Personality

‡Theories of personality ‡Determinants of personality ‡Major personality attributes influencing OB

Ref:OB- Suja R Nair

Opening Case AZIM PREMJI His father started an oil mill in 1947 making vanaspati. On his death, Azim Premji had to come back and look after the business. Today he has led Wipro to achieve the Software Superpower status His personality«. Premji is a champion of integrity. Premji does not believe in unwanted extravaganza. Premji is a picture of calm and has a quiet determination about everything he does. Premji always aims high. Premji is an incorruptible person

³Personality is a dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustment to his environment ³ --Gordon Allport

Personality of an individual represents personal characteristics and traits which can lead to consistent patterns of behaviour.

Behaviour is the outcome of a complex interaction between the person and the situation.

What is Personality?

‡ Self concept ? ‡ Self esteem & self efficacy

Theories of Personality
Type theories

Self theory

Personality

Trait factor theory

Sociopsychological Theory

Psychoanalytic Theory

A. Type Theories 1.Personality can be classified on the basis of body build. Relationship can be established between features of the face or body and personality
Features ‡ Short, plump person Personality Sociable, relaxed & eventempered Restrained, self-conscious, lonely (introvert) Noisy, callous, fond of physical activity

‡Tall, thin person

‡Heavy, muscular person

2. Personality can be classified on the basis of psychological factors Extroverts Oriented towards other people, events and objects Concerned about feelings and are more happy dealing with abstract things

Introverts

Limitations: 1. Many people fall between the two extremes 2. More in the nature of continuum rather than discreet separate types. 3. Does not explain complexities of personality

B. Trait Factor theory Individual¶s personality is composed of definite predispositional attributes called traits

Assumptions: 1. Traits differ between people in absolute terms. 2. Traits are relatively stable & have fairly universal effects on behaviour irrespective of the environment (or situation). 3. It is possible to infer about traits by measuring behavioural indicators

Two Trait Theories a. Allport¶s trait theory based on the distinction between common traits and personal dispositions
Common Traits Personal dispositions Religious (eg:Spirituality) Social, (eg: sociability) economic, (eg: stingy/ extravagant) political, (eg: manupulativeness) aesthetic, (Beauty) Theoretical (what you learn are the values) Used to compare people Cardinal (most pervasive) Central (unique and limited in number) Secondary

Unique to the individual

Raymond Cattell ± developed traits using psychological test measures. Through research an attempt has been made to find a relationship & assorted behaviour. Surface traits 35 in number clustered by correlation Ex. Wise-foolish Affectionate-cold Traits lie on the surface of the personality and are determined by the Underlying source traits Source traits 12 in number Ex. Affectothymia (good nature & trustworthy) versus Sizothymia (critical and suspicious), ego strength (mature, realistic) Versus emotionality and neuroticism (immature, evasive) And so on.

Limitation: 1. More descriptive ± not a comprehensive theory of personality 2. Terms ± difficult to define ± no scientific reliability about the results 3.Difficult to determine what is surface trait & source trait Bill gates ³ if you¶re 20 years old Indian, and starting up, you should be doing something that I¶m not thinking about. Because if I am thinking about it, then«´ he shrugged. Or ³ How You can create a Microsoft out of India? There can¶t be two Microsofts, but I see some very good unique product companies developing over the next decade from India´.
What traits can be used to describe this powerful personality

C. Psychoanalytic Theory works on the basis that human beings are motivated more by unseen forces than their conscious and rational Thoughts. Given by Sigmund Freud.

Specifically related to OB is Freud¶s contribution towards understanding of creative behaviour, dissatisfaction, Group development, leadership and its influence.

Freud & Personality Structure
³Personality arises from conflict twist aggressive, pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints´
Satisfaction without the guilt?

Ego

Super Ego Id

Freud & Personality Structure
Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives
Pleasure Principle

Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways
Reality Principle

Ego

Super Ego Id

Super Ego
- voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave

D. Socio-psychological theory A combination of sociological and psychological aspects. On the one hand the individual strives to meet the needs of the society and on the other hand, the society helps the individual to attain his goal.

Different from psychoanalytic theory on two counts: 1. Social variables are the important determinants in shaping an individual¶s personality. 2. The behavioral motivation is a conscious effort.

E. Self Theory Karl Rogers defines the self concept as an organised, consistent and conceptual gestalt comprising of perceptions in the form of µI¶ or µme¶ & the perception of the relationships between µI¶ or µme¶ with others to the various aspects of life along with the values attached to these perceptions. 4 factors of self concept: Self image- way one see oneself based on his belief about himself Ideal self- the way a person would like to be Looking glass self-based on the perception of others how you perceive yourself Real selfwhat you actually are

Determinants of personality

Environment

The Big Five Model

‡

How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior? a better Research has shown this to be

framework. ‡ Certain traits have been shown to strongly relate to higher job performance:
± Highly conscientious people develop more job knowledge, exert greater effort, and have better performance. ± Other Big Five Traits also have implications for work. ‡ Emotional stability is related to job satisfaction. ‡ Extroverts tend to be happier in their jobs and have good social skills. ‡ Open people are more creative and can be good leaders. ‡ Agreeable people are good in social settings.
4-22

Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Locus of control Machiavellianism Self-esteem Self-monitoring Propensity for risk taking Type A personality

Locus of Control

Machiavellianism

Conditions Favoring High Machs ‡ Direct interaction ‡ Minimal rules and regulations ‡ Distracting emotions

Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring

Personality Types

Personality Types

Risk-Taking
‡ High Risk-taking Managers ± Make quicker decisions. ± Use less information to make decisions. ± Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations. ‡ Low Risk-taking Managers ± Are slower to make decisions. ± Require more information before making decisions. ± Exist in larger organizations with stable environments. ‡ Risk Propensity ± Aligning managers¶ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations.

Achieving Personality-Job Fit

Personality Types ‡ Realistic ‡ Investigative ‡ Social ‡ Conventional ‡ Enterprising ‡ Artistic

Holland¶s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations

Personality ±Job fit theory

Realistic

Investigative

Conventional Social

Enterprising

Artistic

‡ By Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham ‡ A Conceptual model for understanding human behaviour and for interpersonal awareness .

A Johari Window consists of the following 56 adjectives used as possible descriptions of the participant. In alphabetical order they are:

‡able ‡accepting ‡adaptable ‡bold ‡brave ‡calm ‡caring ‡cheerful ‡clever ‡complex ‡confident

‡dependable ‡dignified ‡energetic ‡extroverted ‡friendly ‡giving ‡happy ‡helpful ‡idealistic ‡independent ‡ingenious

‡intelligent ‡sensible ‡patient ‡introverted ‡sentimental ‡powerful ‡kind ‡shy ‡proud ‡knowledgeabl ‡silly ‡quiet e ‡smart ‡reflective ‡logical ‡spontaneous ‡relaxed ‡loving ‡sympathetic ‡religious ‡mature ‡tense ‡responsive ‡modest ‡trustworthy ‡searching ‡nervous ‡warm ‡self-assertive ‡observant ‡wise ‡self-conscious ‡organized ‡witty

Incompetent violent insecure hostile needy ignorant blasé embarrassed insensitive dispassionate inattentive

intolerant aloof irresponsible selfish unimaginative irrational imperceptive loud self-satisfied overdramatic unreliable

inflexible glum vulgar unhappy inane distant chaotic vacuous passive dull cold

timid stupid lethargic unhelpful brash childish impatient panicky smug predictable foolish

cowardly simple withdrawn cynical cruel boastful weak unethical rash callous humourless

Personality
‡Determinants of personality ‡Major personality attributes influencing OB

Ref:OB- Suja R Nair & OB, SPR and timothy A judge

AZIM PREMJI His father started an oil mill in 1947 making vanaspati. On his death, Azim Premji had to come back and look after the business. Today he has led Wipro to achieve the Software Superpower status His personality«. Premji is a champion of integrity. Premji does not believe in unwanted extravaganza. Premji is a picture of calm and has a quiet determination about everything he does. Premji always aims high. Premji is an incorruptible person

³Personality is a dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustment to his environment ³ --Gordon Allport

Personality of an individual represents personal characteristics and traits which can lead to consistent patterns of behavior.

Behavior is the outcome of a complex interaction between the person and the situation.

What is Personality?

‡ Self concept ? ‡ Self esteem & self efficacy?

Roger¶s Person-Centered Perspective People are basically good with actualizing tendencies.

Given the right environmental conditions, we will develop to our full potentials

Determinants of personality

Environment

The Big Five Model

‡

How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior? a better Research has shown this to be

framework. ‡ Certain traits have been shown to strongly relate to higher job performance:
± Highly conscientious people develop more job knowledge, exert greater effort, and have better performance. ± Other Big Five Traits also have implications for work. ‡ Emotional stability is related to job satisfaction. ‡ Extroverts tend to be happier in their jobs and have good social skills. ‡ Open people are more creative and can be good leaders. ‡ Agreeable people are good in social settings.
4-56

Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Locus of control Machiavellianism Self-esteem Self-monitoring Propensity for risk taking Type A personality

Locus of Control

Machiavellianism

Mr. Niccolo Machiavelle

Conditions Favoring High Machs ‡ Direct interaction ‡ Minimal rules and regulations

Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring

Risk-Taking
‡ High Risk-taking Managers ± Make quicker decisions. ± Use less information to make decisions. ± Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations. ‡ Low Risk-taking Managers ± Are slower to make decisions. ± Require more information before making decisions. ± Exist in larger organizations with stable environments. ‡ Risk Propensity ± Aligning managers¶ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations.

‡ Narcissism
± An arrogant, entitled, self-important person who needs excessive admiration. ± Less effective in their jobs.

‡ Proactive Personality
± Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres to completion ± Creates positive change in the environment

Personality Types

Personality Types

Linking Personality and Values to the Workplace
Managers are less interested in someone¶s ability to do a specific job than in that person¶s flexibility. ‡Person-Job Fit:
± John Holland¶s Personality-Job Fit Theory
‡ Six personality types ‡ Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI)

± Key Points of the Model:
‡ There appear to be intrinsic differences in personality between people ‡ There are different types of jobs ‡ People in jobs congruent with their personality should be more

Holland¶s Personality Typology & Occupations

4-68

Relationships Among Personality Types

The closer the occupational fields, the more compatible.

The further apart the fields, the more dissimilar.

Need to match personality type with occupation.

‡ Job satisfaction and turnover depend on congruency between personality and task
± Fields adjacent are similar ± Field opposite are dissimilar

Still Linking Personality to the Workplace
In addition to matching the individual¶s personality to the job, managers are also concerned with: ‡Person-Organization Fit:
± The employee¶s personality must fit with the organizational culture. ± People are attracted to organizations that match their values. ± Those who match are most likely to be selected. ± Mismatches will result in turnover. ± Can use the Big Five personality types to match to the

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful