# CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING

Creative problem solving always involves creativity. clearly solve the stated problem. . To qualify as creative problem solving the solution must either have value. It is a special form of problem solving in which the solution is independently created rather than learned with assistance.INTRODUCTION Creative problem solving is the mental process of creating a solution to a problem. or be appreciated by someone for whom the situation improves.

looking at the same thing as everyone else and thinking something different.Adapted from a famous quote from a former Nobel prize winner.DEFINITION ³Creative problem solving is . Albert SzentGyorgi. -. .

CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES Value Analysis Free Association Forced relationship Collective notebook Scientific Method Attribute listing E-Commerce .

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tool . a service or a method of working. a process. This " item" can be a product. a plan. equipment.VALUE ANAYSIS What is Value Analysis? It is an orderly and creative method to increase the value of an item. The value of an item is how well the item does its function divided by the cost of the item (In value analysis value is not just another word for cost): Value of an item = Performance of its function / Cost . a machine. a system.D. also called Functional Analysis was created by L. Value Analysis. a procedure. Miles.

Need: something that is necessary or desired by the customer. and it is usually accomplished by a team following a work plan.WHY AND WHEN IS IT USED? Value analysis is an approach to improving the value of a product or process by understanding its constituent components and their associated costs. Value analysis: methodology to increase the value of an object the object to be analyzed could be an existing or a new product or process. in order to satisfy customer needs. HOW DOES IT WORK? To understand value analysis it is necessary to understand some key concepts: Value: the ratio between a function for customer satisfaction and the cost of that function. Function: the effect produced by a product or by one of its elements. It then seeks to find improvements to the components by either reducing their cost or increasing the value of the functions. .

BASIC RATIONALE USED IN VALUE ANALYSIS .

can the item be simplified. or its specifications relaxed? 5 Can the item be designed so it can be produced more efficiently or more quickly? 6 Can features that the customer values highly be added to the item? . value analysis can result in reduced material use and cost reduced distribution costs reduced waste improved profit margins increased customer satisfaction increased employee morale When to use it? Start by asking these questions: 1 What is the function of the item? 2 Is the function necessary? 3 Can a lower cost standard part that serves the purpose be identified? 4 To achieve a lower price.Why is it important? Implemented diligently.

. one "block" idea building upon another block. unstructured free associations. and so forth until a useful idea is found. and mixed or structured free associations. In unstructured association. This approach is usually called as "brainstorming" as ideas are generated out of the "clear sky". Structured free association in contrast. attempts to increase relevance of ideas to the problems. which is then used to generate a third idea.FREE ASSOCIATION Free Association is the method used to draw ideas from the "mind's stream of consciousness". During the application of this method one idea is used to generate another. ideas are listed as they naturally occur. According to Taylor there are two different versions of the Free Association Technique: plain.

) that seems to be directly related to the problem or some aspect of it. 1. object etc. develop ideas that seem capable of solving the problem. . Develop at least 20 associations. Review the list of associations and select those that seem to have special implications for the problem. 2. Using the above selected associations. ignoring all concerns for its relevance to the problem. Write down a symbol (number. Write down whatever is suggested by the first step. word.Here are the steps to do it. using a new symbol. 4. go back to step 1 and repeat the process. 3. If none of the ideas seem useful.

Unfortunately the workload on the co-ordinator can be high if numerous people are taking part. John Haefele (1962) of Proctor and Gamble devised CNB to encourage idea generation within an organization. however.COLLECTIVE NOTEBOOK Haefele¶s Original Version According to Van Gundy (1981. . the opportunity for incubation and exposure to a wide range of stimuli is readily available. A key advantage is that since the idea generation is extended over several weeks. that on the participants is very low. 1988).

Every day. expand. for one month each participant writes one idea in the notebook.Each participant is provided with a notebook (by the co-ordinator) describing the course of action and giving a broad problem statement. such as: Transformation methods (reverse. The notebook also contains some suggestions for generating ideas. minimize) Exploration methods (listing problem characteristics or similar problems) Seeking remote associations (random stimuli from all five senses. unusual properties of other substances). .

participants are given further related information from the experts. The notebooks are collected (by the co-ordinator). Participants can then view all the notebooks and the coordinator's report. giving:  Their best idea to solve the problem  Ideas for further investigations that might help solve the problem  Any completely new ideas about issues unconnected to the problem. After four weeks.At regular periods during the month. . where the ideas are categorized and summarized. after which there may be a general group discussion. the participants present a brief written summary. the literature and colleagues.