ELAICH PILOT COURSE IN HAIFA, ISRAEL ELAICH PILOT COURSE IN HAIFA, ISRAEL

October October- -December December 2010 2010
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FINAL PROJECT IN THE COURSE FINAL PROJECT IN THE COURSE
Study of the ResidentiaI Compound & Senior Synagogue, Tiberias Study of the ResidentiaI Compound & Senior Synagogue, Tiberias
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
The project was made
possible with a supervision
of conservation and
education experts from the
Technion, Ìsrael Ìnstitute of
Technology
Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz
and Arch. Asya Natapov
Participation of The Hebrew
Reali School Haifa:
OreI Neman - Science
Director at Campus Matos
Noga Cohavi - Pedagogy
Director and Jewish
Peoplehood Program
Director
Kind assistance of the IsraeI
Antiquity Authority and the
Society for Preservation of
IsraeI Heritage Sites
Team 1:
Nadav David, Ìtai Shechter, Dan Moav
Team 2:
Nesi Bahar, Eden Segal, Tohar Leibowitz
Team 3:
Team 4:
Eyal Laster, Guy Haran, Yuval Goldberg
FinaI Project: Two-day site work at the Senior Synagogue, Tiberias
Eden Garion, Hagar Pikkel, Ìtay Eldar,
Rotem Erez
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Team 4
Team 2
Team 1
Team 3
FinaI Project: Two-day site work at the Senior Synagogue, Tiberias
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Team 2
Indoor Window
Team 1
Arch in the Niche
Team 3
Site Entrance
Team 4
Synagogue Entrance
FinaI Project: Two-day site work at the Senior Synagogue, Tiberias
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
HistoricaI background
Tiberias was founded sometime around 20 CE in
the Judea Province of Rome by Roman-Jewish client
king Herod Antipas, who made it the capital of his realm in
Galilee. Ìt had a Jewish majority, living alongside a
heterogeneous population. Ìt was named in honor of the Roman
Emperor Tiberias.
As the Ottoman Empire expanded along the southern
Mediterranean coast many Conversos,
(Marranos and Moriscos) and Sephardi Jews fled in fear to the
Ottoman provinces, settling in Palestine. Tiberias obtained a
permit to establish Jewish autonomy there.
Early 19th century Tiberias was under Turkish rule. An
earthquake in 1837, centered in Tzfat, caused the destruction
of most buildings in Tiberias. The same year "senior¨ (Rabbi
Chaim Shmuel Hacohen Konorti) and Jacob Nino establish a
small synagogue on the Sea of Galilee. The Rabbi, born in
Sofia in 1792, came to Tiberias at the age of 45. He is
considered one of the greatest 19
th
century scholars in Tiberias
and left his mark on the city's community. He was responsible
for the major restoration of the ruins of the city after the great
earthquake. Traveling over the years as rabbinic courier to
collect donations in Jewish communities, he also gathered rare
books and manuscripts which he brought to the synagogue in
Tiberias.
The structural form is a small synagogue at the center with
extended family living quarters built around it.
Courtesy of Rafi Ninio family archive
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
FinaI Project: Two-day site work at the Senior Synagogue, Tiberias
Arch in the Niche
Eden Garion,
Hagar Pikkel,
Ìtay Eldar,
Rotem Erez
Team 1
@eam 3
Part 1: Description and anaIysis
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
ateriaI: Limestone
@eam 1
1
· Iimestone # 1
2
· Iimestone # 2
(cornerstones)
3
· Iimestone # 3
4
· Iimestone # 4
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
Part 1: Description and anaIysis
@eam 3
PhysicaI Description:
Bottom spectrum base width 195 cm.
Lower arch curve base 190 cm.
Ìnset niche - height 215 cm.
Ìnset niche - height's base 26 cm.
Higher arch base width 360 cm. (Secondary arch height 158 cm)
Upper arch height 334 cm.
Ìnternal application has an internal width bar of two layers of stones. First,
wide stone discs about 7 cm, mostly black. Ìt's space double arch at a
depth of 40 cm niche in the wall. The ceiling of the room is a convex cross.
Walls of the room are not straight due to the "patchwork" building. The
other side of the wall of the building is exposed only at a height of 141 cm.
The second layer (outer) rectangular black stones and rocks are newer and yellow. Some
of the yellow stones look natural and appear undressed, these crumble. There are also
dressed yellow stones that do not crumble. Both are called limestone No. 3.
Ìn the same area there is no stable bonding material, and the far-right rock is loose.
Also in the same plane (inner width) are "Deputy" stones, these are small black or white
limestone disks (limestone No. 4).
A wall was built on the outside of the arch after the arch was built, and after it was filled in
with stones. The cornerstones are intact (limestone No. 2). These are yellowish white.
They are about 16 +6 cm width and about 20 cm long.
Ìn the inner arch are 3 spots of (green and blue) bonding material, and patches of white
quicklime. Colored cement can also be found on the older color. Overall there are about 15
layers of paint.
There are sections where there are deep cracks in cement , some as much as 2-3 cm
between the stones \cement.
@eam 3
Part 1: Description and anaIysis
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
PIaster:
· No. 1 - gray, thin grains, uniform, crumbles easily, and airy
· No. 2 - reddish brown, uneven, coarse-grained tiny black and white
stones, not peeling
Paint layers (lime) colors: white, green, blue and yellow
onding materiaI:
· Material # 1 - light brown, crumbles easily, relatively uniform texture and
brown and white grains
· Material # 2 - light gray material with coarse grains in white and black
· Material # 3 - gray, hard, dirty white stones
Weathering:
· Bright spots (No. 1, Stones No.: 1,6,8,9,11)
· Dark spots (Stones No.: 3,7,10,12)
· Precipitation (rows 1-3 on the right (counting from the base of the lower
spectrum), stone No. 5, down from the base of the inner arch)
· Cement - gray, hard, uniform, mostly fills the center
@eam 1
LLAlCP Ŵ LducaLlonal Llnkaae Approach ln
CulLural PerlLaae
10
Part 1: Description and anaIysis
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
@eam 1
The upper stones are powdering onto the lower stones where there is also
wind-blown sand (from sand storms) which entered thru an open doorway.
Ìn the third row from the bottom on the left is an unusual stone. Ìt Ìs white with orange spots
(limestone No. 1).
The upper arch wall cement covering can be found at a height of 220 cm with little stones. There
is a space of 2.2 to 3 cm between the cement and the wall. There is a newer cement filling in the
middle.
Sides of the upper spectrum are not equal. Height 125 cm, width 116 cm on the left and 50 cm on
the right.
The stones at the bottom are large, mostly black and regular shape (except the fill
stones). Larger stones are at the bottom, gradually getting smaller toward the top. They are
arranged in rows to mid-height and then the stones can be seen filling sequence of black stones,
medium, and dressed not straight.
At the top right corner of the connection can be seen two arches to 84 cm.
Third row from bottom on the right side shows a basalt stone covered with other materials. Both
sides the wall are not straight.
Perhaps the external vault arch (top arch) was built before by the fact that the blocks are
still in the vault.
Most spots are in the submerged part of the wall, and dampness is mostly in the western
part (right corner). Ìn this area most of the rain comes from the west.
Various types of stones indicate later construction, additions and stabilization at different
times.
Some of the stones are worn and have holes (ex. stone # 4).
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Precise geometricaI drawing
@eam 1
DoubIe arches inset
in the waII
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Types of buiIding materiaIs
@eam 1 @eam 1
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Precise geometricaI drawing
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
26 cm
40 cm 30 cm 30 cm
11ŦCm
of
fllllna
small
sLones
Smaller sLones + falllma morLar
@eam 1
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Types of materiaI deterioration

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@eam 1
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Deterioration grades
.
@eam 1 @eam 1
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
FinaI Project: Two-day site work at the Senior Synagogue, Tiberias
Indoor Window
Tohar Leibowitz
Eden Segal
Nesi Bahar
Team 2
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 1: Description and anaIysis
Team 2
Stones :
There are small and large stones. Various stones have a different
slope- some are straight and some are not. The window is
surrounded by limestone and the rest of the wall is made of basalt.
The stones are not placed in a precise order. This indicates that these
stones might have been cornerstones of the building and not intended
to be used for a wall.
Lack of bonding materials in many places caused the stones to
deteriorate. There are only two types of building stones: limestone
and basalt.
The left wall, which constructed from basalt, was built later. We can
conclude this by observing the gap between the two walls.
Window and its surrounding:
Cracks and gaps can be seen in stones. Nails stuck in the mortar are
destroying the material and weaken it.
Another thing that destroys the stone is the attached wooden frame with
nails and wooden poles.
The window doesn't serve as a window; it was sealed and turned into
niche. The wooden frame is straight, but wall stones are not. The
wooden window frames have an equal width.
Arch base of the window has a length of 32 cm.
PIaster's coIor:
There are about ten layers of plaster in different colors.
Each layer represents a different time period:
1. White
2. Pink
3. White
4. Mustard
5. Blue light
6. Black
7. Blue light
8. Blue
9. White
10. Blue light
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Precise geometricaI drawing
Team 2
Indoor window
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Types of buiIding materiaIs
Team 1
Team 2
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Types of materiaI deterioration
Team 2
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Deterioration grades
Team 1 Team 2
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Team 3
Site Entrance
Nadav David, Ìtai Shechter, Dan Moav
FinaI Project: Two-day site work at the Senior Synagogue, Tiberias
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 1: Description and anaIysis
Team 3
1. Light stone with traces of green plaster
2. Green plaster with slight crumbling
3. Stone which looks like clay, covered by green
plaster
4. Powdering stone with cavities
5. Stone with no cavities, covered by green plaster
6. Porous stone with large hollows on the right side
and smaller hollows on the left, covered by pieces
of plaster
7. Stone with no plaster, some cavities and missing
parts
8. Completely covered by white plaster and cement
9. Completely covered by mix of plaster and
cement
10. Multiple layers of plaster and cement
Locations of different deterioration types:
· Plaster, on the left side in the middle
· Concrete on the bottom of the left side
· Green plaster above the arch on the right side
· Cement on the top of the right side of door
What is speciaI about this Iocation:
· Blue and green plaster around the entrance
opening
·Concrete near a ground level and adjacent wall
·Moisture near the top of the entrance and
adjusted wall
ateriaIs - comparison with other teams
· Plaster (mostly blue and turquoise) also
appears in other parts of the building. We can
conclude that the plaster is preserved in a closed
place, without light.
· Concrete (There is another place inside the
building. Team number 1)
· The same types of stone, iron, limestone
and red stone appears in other places.
· Cement appears in other places.
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 1: Description and anaIysis
Team 3
11. Upper part of the arch is completely covered in cement and plaster
12. Mostly covered with plaster. Because of the plaster it is hard to see that the stone is attached to stone no. 14
13. Basalt stone, covered with several layers of plaster
14. Covered with white plaster. Ìt's impossible to know if the stone is attached to stone number 12 or they are the same
stone
15. Large stone, with cavities on the bottom and traces of green plaster
16. Basalt stone with white plaster on the bottom and blue plaster on the top
17. Large broken stone with layers of white plaster. Ìn addition there is a crack and cavities on the left side.
18. Big "spot" of concrete which extends to the left side of the stones 19-21. Basalt stone, different from the others is
seen underneath
19. Stone white and green mortar
20. Powdering stone. Layers of plaster covers area that crumbled in the past.
21. Stone with the remains of plaster
22. Ìron stuck at the bottom of the stone. Everything is covered with plaster so you cannot know how many stones are
there. On the right side there are some spots of cement.
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Precise geometricaI drawing
Team 3
Site Entrance
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Types of buiIding materiaIs
Team 3
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Types of materiaI deterioration
Team 3
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Deterioration grades
Team 3
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
FinaI Project: Two-day site work at the Senior Synagogue, Tiberias
Team 4
Synagogue Entrance
Eyal Laster,
Guy Haran,
Yuval Goldberg
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 1: Description and anaIysis
Team 4
1. From the left of the window there is a deep cavity about is 4 cm deep. The plaster cover is crumbling
all around the window and there is a lot of moisture. The cavity holds moisture which penetrates the
stone. Without care the stone continues to fall apart.
2. 60 cm above the floor level and 20 cm from the door there are cavities 2 cm deep and plaster
breakdown throughout the surface. There are areas where you can see the original plaster layers
beneath plaster colors of green and blue.
3. Stones are exposed around the door and there are long plaster cracks above the door. Upper stone
of the door arch looks new, it probably replaced the original one.
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - Precise geometricaI drawing
Team 4
Synagogue Entrance
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - apping types of buiIding materiaIs
Team 1
Team 4
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - apping types of materiaI deterioration
Team 4
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 2: Graphic materiaI - apping Deterioration Grades
Team 1
Team 4
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
@eam 1 @eam 1
Part 4: FieId book
GeometricaI drawing
36
@eam 3 @eam 1
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
Part 4: FieId book
uiIding materiaIs
LLAICn Ŵ Lducat|ona| L|nkage Approach |n Cu|tura| ner|tage
LLAlCP ÞlloL Course ln Palfaţ lsraelţ CcLober Ŵuecember 2010
Part 4 - FieId book
@eam 1
@eam 1
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 4: FieId book
Team 1
Team 2
Geometrical drawing
Arch measures
Deteriorations types
Building materials
ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 4: FieId book
Team 3
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ELAICH - EducationaI Linkage Approach in CuIturaI Heritage
ELAÌCH Pilot Course in Haifa, Ìsrael, October -December 2010
Part 4: FieId book
Team 1 Team 4