BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION

PREPARED BY : AMIRA HUSNA BINTI ARMAIN NOR HASNIZA BINTI HASNAN NOR HAFIZAH BINTI ZAHARI NOR HAZWANI BINTI RAZALI NUR NADIAH BINTI ROMELI RAFIZA BINTI REJMI

INTRODUCTION
Whether the source of radiation is - natural - man-made - small dose - large dose there will be biological effects.

RADIATION CAUSES IONIZATIONS OF: ATOMS which may affect MOLECULES which may affect CELLS which may affect TISSUES ORGANS which may affect which may affect THE WHOLE BODY!! .

RADIATION MECHANISM THAT EFFECTS CELL Direct effect radiation INTERACTS with the atoms of the DNA molecule. or some other cellular component critical to the survival of the cell. . thus. Chromosomes do not replicate properly. affect the ability of the cell to reproduce and. or if there is significant alteration in the information carried by the DNA molecule. then the cell may be destroyed Indirect effect radiation DO NOT INTERACTS directly to the atoms of the DNA molecule. survive. or some other cellular component.

DIRECT EFFECT .

INDIRECT EFFECT .

A direct interaction of radiation with an active cell could result in the death or mutation of the cell Nerve and Muscle Cells .CELLULAR SENSITIVITY TO RADIATION (FROM MOST SENSITIVE TO LEAST SENSITIVE) Lymphocytes and Blood Forming Cells € € Reproductive and Gastrointestinal (GI) Cells € Depend on regeneration rate of the cells Cells which are actively reproducing are more sensitive than those which are not.

TYPES OF RADIATION EFFECT ON CELLS .

ORGAN SENSITIVITY (FROM MOST SENSITIVE TO LEAST SENSITIVE) Blood Forming Organs Reproductive and Gastrointestinal Tract Organs Skin The sensitivity of the various organs of the human body correlate with the relative sensitivity of the cells from which they are composed. Muscle and Brain .

WHOLE BODY SENSITIVITY FACTORS Total Dose Type of Cell Type of Radiation Age of Individual Stage of Cell Division Part of Body Exposed General State of Health Tissue Volume Exposed Time Interval over which Dose is Received .

kill cells damage tissues and organs cause a rapid whole body response often called the Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) .CATEGORIES OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION High Doses (Acute) exposure to high doses of radiation over short periods of time producing acute or short term effects.

Don·t cause an immediate problem to any body organ.CATEGORIES OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION Low Doses (Chronic) Exposure to low doses of radiation over an extended period of time producing chronic or long term effects. and the results may not be observed for many years. . The effects of low doses of radiation occur at the level of the cell.

HIGH DOSE RADIATION EFFECT .

a dose in excess of 400 rad is required to the reproductive organs. it is usually permanent. X-ray. also called epilation. Cataracts (a clouding of the lens of the eye) appear to have a threshold of about 200 rad.1. Skin effects are more likely to occur with exposure to low energy gamma.200 rad). but it requires a higher dose. which is particularly effective in stopping neutrons. To produce permanent sterility. Neutrons are especially effective in producing cataracts. or beta radiation. Sterility can be temporary or permanent in males.OTHER HIGH DOSE EFFECT Effects on the skierythema (reddening like sunburn. because the eye has a high water content. . is similar to skin effects and can occur after acute doses of about 500 rad. In females. and moist desquamation (blistering. Hair loss.300 rad) dry desquamation (peeling). depending upon the dose.

CATEGORIES OF EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSES RADIATION Genetic Somatic In- Utero .

.GENETIC EFFECTS Mutation of the reproductive cells passed on the offspring of the exposed individual. Mutations of these reproductive cells are passed to the offspring of the individual exposed. The Genetic Effect involves the mutation of very specific cells. namely the sperm or egg cells.

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Somatic effects (carcinogenic) are. the most significant since the individual exposed (usually the radiation worker) suffers the consequences (typically cancer).SOMATIC EFFECTS Effect is suffered by the individual exposed: Primary consequence is cancer. . from an occupational risk perspective.

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utero effect involves the production of malformations in developing embryos. .IN.UTERO EFFECTS Effects of radiation on embryo/ fetus:  Intrauterine Death  Growth Retardation  Developmental Abnormalities  Childhood Cancers The in.

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KESAN RADIASI KE ATAS MANUSIA LOKASI Toyama (bandar) di Pulau Honshu KESAN RADIASI Penyakit ´itai.itaiµ  badan menjadi lemah akibat keracunan kadmium yang menyerang sendi dan tulang belakang  fungsi buah pinggang (penapis bahan asing dan asid sebelum masuk ke dalam saluran darah) terbantut DISEBABKAN OLEH Pencemaran kadmium .

pengurangan daya penglihatan dan pendengaran  simptom minamata menyebabkan kematian DISEBABKAN OLEH Keracunan raksa . gangguan deria rasa pada tangan dan kaki.LOKASI Sebuah bandar yang terletak di pantai barat bahagian selatan Pulau Kyushu KESAN RADIASI Penyakit Minamata  sejenis sindrom neurologi  simptom.ketidakstabilan pergerakan akibat kegagalan serebelum otak untuk berfungsi dengan baik.

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. which is indispensable for the thymus. In addition. their calcium content guards against uptake of radioactive strontium. The binding ability of these substances helps the body to remove poisons. Whole grains provide vitamin B6. Being neither very acid nor very alkaline. and their vitamin E and selenium prevent cellular damage caused by free radicals. The bulking factor of grains lessens the intestinal transit time and so hasten the elimination of all toxins.DO YOU KNOW??? Whole grains help to protect us from the deleterious health effects of radiation exposure in several ways: Important with respect to radiation protection is the high fiber and phosphorous contents in grains. grains help us to maintain the middle-range pH that has been found to increase our resistance to radiation.

THANK YOU ...THE END.

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