REPORT ON OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION

(OSI) SEVEN LAYERS BY AREBU D.

History and Definition of OSI
Rapid growth of computer networks caused compatibility problems ISO recognized the problem and released the OSI model in 1984 OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection and It is a theoretical representation of what happens between two nodes communicating on a network It does not prescribe the type of hardware or software that should support each layer

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OSI 7 Layers Model
Application Layer It consist of 7 layers The use of layers is designed to reduce complexity and make standardization easier Upper layers :- Are called application layers is closest to the end user applications that contain a communication component

Presentation Layer

Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer 

Lower layer Are called data transport layers. They are responsible and closest to the network medium in hardware and software

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OSI 7 Layer By Arebu D.

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OSI 7 Layers Model Application Layer Transmission of a raw bit stream over a physical medium Main responsibilities are: Data Encoding ‡Modifying 1 s and 0 s ‡ Detect form any medium Transmission techniques ‡Encoded bit transmit ‡Digital ‡Analogue Physical medium transmission ‡Electrical (wired or wireless) ‡optical signals ‡Voltage level ‡Data rate Physical medium attachment. ‡Number of Pins & functions ‡Connectors ‡Maximum distance
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Presentation Layer

Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

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OSI 7 Layers Model Application Layer Main responsibilities Establish and terminate the logical link between nodes Breaks the outgoing data into frames and reassemble the received frames Create and detect frame boundaries Handle errors by implementing an acknowledgement and retransmission scheme. Implement flow control Supports points-to-point as well as broadcast communication It split into two sub layers Media Access Control (MAC) -covering address management Logical Link Control - manages flow and error control etc
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Presentation Layer

Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

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OSI 7 Layers Model Application Layer

Presentation Layer The network layer provides Routing of frames among networks Transport Layer  Traffic control Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer  Frame fragmentation  Logical to physical address mapping (names to numbers)  Usage accounting for statistics and billing
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Session Layer

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OSI 7 Layers Model Application Layer

Presentation Layer The transport layer provides: Message segmentation /outgoing Smaller frames Re-assembly of the frames / an incoming Message acknowledgement Message traffic control telling the far end to wait when buffers are full Multiplexing of several sessions onto one logical or virtual link and keeping track of which frames belong to which session.

Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

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OSI 7 Layer By Arebu D.

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OSI 7 Layers Model Application Layer Analogy secretary responsible for coordinating meetings, phone conversations, appointments, and preventing the bosses Processes at this layer include; Connection and disconnection of any node from the network verification of user access Permitting multiple applications to share a virtual circuit Fault recovery if a break in service occurs

Presentation Layer

Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

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OSI 7 Layer By Arebu D.

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OSI 7 Layers Model Application Layer converts the data format of the sending application into that of the receiving application Common functions are Data compression Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Encryption :change signals into a secret code Conversion of bit order; integer to floating point etc. Character code translation e.g. ASCII to EBCDIC

Presentation Layer

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OSI 7 Layer By Arebu D.

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OSI 7 Layers Model Application Layer The application layer handles functions that the programs need like; Supports application and end-user processes Resource sharing and device redirection Remote file access Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Inter process communication Network management

Presentation Layer

Session Layer

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OSI 7 Layer By Arebu D.

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Communication between layers 
Each layer operates independently of the others using a method referred to as encapsulation.  At sending device, each layer receiving data from the layer above processes the data, adds its own protocol header and transfer the data block to the layer below The layer below simply treats the data as a data block it does not try to understand its meaning Headers:Each layer needs to add some control information to the data in order to do it s job The peer layer uses the control information

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OSI 7 Layer By Arebu D.

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Communication b/n layers Application Layer

Application header Data Presentation header Data Data segment Network header Packet Frame Data

Presentation Layer Session header Transport header

Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

Data Data Data Data link trailer

Data link header

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OSI 7 Layer By Arebu D.

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Communication b/n layers Application Layer

Application header Data Presentation header Data Data segment Network header Packet Frame Data

Presentation Layer Session header Transport header

Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

Data Data Data Data link trailer

Data link header

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QUESTIONS «. ?

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THANK YOU

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