Channels and Media of Communication

Channels and Media

This use of the word 'channel' is similar to the use of the word medium when we talk about communication. The words are sometimes used interchangeably. However, strictly speaking, we often use the word medium to refer to a combination of different channels. 
Television for example uses both the auditory channel (sound) and visual channel (sight).

Mediums of communication The following are the different Mediums of communication.Oral and Written. Non-Verbal communication Face to Face. 1) 2) 3) 4) Verbal. Media and Modes .

1) Verbal.´ Oral as well as written communication is used extensively by all organizations. ³ verbal communication is written or oral use of words to communicate.Oral and Written: In the word of Bartol and Martin. .

training sessions. etc.a) Oral communication: When communication takes with the place of spoken words. The different forms of oral communication are conversation. . meetings. speeches. it is called oral communication.conferences.interviews.

Advantages of oral communications: (a) save time (b) more effective with group (c) can be informal (d) saves money (e) immediate clarification .

Limitation of oral communication (a) no legal validity (b) greater chances to misunderstanding (c) unsuitable for lengthy message (d) message can not be retain for long time .

 writing is the expression of human language by means of visible signs.memos. . minutes.telegrams. manuals etc.b) Written communication Written communication is in the form of circulars.reports.

.Merits of written communication: (a) precise (b) accurate (c) legal document (d) Permanent record.

Before the modern electronic communication gadgets were invented. . letter writing was considered as the only reliable means of communication. Written communication has some definite and distinct advantages over oral and other types of communication.

Limitation of written communication: (a) costly (b) time consuming (c) quick clarification not possible .

NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION: Bartol and martin define non verbal communication as ³communication by means of elements and behaviors that are not coded into words. .´ Non verbal communication is very important because it is believed that the manner in which you say something is more important that what you say.

. (b) Frowning.   These are describes by George Terry as ³body language´. (e) Wobbling the head. The non verbal elements includes facial expression and gestures as well as the pitch and tone of the voice. (c) Twisting the lips. Facial expression and gestures: Oral communication involves verbal as well as non verbal elements. (d) Biting the nails.Forms of non verbal communication 1. Some of the expressions and action that constitute body language are mentioned below: (a) Winking and twinkling of the eyes.

head or body to indicate An idea or a feeling. sometime we use gestures by them selves. (b) Shrugging shoulders ± expressing indifference (c) Moving the hand sideways ± refusal (d) Wave of hand ± greeting or goodby (e) Upraised hand ± request for patience. Sometimes to point out something. . Gestures are used to show emotions and convey definite message or information.A gestures is a movement of the hand. We use gestures at all the time. A few gestures that are commonly used are : (a) Tracing a circle near the forehead with index finger ± madness. sometimes to illustrate or emphasis what we are saying. The use of gestures is know as gesticulation.

. writing. slapping etc. eating.There are countless gestures in which we move our hands and bodies to show sleeping. Gestures should be seen or perceived in the proper manner as it is a non verbal form of communication.

Mathematicians have their symbols. When the communicants do not have a common language. There are various types of signs or symbols used by different people. signs and signals become very important. . Even though when the communicants know the same language the use of signs.SIGN AND SIGNALS The word µsign¶ and signals are both derived from the latin word µsignum¶ which means a mark. signals and symbols has found to be a speedy way of communication.

thumps up. A traffic signals flashes green light telling the motorist and pedestrians to move on the blowing of whistle by a policeman or referee are examples of signals pilots and military men have their own sets of signals e. the V sign.g.Signals are dynamic and require some movement and therefore they are different from signs and symbols. . thumps down etc.

4. mountains etc. They are used to show profits in different years of companies. . rivers.Graphs. maps and charts: A graph is a diagram consisting of curved lines to show the variation of two quantities. a price index. they are useful for giving at a glance information about crops. production rise and fall and variation in temperature A map is a drawing on a the paper that displays position and size of countries. position of troops during war etc. rainfall production.

a salesman who is dressed in crumpled cloths appearing for a job interview will never get the post however cleverly he talks. .Dress and grooming People wish to make a good impression and be remember at they are best. the colour of your clothes etc. They judge by you the way you dress.

Colors: Business houses said to be ³in the red´ when they incur losses and ³in the black´ when they do well. Colours are used to convey direct messages. In India religion is still an all powerful force. For an example green is associated with Islam and saffron colour is associated with Hinduism. A red flag is used to show that the workers on strike. At the signal post the traffic lights turn red and green in the operation theater a red bulb is used to show that some activity is a taking place. Colour has an added significance. .

 Most of the companies which do not have literate or educated staff make use of posters to convey messages.POSTERS: Pictures speak louder than words. and colour posters for internal and external communication. cartoon. They can be used in business houses for internal communication. photographic display. graphs. slides. . Businessmen have started using film strips. Posters are generally used for advertising films and products and also for political propaganda. Poster is the type of visual communication. etc.

Posters are advantageous because: (a) They are cheap. (b) Message can reach illiterate and semi-literate workers if presented properly. . (d) They can be frequently changed at a minimum cost. (c) They attract immediate attention if bright colours and pictures are used.

There are also occasions when persons can be face to face and yet they can not communicate due to language barrier. For an example conversation over a phone. . tape recording etc.3) FACE TO FACE COMMUNICATION Face to face communication means person to person communication at one place. radio communication. It is necessary to separate face to face communication from oral communication because there are occasion and situation when oral communication is not face to face.

2) It is particularly suitable for discussion.Advantages 1) Facial expressions and gestures help to communicate better. 2) Ineffective if the listener is not attentive 3) Not effective in large gathering . 3) Feedback can be obtained not only by ears but also by eyes Disadvantages 1) It is difficult to practice in large size organization.

In the modern time most countries in the world have a highly advanced postal system which covers the urban as well as rural area. .4) MEDIA AND MODES Conversation modes (1) Mail (2) Telex (3) Telegraph (1) Mail: Mail is also known as postal services. (c) Delivery of letters or parcels. A postal system consists of three parts: (a) Collecting letter (b) Sorting them according to their destinations.

The subscriber is provided with teleprinter and a direct line to one of the many automatic telex exchange in the country for an annual fee. (2) Telex: Telex is the name given to the teleprinter device managed by postal department. Telecommunication network have still resulted in faster and more efficient mail services.The postal system has become efficient with advancement in transportation and communication. . We can send message across oceans and continents in a matter of movements with the help of computer and satellites.

(b) The message may get distorted. (d) It can be used for booking inland and overseas telegrams by contacting the central telegraphy office. Disadvantages: (a) Connections are not easily available when required. (b) It is a quicker means of communication than telegram and cheaper than trunk call service (c) The teleprinter can be used both for letter writing and telephoning. (c) Lines are frequently out of order. .Following are advantages of telex services: (a) Through direct dialing written communication can be sent by one subscriber to another.

Signals are sent by making and breaking the current in a electrical circuit so that the signals are heard in short and long click which can be easily heard. The main disadvantage of telegram is that sometime message may get changed or distorted in transmission. The main advantages of communicating by telegrams is that a message can be sent quickly to any part of the country and even overseas. Message sent over the telegraph are known as telegrams.(3) TELEGRAPH Telegraph is the system of electric signaling. In 1874 Thomas Edison invented a method of sending four messages over the same wire at the same time. . Telegram should be carefully worded as they are very expensive.

ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION a) Telephone b) Computer c) Fax d) Telex e) Voice system f) Teleconferencing g) Storage by optical technology h) Desk top publishing i) Electronic data processing .

turn button or level types keys installed. Originally radio geography.button. The telephone apparatus has become very sophisticated. We can send telephone massage over long distance and even across ocean help of submarine cable. picture. A Varity of function can be perform through modern gadget which has a combination of push.a) Telephone Telephone is a mean of oral communication. and copies of document. . It now used to be send massage in writing. but now is use for telephone transmissions.

The World Wide Web is widely used for publishing a Varity of information on all subjects. Information can now be store digitally or CD-ROM. . taps and other storage media. It is the quickest mean of the communication. optical disc. It is now possible to communicate with the people inhabiting the remotest possible places. It is also a better source of keeping permanent record of valuable and bulked data. Space no longer is a barrier to technology Today computer technology is dramatically changed to landscape of the business communication.

It is also not requires a skilled operator and can be used by anyone just like telephone . reproduction of document and handwriting or any other printed matter write on radio. Today fax is widely use by government.c) Fax The fax or facsimile transmission machine enable to send to pictures. The main advantages of fax transmissions is that exact reproduction of printed material and picture is the possible and that massage is transmitted within moment. newspapers offices and big business house to send copies or reproduction of picture. with rapid speed. letter or document to near as distance places. bank.

The receiver can open his mailbox. confirm it by listening and then send it to one or more persons.e) Voice systems The answering machine is the simplest form of a voice massage system. find out who the sender is. and replay or fast forward it or save it for feature record and reference. It receives as well as retain massage which can be played back at a letter of time. . Voice massage and mail system is a advance from by which the caller can record a massage. listen to the massage.

V.Tele conferencing Video conferencing It uses television technology in which the participant are able to see each other on the screen and they talk. It can be held within a complex by using closed circuit T. . Audio conferencing It is voice conferencing among three or more individuals of group discussing matters over a phone but without visuals.

read data storage device. The CD is the laser.Storage by optical technology Compact disk-read only memory (CD-ROM) and write once read many (WORM) are the two types optical storage instruments. We can store audio or textual material on it. The user can read as well as hear on PC or a microcomputer system with a CD-ROM disk drive. .

publicity material. a laser printer and the required word processing software. With the help of a desktop a Varity of office material like printing letterhead graphics. brochures handbills etc.Desk top publishing A desktop system consists of one or more computer . i) .

sorting. . and summarizing.Electronic data processing Besides storing data computer can be use for multiple other purpose like manipulating and capturing data. complex calculation. retrieving reproduction etc.

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