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classification & tabulation of data. Classification of data. the process of data has to be done . coding. 3. . 4. Tabulation of data. The steps involved in the organization of data are 1. Editing of data. After data collection. Coding of data. Preliminary screening of the data collected. 5. this involves editing. 2.
Data collected through filled/completed questionnaires are raw data which cannot be used directly for tabulation. Filled questionnaires is a huge body of raw data or processing such data. coding. for detailed analysis & finally for drawing conclusions. classification & tabulation are required. In the absence of processing of data the analysis of data will be defective. editing. the conclusions drawn may not be reliable & the recommendations made may not be useful for solving the marketing problems faced by the sponsoring company processing of data is an important step in the research process. .
Practical use/utility. 1. Preliminary screening of the data collected. 2. The purpose of initial screening is to verify accuracy & completeness of data for further processing processing. . It is prior to the editing. The screening of data is usually on the basis of the following three considerations. 3. Reliability.I. Relevance.
The purpose of editing is to eliminate errors or known bias & to prepare data for subsequent coding. It is the process of inspecting correcting & modifying the information submitted on each questionnaire.Editing of data It is the process of eliminatory errors in the raw data collected so that the data may subsequently undergo tabulation & classification. so that it is stated correctly adequately & on a basis common to all similar categories of reply. tabulation & analysis. .
2. To evaluate the performance of field staff. To make uniform decisions on incorrect answers. 3.Need of editing of data 1. To remove errors. 4. To check accuracy of data. . To improve the quality of data. 5.
complete. The ultimate purpose is to see that data selected for analysis is accurate. legibility of answers given in the questionnaire etc are checked. consistent & relevant. .Procedures for editing of data. uniform. Such answers may be rejected or accepted by changing them in a suitable manner. In editing decision is taken as regards answers which are incorrect & incomplete. In the editing of data.
1.Types of Data editing. The interviewers can do such editing work. while noting the information immediately offer the interview. 1. . The interviewer has to see that his completed questionnaires are clear & verify them immediately . Field editing: It means editing of data during the process of field survey itself. Field editing is also possible at the level of the supervisor. This work is normally given to interviewers & their supervisors when the data collection work is in progress. Field editing (2) Office editing.
. 2. Office editing: It is also called as central editing. It is possible when all questionnaires are collected at the head office for tabulation. In office this work can be given to a team of editors with detailed instructions as regards the rules & procedures of editing work. There are two ways of editing (a) Manual editing. Office editing is more systematic & uniform in character as compared to field editing. (b) Computer editing.
Coding is the procedure of classifying the answers to a question into meaningful categories.Coding of data It is necessary for the purpose of tabulation.4 can be used as code numbers . In the absence of coding it will not be possible to reduce a large number of heterogeneous responses into meaningful categories. The symbols used to indicate these categories are called codes.2. Eg M may be used for male. F may be used for female. tabulation & analysis of data. It helps in arranging/grouping of varied responses into meaningful categories for the purpose of classification.3. similarly numbers like 1.
. Editing may be done simultaneously along with editing or it may be done after editing. It is one useful tool of analysis when a large number of questionnaires are required to be handled. As an alternative coding is done after editing. A code is a number/symbol which stands for each type of reply. Coding simplifies & speeds up the work of tabulation of data. Coding is possible at the time of preparing questionnaires. symbol or other marks to every answer. It means assigning a number.
Coding should cover all types of answers given by the respondents. It should be of wide range.Guidelines for data coding Coding of data involves two steps 1st to specify the different categories/classes into which the responses are to be classified. Following points should be considered while coding. . 2nd to allocate individual answers to different categories. 1.
4. symbols & alphabets should be made for coding of information. Coding categories should not overlap. Every answer should legitimately fit into only one category & not in many categories. A code sheet containing the code number of all categories of answers for each question in the questionnaire should be prepared for quick reference. 6. 2. Coding work should be given to a knowledgeable person. 3. . Appropriate use of numbers. More stress should be given to pre-coding over postcoding. The categories introduced should be all inclusive & mutually exclusive. 5.
Classification means grouping together the data which are homogeneous in character for interpretation purpose.Classification of data Data collected through questionnaire are not directly useful for tabulation. . Classification is a process of arranging data in different groups/class according to resemblances & similarities. Classification is the division of data into homogeneous groups on the basis of certain norms. The aim of classification is to arrange data systematically for quick & easy understanding/analysis. Classification of data is essential. It is the sorting of collected data on the basis of certain well defined characteristics or norms. It facilitates comparison & also suggests the salient features of data in a compact form.
To condense the available data in a compact manner. 2. 4. 5. To make data ready for tabulation. 3.Objectives of data classification 1. . To make data ready for further processing & analysis. To find out important facts & also to facilitate comparison with data of similar nature. To facilitate easy & quick interpretation of data.
Should be mutually exclusive-no overlapping of the categories after classification. Should be distinct. . Should be on the basis of a single classification principle eg buyers may be classified on the basis of economic or social status or frequency of purchases or amount spent. Should be pertinent to MR project.Basic principles of data classification Classification should not be ambiguous-various categories/groups should be clearly defined in classification. Should be mutually exhaustive.