SustainabiIity & Progressive Change

:
A SociaI EcoIogy Perspective
Adjunct Professor Stuart B. HiII
University of Western Sydney
s.hiII@uws.edu.au
www.stuartbhiII.com
A IittIe about me: Stuart Baxter HiII,
& my experience with this topic
born during WWII in AyIesbury (80 km N of London, UK)
#ecent co-authored books:
Ecological Pioneers: A Social History of Australian Ecological
Thought and Action (with Dr Martin Mulligan; Cambridge UP, 2001)
Learning for Sustainable Living: !sychology of Ecological
Transformation (with Dr Werner Sattmann-Frese; Lulu, 2008)
1he task |s not [ust to see
what no one has yet seenţ
but a|so to th|nk
what no one has thought
about what everybody sees
Mod|f|ed fromť Arthur 5chopenhauerţ 1890
PIanet
W exhaustion of fossiI fueI reserves & other non-renewabIe resources
W gIobaI warming, associated cIimatic changes & rising sea IeveI
W thinning of ozone Iayer & accumuIation of 'waste matter' in space
W fIuctuating water tabIes, drought, drying Iakes & rivers, & fIooding
W contamination of soiI, water & organisms with poIIutants
W deforestation, desertification, soiI erosion & Iand degradation
W Ioss of habitat, biodiversity, species, varieties & cuItivars
Why do so many of us keep making the
same mistakes that Iead to these probIems?
#uraI societies & economies
W war, prejudice, oppression & maIdistribution probIems
W dispIacement from Iand & Iack of access to basic needs
W farm bankruptcies, decaying ruraI communities, & Ioss of sociaI &
cuIturaI capitaI
W increasing dependence on subsidies, imported inputs & 'experts'
W iIIiteracy, Iearning disabiIities, emotionaI disturbance & depression
W 'compensatory', addictive, compuIsive, aggressive & seIf-harming
behaviours
W feeIings of isoIation, hopeIessness & heIpIessness
W dependence on unstabIe distant & worId markets & other externaI
controIs
W maInourishment, zoonoses (diseases of 'lower' animals that can infect
humans), aIIergies, stress-reIated & degenerative conditions
isten. I am fed up with this 'weeding out the sick and
the oId' business . I want something in its prime"
Gary arson
It's time to question the oId approaches!
We must extend the boundaries of our thinking
(modified from Geoff, L. & P. Smoker 1997. Peace: an evolving idea. Future Generations J. 23 (2): 4-9)
O
U
T
E
#
P
E
A
C
E
EnvironmentaI
CuIturaI
TransnationaI
Between States
Within States
Community
FamiIy &
IndividuaI
Inner Peace
War Prevention StructuraI Condits. HoIistic CompIex ModeIs
Absence
of War
BaIance
of
Forces
No
VioIence
Feminist
Peace
Inter-
cuIturaI
Peace
Gaia
Peace
Inner-
Outer
Peace
Peace
stages of perception
1. deceptive simpIicity:
heavy-handed solutions (with unexpected disbenefits)
2. confusing (often paralysing) compIexity:
puzzlement, more studies, committees
. profound simpIicity: 'ahas', elegant paradoxical
contextually-relevant 'solutions' (+ unexpected benefits),
e.g., using 'love' vs. 'fear' as the basis for ALL actions
In most 'modern' societies governance for wellbeing
(personal, social & ecological) remains a minor concern, an
add-on, or a minimaIist, 'shaIIow' (green-wash) program,
designed to avoid Iitigation & voter disquiet
It is the poor cousin of economic governance (for ongoing
growth in productivity, profit, & associated inequitable access to power)
%he economy
& money
Society
Envir
%hese are 'social
constructions' that need
to be reframed as 'tools'
to enable us to act on
our 'higher' values
The TripIe Bottom ine (TB must be regarded
just as a transitionaI decision-making framework
Pille Bunnell & Nicolas Sonntag, 2000. Pers. Com.
An economic system of values prevents responsibIe
actions re the weIIbeing of humans & nature
Over-focus on 'productivity', profit,
power & getting quick dramatic resuIts
W predictabIy Ieads to burn-out, onIy short-term,
Iimited benefits, & often unexpected disbenefits
(additional problems that are often initially unrecognised)
We need to place much more focus on:
W rehabiIitation & 'maintenance' activities
W caring for one another (& other species & the environment)
W ceIebration
W venting feeIings, & access to 'heaIing' support, etc
W prioritising time & resources for these activities
W & reaIising that sustained productivity is emergent
from the effective maintenance of whoIe systems
W #ehabilitation &
maintenance
W Erodes natural capital
& ecological integrity
(declining productivity)
W Productivity
yield, output
W Builds natural capital,
ecological integrity
(basis for sustained productivity)
#ewards to naturaI resource managers,
such as farmers
We urgentIy need to Iearn:
particularly from psychology & ecology
how to better Iive more caring, sustainabIe
& genuineIy meaningfuI heaIthy Iives
FaiIure to maintain systems is resuIting in:
personaI, sociaI & environmentaI degradation
W PIanet, environment, ecoIogicaI systems, nature
W Socio-cuIturaI: institutionaI structures &
processes in poIitics, economics, business,
education, technoIogy, reIigion.
W PeopIe: communities, groups, famiIies,
individuaIs (you & me!
A 'Iife-enabIing' tripIe bottom Iine
ParaIIeI interreIated processes invoIved in change:
What meaningfuI do-abIe initiatives can we take in each
of these areas to support 'progressive' cuIturaI change?
Short definition of SOCIAL ECOLOGY (Hill 2011)
The study & practice of personal, social & ecological
sustainability & 'progressive' change based on the
critical application & integration of ecological,
humanistic, relational, community & 'spiritual' values to
enable the sustained wellbeing of all.
Upper levels affect lower levels
Self
(actors)
Home
(place)
Family, friends,
and workmates
Work & play
places
Community, interest,
work, religious &
professional groups
Catchment, town,
suburb, village.
Country & state
population
Country, state &
bioregion
Ìndustrialised
'Western' world
population
Zoogeograhical
region (Australiasia)
Our species with its
rich cultural diversity
PIanet Earth
Lower levels affect upper levels
'understanding' science
& arts
ominant Grand
Narrative of 'Progress'
NegIected/BIocked
production regardless of cost)
maintenance, caring
growth, no limits
sustainability, limits
resources, ecological.)
sense of enough wealth
individualism
community,
mutualistic relationships
consumerism
emphasising compensatory wants)
conserver society
meeting basic needs)
homogenisation,
simplification
maintenance of &
support for diversity
'controlling' science
understanding' science &
arts as a disposable luxury)
ominant Grand
Narrative of 'Progress'
NegIected/BIocked
market forces manipulated
demand, excessive advertising)
appropriate technologies
decentralised, repairable)
economic rationalism
monetary system of values)
meeting greatest 'good'
social justice.)
regional self-reliance &
responsibility
transglobal corporate
managerialism
mobile disposable workforce
disconnected from place)
sense of place, right
to meaningful work
The myths that these are
embedded in are
inadequate for securing a
'good' future for most in
present & future
generations
We need to search for new
Iife-promoting myths that
can accommodate these
characteristics: some can
be found within nature
(bio-ecology & psychology)
EcoIogists studying other animaI species
ask primariIy four questions:
W How many are there? - numbers
W How are they distributed? - distribution
W What are they doing? - activities
W What are their reIationships with the 'environment'?
Thus, to be responsibIe we must ask of ourseIves:
W How many is optimum?
W How shouId & shouIdn't we distribute ourseIves?
W What shouId & shouIdn't we do?
W How shouId & shouIdn't we reIate to & interact with the
environment ( taking into account its 'carrying capacity')?
Population
activities
#esource
need & use
Population
distribution
Population
numbers
Environmental
impact
Sustainable Unsustainable
If any species (including our own) has:
W high numbers
W highIy aggregated distribution
(located away from the resources it needs)
W highIy consumptive IifestyIe
then it wiII:
W need & wiII consume Iots of resources
W have a high impact on the environment
& so, wiII eventuaIIy become unsustainabIe
the time taken to experience this wiII be shorter the
Iower the environment's 'carrying capacity'
If a species has:
W Iow numbers
W is distributed cIose to the resources it needs
W has a conserver IifestyIe
W Iives in an environment with a high 'carrying
capacity'
then it shouId be abIe to Iive sustainabIy
#esiIience
CapabiIity of Iiving systems to persist when
'chaIIenged' (by 'insults' &/or lack of resources):
W dependent on interactions between 'genetic',
historicaI & contextuaI factors
W can be increased by capital building processes at
aII IeveIs (including individuals, groups & ecosystems)
W reduced by capital eroding processes; so,
requires effective system maintenance practices
The IIusion
W Advanced:
technoIogicaIIy
also psychosociaIIy?
We must recognise that we are
evolving psychosocially
.& must pIan for better futures
rather than more efficient & controIIed pasts
What might be the outcomes if the next
step in our psychosocial evolution is:
from economics-obsessed,
sociaIizing (manipulative,
controlling, problem-solving)
cuItures (compensatory, back-
end/reactive patterned living)
to higher vaIues-based,
Iife-enabIing cuItures
(proactive, spontaneous living)
Enabling recognises all humans as social, potentially benign beings,
capable of developing their own agendas; & it is supportive of this
All other stages impose adult agendas on children & others,
& so undermine their potential development
Enabling
PsychosociaI evoIution of chiId deveIopment
(de Mause 1982 oundations of !sychohistory, Creative #oots, New York)
Socialising, Iike aII previous stages in our psychosociaI
evoIution, invoIves the excessive imposition by aduIts,
& society in generaI, of foreign agendas
(invariably inappropriate in content & with respect to time & space)
on chiIdren & others who (if not wounded) have their own benign,
uniqueIy personaI & contextuaIIy fine-tuned agendas
This oppressive process resuIts in young peopIe's
disempowerment, Ioss of awareness, the deveIopment of
adaptive non-benign thoughts & behaviours, & a sense of
disconnectedness, both from their externaI & internaI worIds
moment-to-moment they must choose to conform or rebeI
Such individuaIs are IikeIy to be much more capabIe
of acting aIone, & in coIIaboration with others,
to radicaIIy transform & redesign
our institutionaI structures & process, & our IifestyIes,
to make the worId a better pIace for aII
In contrast to this, enablingapproaches to chiId-rearing
& education have the potentiaI to support the deveIopment
of individuaIs who are empowered, aware, Ioving, caring,
responsibIe, creative, visionary, knowIedgeabIe,
competent, reIationaI, wise, & with a zest for Iife
In considering our roIes as teachers in
enabling these changes it is important to
remember that we teach two things:
the subject/curricuIum
& ourseIves
#ecaII a particuIarIy
'meaningfuI Iearning moment'
I suspect you recalled a person/teacher
rather than a subject
Hence the importance of focussing on our:
Iove of Iife & passion for Iearning
authenticity & transparency
caring & compassion
active & empathic Iistening: being heard
supporting student's Iearning agendas
mentoring & modeIIing
vs. just the curriculum, resources, assessment...
Most current education is socialising/colonising
education that emphasises (modified from O'Sullivan 1999):
InequitabIe, hierarchicaI
differentiation
(winners & losers)
CoIonising
education
IndividuaIism
& competition
(non-relational)
PredictabiIity &
naive objectivity
(cleverness)
What is needed is transformative education
that enabIes (modified from O'Sullivan 1999):
EquitabIe differentiation
(valuing difference)
Transformative
education
MutuaIistic,
caring
reIationships
Spontaneity &
deep subjectivity
(wisdom)
Significance
(the educators' agenda for the students)
SociaIising/
coIonising
pedagogy?
QuaIity Iearning
environment
(controlled - in the school)
InteIIectuaI quaIity
(neglecting wisdom
& the 'unknown')
Students' Iearning agendas
(supported & enabled by teachers)
EnabIing/
transformative
pedagogy
Supportive Iearning
environments, resources,
experiences & opportunities for
refIection (alone & with others),
within & beyond the schooI
Ongoing, whoIe-person
(intellectual, physical,
emotional, relational &
'spiritual') deveIopment
(wisdom included)
Head
Thinking
Cognitive
Heart
FeeIing
Affective
EmotionaI
Hands
PhysicaI Body
Action
Soul/Spirit
VaIues/Ethics
Agenda/
Mission
WhoIe person Iearning
eys for enabIing transformative learning:
W empathic & responsive Iistening
W gaining trust
W meeting each student's specific needs
W being 'criticaIIy' supportive & Ioving
W mentoring, modeIIing, inspiring, chaIIenging
W acknowIedging, ceIebrating
W creating supportive structures & processes
eys for enabIing transformative learning: (cont.)
W supportive contexts & experiences for
emergent, owned initiatives (experiential)
W opportunities to refIect on processes,
Iearnings & outcomes (including 'mistakes')
W being pIayfuI, humorous
W being paradoxicaI (part of wisdom)
W extending boundaries of thinking & action
W providing access to supportive, &
inspirationaI resources
Another's agenda for anyone can only
ever be second best to their own
from their empowered, aware, unwounded/healed,
loving, visionary ,ethical, relational self)
EstabIishment of maIadaptive 'compensatory' seIves
Core 'healthy'
self/essence
Hurt
Oppression
Adaptation
(maladaptation)
Hurt
Oppression
Distorted potentially
'healthy' behaviour
Superimposed
'unhealthy' behaviour
Multiple
Selves
Core
'HeaIthy'
Wspontaneous
Waware
Wempowered
Wloving
Winformed action
MaIadaptive
'Compensatory'
Wpatterned
Wunaware
Wdisempowered
Wfearful
Wacting out
%he way Ì look at
it, for what Ì lose in
freedom Ì gain in
security
Most of the time we behave as if we
were hypnotised twice
#. . aing 1971
The Politics of the Family
firstIy into accepting pseudoreaIity
as reaIity, &
secondIy into beIieving we were
not hypnotised
REDUCE REUSE RECYCLE
REPAIR REFRAIN REFUSE
RESCUE REGENERATE REDESIGN
REFLECT REVIEW RE-EVALUATE
READ RISK REGISTER
RULES RESPONSIBILITY RECOVER
REVOLT REBEL RECONSIDER
REFUTE REBUKE REGULATE
Etc, etc, AND all other letters & alphabets
Stages in understanding (#achel Lauer's 'epistemes' 1983)
5. recognizing its paradoxicaI & unknown
quaIities (going beyond the thing!)
4. criticaI refIection on it (going deeper)
. understanding its reIationships/paraIIeIs
2. its definition & measurement
1. initiaI recognition of thing or concept
nown & unknown
What is unknown
(the focus of 'wisdom')
What is known
(the focus of 'cleverness')
André Voisin, 1959. Soil, Grass and Cancer. ongmans, ondon
The chaIIenge: how to engage cIearIy with the unknown & mysticaI
We tend to over-focus on knowIedge &
data; & negIect wisdom & experience
W most wisdom cannot be supported by data;
it invoIves working with the unknown - most of
what is - not just the Iimited known; often in
ways that reIy on intuition & gut feeIings, etc
CIever peopIe know how
to soIve probIems
Attributed to AIbert Einstein
Wise peopIe avoid them!
Stuart B HiII: 2003 (Campus #eview)
Ìn response to 9/11:
".all those who have it figured out, from whatever
angle, are the problem; if the world is going to change
it will be by enough of us being
WIING TO NOT NOW,
so that a new kind of knowing might emerge¨
Progressive spiraI
%o act
Knowing
%o learn
Unknowing
the future may be much more hopefuI
than is generaIIy imagined
Because aII such negIected resources offer
enormous opportunities for improved use
We need to be much better at:
W recognising, vaIuing & invoIving the wisest &
most experienced in our societies; & not be so
obsessed with cleverness
(whereas wisdom enables us to work with the unknown & know,
cleverness is limited to working with the miniscule known)
Unknowns' (things we don't have simple, neat answers for) can:
have questions asked about them
be mapped
researched (conventionally & on internet)
reIated to one's Iife, experiences, hopes
(in fact, everything, even the curriculum)
Iead to designing, & possibIy carrying out,
smaII meaningfuI initiatives/experiments
dramatised
be a stimuIus for art, poetry, prose, music
& projects, in & beyond the schooI/community
AN, they don't need to be answered
(at least, not by you in that moment)
Emphasising problem-solving approaches
(back-end, reactive/responsive, curative 'solutions')
W makes us focus on symptom management & negIect
the need to address the underIying maIdesign
& mismanagement roots of aII probIems
W over-focus on the endIess measuring of probIems
(a main strategy used for postponing action - by those who
benefit from the status quo ÷ 'monitoring our extinction')
W & over-focus on efficiency & substitution strategies,
e.g., in agriculture, improved application of pesticides, & on
finding less disruptive (but still 'curative', purchased) substitutes,
such as biological controls & genetically modified organisms
same story in all other areas: medicine, energy, etc
HiII's ES# probIem-soIving/proofing modeI
#edesign/design
Substitution
Efficiency
P
Conventional
P
P
P
P
UnreaIised potentiaI of design/redesign
EFFICIENCY
(both primarily reactive)
SUBSTITUTION
#EESIGN
(proactive)
1
2

etc
We need to:
W redesign existing systems (& design new systems)
to make them as probIem-proof as possibIe
W & enabIe effective change from fIawed
/defective systems to significantIy more
improved (sustainable, wellbeing enabling) ones
Testing questions for
evaIuating aII 'progressive' initiatives
oes it support?
Socio-poIiticaI/cuIturaI (capital & sustainability)
W buiIding & maintaining trust, access, coIIaborative,
Iife-affirming community structures & processes
W refIexive, criticaI, imaginative, ceIebrationaI attitudes
W cuIturaI diversity & respectfuI, caring, mutuaIistic
reIationships
W cuIturaI deveIopment & psychosociaI co-evoIution
PersonaI (capital & sustainability)
oes it support?
W spontaneity, curiosity & engagement
W empowerment, awareness, respect of the unknown
W creative visioning, vaIues & worIdviews cIarification
W acquisition of essentiaI Iiteracies & competencies
W buiIding & maintaining vitaIity, heaIth & weIIbeing
W caring, Ioving, responsibIe, negentropic reIationships
W IifeIong personaI deveIopment & responsibiIity
oes it support?
EnvironmentaI/naturaI (capital & sustainability)
W Iife-supporting ecoIogicaI (maintenance & developmental)
processes that enabIe weIIbeing & resiIience
W conserving habitats & 'functionaI' high biodiversity
W ecosystem deveIopment & co-evoIutionary change
oes it support?
GeneraI foci
W proactive, whoIe system design/redesign for
enabIing weIIbeing & probIem prevention
W smaII/doabIe, meaningfuI, coIIaborative initiatives
W windows of change & use of integrator-indicators
W attentive to aII outcomes & feedback
The chaIIenge - how to change
How to best enabIe cuIturaI transformation?
Progressive change is often first ridicuIed
ust because you're outnumbered
doesn't mean you're wrong
5 overIapping stages in change (Hill 2005)
W ignorance & deniaI (in any area: climate...)
W awareness & acknowIedgement
W gaining understanding & competence
W effective action & project-based initiatives
W ongoing co-evoIution of responsibIe
Iife-affirming practices (how we now live)
PsychosociaI evoIution & transformative
institutionaI & structuraI change (from above to below)
W SociaIising
W ProbIem focus
W ExcIusionary
hierarchicaI sociaI
institutions
W EnabIing
W #edesign/design
W Participatory
sociaI institutions
(co-operacy
5hared Ŷ dare I ca|| |t Ŷ WI5DCM Ŷ 2007
wwwŦsLuarLbhlllŦcomŤ sŦhlll«uwsŦeduŦau
W Ask of a|| theory Ǝ pract|ce Ŷ what |s |t |n the
serv|ce of? Ŷ before support|ng or copy|ng |t
Appropriate next steps are:
W deepIy personaI &
W highIy context specific
This is why:
WformuIaic,
WcentraIIy-directed &
Wimposed change
aIways faiIs to achieve its stated aims &
invariabIy causes more probIems than it soIves
ecisions to make re aII change
W what to stop doing
W what to reduce/de-emphasise
W what to do differentIy
W what to increase/expand
W what to start doing (new)
ecisions to make re aII change (cont.)
W what wiII it take to do this?
W what are the barriers & what
wiII remove & weaken them?
W what resources are needed &
avaiIabIe (particularly locally) &
how to get them?
urt ewin's 'Force FieId AnaIysis'
add
strengthen
riving forces*
#estraining forces (barriers*
remove
weaken
external
& internal
imiting factors for change
(the commonly mentioned 'barriers')
W information & access to it, misinformation,
knowledge, skills, competencies.
W resources: renewable, non-renewable,
technologies, money, time.
W institutionaI supports: policies, programs,
structures, services, legislation, regulations.
Forms of poIiticaI action
W education, demonstration & modeIs
W extension & other services
W research & deveIopment
W IegisIation & reguIation
#ewards
(only available during transition period to prevent development of dependence)
W tax incentives
W subsidies
W Iow interest Ioans
PenaIties (for those who act irresponsibly)
W monitoring programs
W IegisIation & its impIementation
Supports (need to be ongoing)
W family & community support
W empowerment/disempowerment
(feelings of helplessness/hopelessness)
W awareness
W vision & imagination
W vaIues, worldviews, paradigms, beliefs
imiting factors for change
(usually the more important ones)
W persistent denial, procrastination &
distractive/compensatory activities
TechnoIogy
transfer
Increasing
peopIe skiIIs
Human deveIopment
Education
ProbIem soIving
TechnicaI
know how
Increasing compIexity of situations
Short-term onger-term
modified from Peter Van Beek, 1993
'Extension' in compIex situations
Framework for pIanning change
Beyond
average
Iifetime
Average
Iifetime
5-10
years
1
year
2
months
1
week
Before
going
to bed
tonight
Self
Family
Work/Enterprise/
Business
Local community
Local landscape/
Environment
Strategic questions: What wouId it take to...?
What gets in the way & what wouId remove these 'barriers'?
One radicaI way to progress our thinking & action
is paradoxicaIIy (in a workshop context) to boIdIy 'Iie'
about changes that you have aIready brought about
(that you have actually not brought about!)
This enabIes us to vision in reIation to our benign potentiaI,
rather than settIe for tinkering with the status quo
By daring to engage in such 'deep' reflection & implementation
of meaningful doable initiatives, we can significantly contribute
to changing the world for the better
Evidence of our behaviouraI & heaIth potentiaI
(Peckham Experiment, UK, 1926-1950: www.thephf.org)
Community/heaIth centre
W over 1,000 famiIies (up to 550 at any one time)
W access to a range of faciIities (pool, gym etc.)
W gIass waIIs (all activity areas visually accessible)
W free to choose activities (but recorded)
W minimaI supervision
W organic cafeteria (linked to organic farm)
W annuaI 'heaIth' audit as a famiIy (where you 'stand')
W access to essentiaI information (talks, referrals,
networking, interest-groups, 'gossip' etc)
Peckham Experiment (cont.)
W initiaI 6- to18-month period of reIative chaos
(a necessary pre-requisite & recurring stage)
W switch from Iiving 'reactiveIy' (from the outside-in)
to 'proactiveIy' (from the inside-out)
Peckham Experiment (cont.)
Subsequent 12 years
(4 years pre-WWÌÌ, WWÌÌ [closed], & 4 years after):
W no marriage breakdowns
W no buIIying & onIy one accident
W Iow interest in competitive games
W high-IeveI coIIaboration & joint projects
W high skiII acquisition
W improved heaIth & weIIbeing
W increased creativity
Peckham Experiment (cont.)
eys:
W supportive environment
W freedom to be spontaneous
W non-judgementaI feedback
W supportive vs. intrusive/manipuIative staff
W support during narrow windows of change (puberty,
forming primary relationships, pregnancy, birth etc)
Peckham Experiment (cont.)
HeaIth: (a process)
W contagious
W spontaneity
W faciIity for mutuaI synthesis with others & environment
Stallibrass, A. 1989. eing Me and Also Us: Lessons from the
!eckham Experiment. Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh. 275 pp.
http://www.thephf.org
8 stages in deveIoping reIationaI competence
with nature & pIace
(based largely on: #uthellen Josselson 1996. The Space etween Us:
Exploring the Dimensions of Human Relationships. Sage, %housand Oaks, CA)
4 sensory grounded experiences:
from the beginning of one's Iife
4 cognitive/meaning-making processes
HoIding
provision of safety, security & assurance
safe, non-frightening early experiences
lay the foundation for expectations of
support, feeling secure, at 'home', &
physically connected with nature & place
someone being there for you
Attachment
acknowIedged
reIiabIe emotionaI (& material) connection(s)
recognition of primacy of our dependence on, & relationship
with, 'nature' emotionally connected with nature & place)
provides foundation for development of a 'sense of place'
nature as 'sanctuary'; also with therapeutic/healing roles
recognition of special & favourite places
basis for subsequent familiarity & identification with physical
& bio-ecological characteristics of particular environments
Passionate Experience
encounter intense pIeasure
e.g. through respectful physical contact
experience of multifaceted, holistic pleasures of nature
fascination & joy with its diversity, mystery & 'otherness'
stimulation, excitement & development of deep love of nature
basis for development of sense of stewardship & responsibilities
Eye-to-Eye VaIidation
communication of authenticity
aIso, conditionaI approvaI of one's 'doing'
positive & negative) feedback from interactions with nature
pets, other domesticated animals, wildlife, plants & place)
becoming aware of both the predictable & knowable
& also the spontaneous, emergent & mysterious the largely
unknown') properties of nature
confirmation, encouragement, understanding &
empathy for one's 'being'
Identification & IdeaIisation
recognition & respect for others' desirabIe quaIities
(& of the undesirability & repulsion of others)
key drive for personaI deveIopment & transcendence
recognition of the amazingness, wonder & power of nature
& of the value of the numerous processes & 'models' in nature
its use in metaphors & mythology
basis for respecting its limits & working with its potential
needed for managing one's desire to contain, control, own &
domesticate nature; & for designing & redesigning with nature
basis for attraction to mentors & partners & totems')
MutuaIity & #esonance
simuItaneousIy recognising simiIarities in our experiences,
thinking & feeIing; & being wiIIing to share them openIy
experiencing connectedness, communion & sense of 'we'
through awe, compassion, integration & collaboration, learning to
recognise synergy, synchronicity & mutuality in nature
further deepening of respect of limits
& realisation of diverse possibilities & opportunities
involves letting go of competition & desires to control
deepening one's connection with other species, & nature in general
finding & recognising oneseIf in the 'other & otherness'
described well in some nature poetry
laL ouLsLreLched upon a mound of
earLh l lleŤ l Þress mv ear aaalnsL lLs surface
and l hear far off and deepţ Lhe measured
sound of hearL LhaL beaLs wlLhln Lhe
aroundŦ And wlLh lL pounds ln harmonv
wlLh Lhe swlfLţ famlllar hearL ln meŦ 1hev
pulse as oneţ LoaeLher swellţ LoaeLher fallť l
cannoL Lell mv sound from LarLh'sţ for l am
parL of rhvLhmlcţ unlversal hearLŦ
Ŵ LllzabeLh Cdell

Embeddedness
identification with our connectedness
enabIes us to speak from our particuIar roIes, groups & pIaces
basis for interest in history, & concern for inter-generationaI &
gIobaI equity, & the needs of 'others'
& for experiencing meaning in one's Iife
deep connectedness to the planet & its other inhabitants
'spiritual & soulful' experiences in nature
& sense of our lineage & place within it; & of its 'holographic' aspects
aIso, being abIe to contribute to them & feeI we beIong
deepens our evolving sense of meaning, & of the wonder of life
recognition of being a smaII part of Iarger groupings
Tending & Caring
our experience of this enabIes us to choose to offer
ourseIves in the service of others & 'otherness'
invoIves diverse expressions of empathy & sensitivity
to boundaries
recognition of the joys experienced in caring for nature, & for
specific habitats, biodiversity, ecological cycles & processes
protection from invasive species & materials; & recognition of
responsibilities for 'stewardship'
being there for them, particuIarIy in their times of need
Contrasting transformative & coIonising Iearning
W pre-determined elsewhere,
imposed, manipulative,
universal, homogenised,
closed, not transparent
W unique, diverse, personally
relevant, emergent from
experience, & context,
flexible, open, transparent
W insensitive to context
(personal & group history
& aspirations not, or only
superficially, considered)
W sensitive (history & context
carefully considered &
having a determining role)
Transformative (T
GoaIs
CoIonising (C
W disciplinary, subject focus,
fragmented, not integrated,
isolational, not respectful
of other knowledges
W transdisciplinary, holistic,
all disciplines considered
within integrated,
frameworks, relational,
respectful
W de-contextual re time,
place etc.; academic
prioritisation
W current, present moment
(to long term), local (to
global) reference points &
other personal, group,
contextual & consequential
sensitivity
CurricuIum Content
W didactic, imposed (outside-
in), inflexible, formulaic,
universal
W emergent (inside-out),
flexible, open to spontaneity,
unique features, experiential,
developmental
W 'motivation' through control,
reward, punishment, fear
W supporting self-motivation &
personal & group learning
journeys
W disciplinary bound
W competitive individualism
W creativity & alternative
experiences limited to certain
'soft' subjects
W integrating arts & sciences,
conventional & unconventional
W group collaboration
W valuing creativity & questioning
at all times & in all subjects
earning Experiences
W measured against
'universal' academic
standards, competitive
examinations
W tested against shared
visions for improved lives
& societies, & progress
towards personal & group
development
W one exam format for all,
prizes for top performers
at formal ceremonies
W diverse measures &
options, including self-
evaluation, encouraging &
celebrational throughout
EvaIuation
£orth cititenshipť 4 conceptuo/ fromework for /eornino for sustoinobi/ity %-J uL1ţ 2009)Ŧ
noblts of o 5vstems 1bloket (wotets loooJotloo 2009)
£orth cititenshipť
4 conceptuo/
fromework for
/eornino for
sustoinobi/ity
%-J uL1ţ 2009)Ŧ
eveIs of consideration for better action
actions
answers,
plans
worIdviews, vaIues & beIiefs
feeIings & passions
ideas, imaginings,
visions & creativity
(ability to design)
%op two overemphasised
(modified from John Herron, 1992. eeling and !ersonhood. Sage, London)
We can appIy profound understandings
from deveIoped areas to Iess deveIoped ones
Cancer patients who have gone into remission
identified the foIIowing four factors as key:
(Herschberg, C. & Barasch, M.Ì. 1995. Remarkable Recovery: What Extraordinary Healings
Tell Us About Getting Well and Staying Well. #iverhead Books, San Francisco, CA)
W connectedness
W controI over one's Iife
W passion for Iife
W chaIIenges & goaIs extending beyond current crises