 . schemes etc. f) Awareness about the financial assistance Various institutions in the financial sector extend their maximum support in the form of incentives. So the sincere efforts taken towards women entrepreneurs may not reach the entrepreneurs in rural and backward areas. Even then every woman entrepreneur may not be aware of all the assistance provided by the institutions. loans.Constraints e) Knowledge in Business Administration Women must be educated and trained constantly to acquire the skills and knowledge in all the functional areas of business management. This can facilitate women to excel in decision making process and develop a good business network.

institutions. In spite of the mushrooming growth of associations. women are not enterprising and dynamic to optimize the resources in the form of reserves. assets mankind or business volunteers. j m ovasdi 78 . h) Identifying the available resources Women are hesitant to find out the access to cater their needs in the financial and marketing areas.Overcoming Constraints g) Exposure to the training programs . rural and young entrepreneurs who want to set up a small and medium scale unit on their own.Training programs and workshops for every type of entrepreneur is available through the social and welfare associations. and the schemes from the government side. based on duration. Such programs are really useful to new. skill and the purpose of the training program.

‡ A desirable environment is necessary for every woman to inculcate entrepreneurial values and involve greatly in business dealings j m ovasdi 79 . ‡ The unexplored talents of young women can be identified. technically sound and professionally qualified women should be encouraged for managing their own business. rather than dependent on wage employment outlets.Over coming Constraints ‡ Highly educated. trained and used for various types of industries to increase the productivity in the industrial sector.

Emerging Business Opportunities for Women ‡ Eco-friendly technology Bio-technology IT enabled enterprises Event Management Tourism Industry Telecommunication Plastic materials j m ovasdi 80 .

fruits & vegetable processing j m ovasdi 81 .Emerging Business Opportunities for Women Vermiculture Mineral water Sericulture Floriculture Herbal & health care Food.

mentoring. trade fairs and exhibitions also can be a source for entrepreneurial development. ‡ Apart from training programs. Newsletters. j m ovasdi 82 .Women Empowerment for Sustainable Development ‡ Empowering women entrepreneurs is essential for achieving the goals of sustainable development and the bottlenecks hindering their growth must be eradicated to entitle full participation in the business.

promoting entrepreneurship among women is certainly a short-cut to rapid economic growth and development. the desired outcomes of the business are quickly achieved and more of remunerative business opportunities are found. ‡ Henceforth.Empowerment for Sustainable Development ‡ As a result. j m ovasdi 83 . ‡ Let us try to eliminate all forms of gender discrimination and thus allow women to be an entrepreneur at par with men.

Project Identification and Selection J M OVASDI j m ovasdi 84 .

an opportunity to start her enterprise ‡ Business Environment scanning is done to make the choice like ‡ What are the unfulfilled needs of the customers ‡ How to fulfill their needs ‡ What are your strengths and weaknesses ‡ Are you confident of the support of your family. ‡ Based on these factors select a project.Ideation & Project ‡ An entrepreneur chooses an idea. j m ovasdi 85 . friends and any other support agency.

A course of action definite plan 2. Specific objective what do you what to achieve 3.What is a Project ‡ The very foundation of an enterprise is a project ‡ It is a distinct mission to achieve and a clear termination point ‡ It is a set of activities involved in using resources to gain benefits. j m ovasdi 86 . Every project has three basic attributes 1. Definite time perspective Procedure project identification and project selection.

journals 5.Identification & Selection ‡ Idea Generation is done through internal & external sources 1. Watching emerging trends 3. Scope for good copying of existing products 4. Visiting fairs and exhibitions 7. Knowledge of potential customers 2. Study magazines . friends etc. 6. Meeting government agencies. Knowledge about government policy. concessions and incentives etc. j m ovasdi 87 . Success stories of known entrepreneurs. Udhyami Mitras 8.

‡ There may be technical problems ‡ Considering all the opportunities.Selection ‡ After collecting data and information about various opportunities we have to make a short list of choices according to our strengths & weaknesses ‡ We have to list the requirement of financial investment and other resources ‡ Some projects may be very beneficial but require resources that are not easy to get. It is the most important step if we have to apply for a loan. j m ovasdi 88 . and constraints the final selection is made. ‡ Then a project report is made.

experience etc i) Industry profile in which the project will fall ii) Organizational structure of the enterprise iii) Product details product utility.Contents of a Project Report ‡ A good project report should have the following contents 1. General Information bio-data of the single or multiple promoters. product design. product range. technical qualifications. their specific capabilities and professional. advantages to be offered by the product over its substitutes j m ovasdi 89 .

Contents of a Project Report Project Description ‡ i) Site ‡ Physical infrastructure ‡ Availability of raw material. expected j m ovasdi 90 . utilities like power. skilled labor. sewage treatment plant requirements ‡ Iii) Communication system facilities available and required ‡ Transport facilities existing. water ‡ ii) pollution control requirements sewage system.

Contents of a Project Report ‡ Production process period of conversion of raw material into finished goods ‡ Machines & equipment complete list. cost & sources of supply ‡ Capacity of the plant and the number of shifts proposed ‡ Technology selected ‡ R & D proposed research & development activities proposed to be undertaken in future j m ovasdi 91 .

Expected price of the production per unit ‡ Marketing Strategy arrangements for selling the products ‡ After-sales Service state the execution procedure ‡ Transportation what facilities are available or will be required j m ovasdi 92 .Contents of Project Report ‡ Market potential 1. Demand & supply position how the gap between the two will be filled up 2.

j m ovasdi 93 . preliminary expenses. margin for working capital ‡ The present probable sources of finance should be included in the project report ‡ Sources should indicate the owner s funds together with funds raised to be raised from financial institutions and banks. plant. machinery.Contents of Project Report ‡ Capital Costs and Sources of Finance estimates of capital items like land & buildings. installation costs.

managerial and social aspects are analyzed ‡ Project appraisal is done by financial institutions to assess its credit worthiness before extending finance to a project. market. technical.Project Appraisal Every industrial project involves risk Project appraisal is a process to reduce the risk Ex-ante analysis for proposed project Post-ante analysis is for the executed project Project appraisal is a cost & benefit analysis of different aspects of the project to adjudge its viability ‡ Economic. financial. They also get it evaluated by other agencies ‡ Sometimes the scope and contents of the project are modified after the appraisal & evaluation ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ j m ovasdi 94 .

Methods used are management economics . growth. Technical feasibility 5. decline 4. level of utilization.Methods of Project Appraisal 1. saturation. Market analysis no profit if goods are not sold. Economic analysis requirement of raw material. maturity. demand forecasting though survey. sales experience. expenses and probable profits 2. Life Cycle Segmentation analysis introduction. vicarious method selling the goods through dealers on test basis. anticipated sales. Managerial competence j m ovasdi 95 . opinion poll. Financial analysis most important exercise fixed & working capital 3.

Financing of Enterprise J M Ovasdi j m ovasdi 96 .

Entrepreneurship 5. Labour 3. j m ovasdi 97 . Availability of these factors in right proportion is needed for success. Organization These are mutually dependent on each other.Need for Financial Planning ‡ Production is the outcome of five factors 1. Land 2. Capital 4.

Where will it come from 3. long term (over five years) j m ovasdi 98 . When does the money need to be available in two forms fixed and working capital. ‡ It is the life blood of enterprise. How much money is needed 2.Need for Financial Planning ‡ Finance is the lubricant to the process of production. ‡ Whoever has the gold makes the rule. ‡ Make an assessment 1. short-term.

Priority to internal resources External sources ‡ Help from family and friends ‡ Loans from banks /non-banking financial institutions (NBFC) ‡ Loans from State Financial Corporations j m ovasdi 99 . investments. rents. plus savings.Entrepreneurial Finance ‡ Entrepreneurs raise funds to start their business though various sources like internal & external Internal sources ‡ Self-generated funds that can be spared from the business. property.

Entrepreneurial Finance ‡ RBI has identified lending to MSMEs as one of the priority sector advances ‡ MSMEs may get loans up to Rs 25 lakhs without collateral ‡ RBI has fixed time limits for dealing with a loan application from MSMEs ‡ The lender organization studies the business plan of the applicant and get it reviewed by experts. j m ovasdi 100 . ‡ Series of meetings are held between the lender and the borrower before loans are granted.

Government Initiatives for Promoting MSMEs J M OVASDI j m ovasdi 101 .

Small and Medium Scale Industries is primarily responsible for promotion and development of SMEs in India. spread all over the country. j m ovasdi 102 . institutional and support measures. and has evolved several policies.MSMI MINISTRY ‡ Ministry of Micro. in order to enable them to meet their changing needs. ‡ Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) has developed various financing schemes.

Department of Food Processing and Department of Handicrafts etc.MSMI MINISTRY ‡ Ministry of Science and Technology (DST. DBT. have also recently announced initiatives for technical assistance in various firms j m ovasdi 103 . DSIR) has evolved several measures and programs for technological assistance and development and transfer of technologies for SMEs. ‡ Some of the economic ministries such as Ministry of Textiles.

New initiatives to promote MSMEs ‡ Some of the measures and new initiatives to promote SMEs include: ‡ SME development fund ‡ A specialized stock exchange for SMEs ‡ Encouragement for patenting and ISO Certification ‡ SME venture capital fund ‡ National Commission for Small Industries (informal sectors) ‡ SME development bill ‡ Credit Rating Agency ‡ Promoting special venture capital companies and risk financing companies for SMEs ‡ Improve the working of credit guarantee and export promotion institutions j m ovasdi 104 .

district industry centres.New initiatives ‡ Progressively reduce protection measures and simplify implementation policies and control mechanisms ‡ SME Development Centres at SIDBI and IIFT ‡ Considering liberalizing FDI in SMEs and encouraging their linkages with TNCs and large companies ‡ Promoting industrial growth centres/clusters. EOUs(export oriented units). business incubators and business parks ‡ Market assistance and export promotion ‡ National Small Industries Corporation ‡ Small Industries Development Organization ‡ Limited Liability Partnership Bill 2006 j m ovasdi 105 .

handicrafts. etc. toys. engineering and development centres Small industries and services institutes Tool rooms Specialized development centres with international assistance in areas such as electronics. Technology business incubators Software technology parks S&T Entrepreneurship Development Board Techno-preneur Promotion Program j m ovasdi 106 .Technology Support Initiatives ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Proto-typing and product development centres Design.

custom duty exemptions.Technology Support Initiatives ‡ Consultancy Development Program ‡ Tax incentives. Information and Forecasting Assessment Council (TIFAC) ‡ Innovation centres. entrepreneurship development institutes j m ovasdi 107 . fiscal incentives. grants & other financing mechanisms ‡ In-house R&D recognition scheme for industry ‡ National Innovation Foundation ‡ Technology Development Board ‡ Technology.

Technology Support Initiatives ‡ National Institutions for specific industries such as fashion design. ‡ Small Industries Information and Resource Centre Networks (SENET) ‡ S&T Parks ‡ Technical Consultancy Organizations (TCOs) ‡ Technology Up gradation Fund ‡ The Asia and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology j m ovasdi 108 . glass and ceramics etc. packaging.

the need for ensuring the competitiveness of small scale sector as it would help in overall growth of manufacturing sector as also the national economy. disabling rules and regulations j m ovasdi 109 . among others: ‡ Access to timely and adequate credit ‡ Technological obsolescence (old technology) ‡ Infrastructural bottlenecks (power. The strategy report has identified the following important impediments.National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) ‡ NMCC has also recognized in its national strategy for manufacturing announced in March 2006. communication ) ‡ Lack of R&D linkages no tie up ‡ Marketing constraints.

It has also recommended the establishment of technology parks around institutions of higher technological learning on the lines of those existing in USA. 2006) j m ovasdi 110 .National Strategy for Manufacturing ‡ The National Strategy for Manufacturing has recognized the need for a focused project on advance technology products and has recommended the constitution of a special group to study the potential for manufacture and export of such products. Another important recommendation relates to setting up a Global Technology Acquisition Fund to enable Indian industry to acquire very high technology intensive companies abroad. (National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council.

‡ Towards this. ‡ Further.National Strategy for Manufacturing ‡ The strategy suggests a cluster approach for improving the manufacturing competence. government must incentivise technology development in SMEs to enhance their competitiveness. small scale sector should be encouraged as breeding ground of innovation and technology development where it becomes the technology sources for large companies. j m ovasdi 111 . ‡ New and innovative approach to cluster development should be adopted.

j m ovasdi 112 .National Strategy for Manufacturing ‡ A National Manufacturing Competitiveness Program (NMCP) is being developed which includes objectives to support SMEs. ‡ A Design Clinic approach is suggested to bring Indian manufacturing sector and design expertise on to a common platform and to provide expert advice and cost effective solution. resulting in continuous improvement and value addition for existing products. ‡ Emphasis is also laid down to enable SMEs to be competitive through quality management standards and quality technology tools. These are only some of the strategies among those suggested in the Report.

‡ The areas for support include lean manufacturing. technology and quality up gradation. The thrust of the plan is towards technology infusion. encouraging patents and so on. 1. j m ovasdi 113 . increasing number of tool rooms.NMCC Funds ‡ NMCC seems to have prepared Rs.000 crore National Manufacturing Competitiveness Program for small and medium enterprises jointly with Ministry of Small Scale Industries. ‡ This aims to benefit over 10.000 firms in more than 500 SME Clusters. ICT.

compared to non-exporting or domestic SMEs.NMCC Funds ‡ National Knowledge Commission has also identified SMEs as a thrust sector for education. leather. ‡ Various studies have shown that ICT and technology levels are higher in internationalized SMEs in sectors such as food processing. auto components. garments etc.( Agarwal 2005. ICT. to engineering. training and ICT encouragement. skills up-gradation. 1b) j m ovasdi 114 .

‡ Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects are also being recently evolved for sustainable support to SMEs in some areas such as food processing and handicrafts. ‡ Federation of Small and Medium Enterprises (FISME). j m ovasdi 115 . and World Assembly of Small and Medium Enterprises (WASME). Confederation of Indian Industry(CII). Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). PHD Chamber of Commerce. etc. ‡ However. have evolved various program towards technological capability building and enhancing competitiveness of SMEs. the expertise and capabilities to provide effective technology related services are generally limited.Private Sector Initiatives ‡ There are a few national level associations and several state level associations for promotion of SMEs.

access to these facilities are generally not easy. pro-type development.Academic and R&D Organizations ‡ Some of the engineering and technical institutions such as IITs. training. design. testing etc. facilities all over the country spread up to district levels. There are very limited start-up enterprises based on technologies or intellectual property from academic and R&D institutions. But. j m ovasdi 116 . these facilities need to be modernized and tuned to emerging needs. have a wide network of technical. are also providing R&D and technology related support facilities and services to the SMEs including training and skill development programs. and often lack the business needs of entrepreneurs. ‡ However.. ‡ Ministry of Small Industries and Development Commissioner. National Institutes of Technology and CSIR Research Laboratories.

competitiveness and vision of SMEs. capabilities. linkages and networks with foreign companies and institutions. ‡ Most countries are aiming at attracting larger FDI which poses challenges and provide opportunities to SMEs. besides catalyzing technology flows and investments. for internationalization. ‡ Imports and exports tend to enhance the efficiencies. with innovative capacities.Foreign Tie Ups and FDI ‡ Internationalization of SMEs usually refers to the SMEs engaged in international businesses. j m ovasdi 117 . the SMEs need to be growth oriented and forward looking. However. have developed cooperation. ‡ The domestic policies therefore need to be finely tuned to take full advantage of FDI and international aid/support measures or loans. ‡ FDI is considered to be an important channel for internationalization. partnerships.

‡ The study has revealed that smaller countries with small domestic markets are more internationalized. j m ovasdi 118 . ‡ The foreign supply relationships are the most common forms of internationalization while exporting is the next and some establish foreign subsidies and branches.SME Global Survey ‡ A survey of over 8000 SMEs in Europe in 2003 revealed that internationalization spurs growth and competitiveness (http://ec. Access to know-how is a frequent motive for going abroad. Further the study point to three elements as crucial for developing holistic measures with regard to internationalization.europa.eu).

especially in the case of SMEs with low international experience. recent studies indicate that SMEs awareness of support measures is low due to the measures traditional focus on export activities. targeted support. ‡ Moreover. ‡ Studies indicate that SMEs often need specific. Such customized support comprises. need to focus on the experience of the entrepreneur and on developing his/her qualifications in a broad sense. assistance in identifying an appropriate foreign business partner for a joint venture or collaboration. in order to be effective. A policy measure should consider providing some practical tasks to support the manager.Problems Current Issues ‡ SMEs managers often have limited time and management skills. for instance. j m ovasdi 119 . The studies suggest that policy measures.

production and marketing) and thus involve elements across the entire value chain. whether general or companyspecific. need to encompass all the different approaches to internationalization and the support to include a wide range of international activities.e.Problems Current Issues ‡ Internationalization is more than just exporting. foreign investments and cross boarder clustering represent new viable ways to strengthen the international business strategies of SMEs. ‡ Foreign partnerships. Policy measures. j m ovasdi 120 . R&D. Such diverse international activities may integrate different business functions (i.

for SMEs in India and other select countries. (Agarwal. Limited studies are available (UNCTAD 1998) related to FDI flows to SMEs. though the degree of liberalization may vary. based on the FDI approvals of the government. say up to 24% in India. ‡ A study of technology financing through FDI. specially in developing countries. 2005) was carried out in 2004-05 at IIFT.Problems Current Issues ‡ Most developing countries have adopted or are adopting a liberalized FDI regime in various sectors of development. several countries have opened up to 100% FDI while in some it is restricted. ‡ In case of SMEs. in general. j m ovasdi 121 .

0% of total approvals while the amounts were about 2% of the total amount approval. j m ovasdi 122 . The extent of amounts and the number of approvals vary from sector to sector.Problems Current Issues ‡ This study indicated that FDI approvals for SMEs accounted for about 6. ‡ One can infer that FDI approvals were mainly perhaps intended to internationalize markets and technologies rather than investments.

j m ovasdi 123 .Discussions ‡ A quick analysis of various studies and data indicates that SMEs are going through a transition phase and are generally restructuring their strategies and capabilities to remain competitive and grow in the emerging world trade environment. ‡ The issues and strategies vary with the level of development and priorities in national economies. ‡ The government are also evolving policies. capacity building and international competitiveness. strategies and modes of implementation to encourage and support SMEs for their growth.

j m ovasdi 124 . strengthening technological and management capabilities. Singapore and Taiwan have been able to adopt and implement new policies and measures to promote and support SMEs more successfully than many other countries. ‡ Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). and access to market information. networking and technical tie ups are being encouraged to facilitate access to newer technologies. ICT applications.Discussions ‡ Some of the countries such as Republic of Korea. and sharing of risks in financing and development. are assuming greater significance for competitiveness in manufacturing and businesses. Creation of training and skill up gradation facilities. technology. though inter-related. Innovation. are the thrust areas. productivity and quality.

remain much below than desired. ‡ There is a need to critically review the existing policies and mechanisms. effective implementation of policies and delivery of results to the satisfaction of the SMEs. j m ovasdi 125 . to assess the constraints and gaps in delivering the desired outputs. though there are a large number of institutional mechanisms and support measures available and concerns shown by the government.Discussions ‡ In India.

there are overlapping agencies and programmes for development of technologies and technological assistance to the SMEs. but the SMEs continue to be weak in R&D. productivity and quality among other factors.Discussions ‡ For example. acquisition and induction of new technologies. technology development. j m ovasdi 126 . ‡ The technology support programmes are largely implemented from Delhi or the capitals of the states and the awareness about programmes and fiscal incentives available is limited among SMEs.

and also the focused targets likely to be achieved. but the implementation mechanisms are not clear. ‡ What is needed perhaps is a strong innovation & technology development policy with legal instruments for implementation.Discussions . j m ovasdi 127 . Hopefully these proposals will not be just an addition to the existing set of support measures. ‡ Proposals of NMCC are praiseworthy. without effective monitoring and assessment mechanisms for the intended results. clearly meeting the needs of SMEs at different stages of their development.

‡ Digital divide has been an area of concern but at the same time offers opportunities for SMEs. ‡ National Small Industries Commission is engaged in evolving policy instruments and mechanisms to utilize and support SMEs. j m ovasdi 128 .Discussions . and employment or entrepreneurship opportunities in ICT and other areas. ‡ National Knowledge Commission has been generally active in evolving strategies for education and skill up gradation.

leather textiles. precision instruments and so on. nature of operations. j m ovasdi 129 . besides marketing information and incentives for training and skills development. ‡ Differentiated policies and mechanisms are needed for SMEs in different sectors. toys etc. stages of their development.Needs of MSMEs ‡ Access to Latest Technologies --Most SMEs. technology support facilities and easier access to finance. need easier access to new or modern technologies abroad. ‡ For example. would be different than those in new and advanced technological areas such as microelectricals. pharma. including technology finance. the technological needs of SMEs in traditional sectors such as food processing.

‡ However. which need to be nurtured for production of new goods and services at competitive costs.Needs of MSMEs ‡ Strategies --There is a need to have short term and long term strategies for enhancing competitiveness of SMEs in one broad based strategy. the SMEs have enormous potential for innovations and incremental development. ‡ The support structures should recognize this fact. ‡ The R&D expenditure and technological capacities of most of the SMEs would continue to be limited because of their inherent constraints in the resources and vision. j m ovasdi 130 .

etc. ‡ Economic. education. creating employment. across the society. capacity building.Innovations --IT & Auto Parts ‡ The IT and auto-component SMEs are examples of the successes through innovations. j m ovasdi 131 . technology and society need to be interdependent. ‡ Such policies should lead to wider dispersal of economic benefits. trade. and utilization of resources.

‡ The analysis of FDI data for SMEs in India tend to show that some SMEs are internationalizing or willing to internationalize through various types of collaborations through FDI route since the amounts involved are small. j m ovasdi 132 .Innovations --IT & Auto Parts ‡ The SMEs development project should recognize the needs of internationalizing companies or those who have the potential to internationalize. differently than those of domestic oriented companies or stagnating companies.

Free Trade Agreements(FTAs) and bilateral or special economic cooperation agreements.Globalization and SMEs ‡ In the context of WTO and other emerging trade mechanisms including Regional Trade Agreements(RTAs). the technological preparedness of SMEs need to be studied and support mechanisms evolved to overcome the gaps or constraints being faced or likely to be faced by them in the international businesses. j m ovasdi 133 .

the harmonization of definition of SMEs in India. Preparedness of SMEs for WTO is still another issue. with those in developed or advanced developing countries would facilitate international assistance for technology transfer. development and evolving measures for enhancing competitiveness in export markets. j m ovasdi 134 .Globalization and SMEs ‡ In view of the wide variations in definitions of SMEs in various economies. Innovations and trade agreements are likely to be the thrust areas in near future.

ITEs & BPO SMEs becoming Global ‡ January 2008 Survey report of Dun & Bradstreet ‡ The small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Indian IT space are confident of achieving 65 percent growth in the next two years. surpassing 43 percent growth rate posted for the last two years (2006-7) ‡ The study titled 'Emerging IT SMEs of India 2007'.IT. j m ovasdi 135 . provides insights into 244 IT companies involved in providing software and hardware products and services. All the companies profiled were in the below-Rs 100 million-turnover bracket during the previous fiscal year.

j m ovasdi 136 .IT. will be significant in terms of deciding future industry growth. ITEs (IT enabled call centres). ITEs & BPO SMEs becoming Global ‡ The study notes that close to 53 percent of companies faced moderate problems in acquiring funding and 43 percent felt the proposed withdrawal of tax sops for the IT. BPO industry by 2009.

which are now willing to cross borders to pursue growth. Bangalore and Mumbai emerged as the top locations for operations.6 percent of the profiled companies were operating from these two cities. Ites & BPO SMEs ‡ Of the 437 locations. j m ovasdi 137 . Companies with Rs 10-50 million turnover accounted for almost 50 percent of the profiled companies.IT. from which these 244 companies operate. 18 percent and 17. ‡ The overseas presence of 28 percent of the sample audience encapsulated the changing trend in the SMEs' perspective. respectively.

This indicates that there is huge growth opportunity in the market and IT adoption is rapid within the SME space.IT. ‡ The government seems to be the biggest adopter of technology and has been one of the key drivers for the growth of IT SMEs in India. Ites & BPO SMEs ‡ IT SMEs in India are growing at a rate of about 30 percent YoY. j m ovasdi 138 .

Success of SMEs in India ‡ It can be observed that by and large. SMEs in India met the expectations of the Government in this respect. ‡ SMEs developed in a manner. which made it possible for them to achieve the following objectives: ‡ High contribution to domestic production ‡ Significant export earnings ‡ Low investment requirements j m ovasdi 139 .

Success of SMEs in India ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Operational flexibility Location wise mobility Low intensive imports Capacities to develop appropriate indigenous technology Import substitution Contribution towards defense production Technology oriented industries Competitiveness in domestic and export markets j m ovasdi 140 .

Limitations of SMEs ‡ At the same time one has to understand the limitations of SMEs. ‡ SMEs have been established in almost all-major sectors in the Indian industry such as: j m ovasdi 141 . which are: ‡ Low Capital base ‡ Concentration of functions in one / two persons ‡ Inadequate exposure to international environment ‡ Inability to face impact of WTO regime ‡ Inadequate contribution towards R & D ‡ Lack of professionalism ‡ In spite of these limitations. the SMEs have made significant contribution towards ‡ technological development and exports.

Electronics Electro-medical equipment Textiles and Garments Leather and leather goods Meat products Bio-engineering Sports goods Plastics products Computer Software. Electricals. etc. j m ovasdi 142 .Reach of SMEs ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Food Processing Agricultural Inputs Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Engineering.

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