By Sarat Kumar Sahoo Assistant Professor (Senior) School of Electrical Engineering VITU Vellore

Introduction AC Machine Types Power Converter Topologies AC Drives Types Possible Control Method - Scalar Control (U/f Control) - Field Oriented Control (FOC) or Vector Control - Direct Torque Control (DTC)  Programmable Logic Devices for Drives ( ASICs, FPGA and CPLD)  Future Trends and Needs     

Classification of Electrical Motors

Popular AC Motors for Electric Drives  Squirrel Cage Induction Motor (SCIM)  Brush Less DC Motor (BLDC)  Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) .

AC Drive Advantages • Simple. • Motors are inexpensive & readily available • Motors suitable for harsh.on Vector-type.permits single-speed motor operation during controller maintenance . • Higher torque response bandwidth . • Better open-loop speed regulation . not limited by AC line frequency.no brushes or commutator. compared with DC armature. • More cost-effective drive package below 100HP • Multi-motor & inherent load sharing on single controller • Line-bypass option . low-maintenance motor . rugged environments : some explosionproof ratings available. • High dynamic performance .low rotor inertia.with Sensorless Vector & slip compensation.

• Longer power-dip ride-through capabilities • Near unity power factor regardless of speed and load .…more AC Drive Advantages • No separate motor field .no field loss sensing required • Wider speed ranges . • Contactor-free dynamic braking .linear braking power to zero speed.motors available through 6000 RPM & higher. • Retrofit onto existing single-speed AC applications • Smaller motor frame sizes than equivalent DC.


Three Phase Machine Fundamentals .

Three Phase Rotating Field .

Three Phase Machine Fundamentals .

ACI Operation Fundamentals .

Permanent Magnet Motor Operation .

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor .

Power Converter Topologies  Voltage Source Inverter  Current Source inverter  Gating arrangements .PWM technique .Square Wave Operation .Space Vector PWM .

Assumption: dc capacitor very large → dc voltage ripple free .  The currents are nearly sinusoidal since the motor is inductive.Two-level Voltage Source Inverter  Inverter Configuration  The most common frequency converter type is the voltage-source converter with pulse width modulation (PWM).  The motor voltage consists of rectangular pulses.  The switching frequency is high in practice (3…20 kHz).

Two-level Voltage Source Inverter .

Two-level Voltage Source Inverter .

Two-level Voltage Source Inverter .

Two-level Voltage Source Inverter .

Two-level Voltage Source Inverter .

Two-level Voltage Source Inverter .

Two-level Voltage Source Inverter .

Two-level Voltage Source Inverter .

Current Source Inverters .

Current Source Inverters .

Current Source Inverters

Current Source Inverters

Current Source Inverters

Current Source Inverters .

Current Source Inverters .

Current Source Inverters .

Types of AC Drives In today’s marketplace. there are 3 basic AC Drive categories: • Open loop “Volts / Hz” Drives V/Hz • Open loop “Sensorless Vector” Drives SENSORLESS VECTOR • Closed loop “Flux Vector” Drives All are Pulse-Width-Modulated (PWM) Some manufacturers offer 2-in-1 & 3-in-1 Drives. combining these attributes. FLUX VECTOR .

Open loop “Volts / Hz” Drives V o l 230 t s 460 0 Motor Nameplate V/Hz To rqu oo eB st 30 900 60 1800 (Base) Hz RPM* *( 4-pole motor) • Motor voltage is varied linearly with frequency • No compensation for motor & load dynamics • Poor shock load response characteristics .

with dynamic self-adjustments • V/Hz compensation for motor & load dynamics • Excellent shock load response characteristics & high starting torque .Sensorless & Flux Vector Drives V o l 230 t s 460 0 30 900 60 1800 (Base) Motor Nameplate V/Hz Hz RPM* *( 4-pole motor) • Motor voltage is varied linearly with frequency.

AC Motor Torque & HP vs. Speed T & HP 50 % 100 Torque HP 0 30 900 60 1800 Hz RPM • Motor Torque is constant to base speed • HP varies proportionally to speed .

variable voltage AC.Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverter Basic Power Circuit AC to DC Rectifier DC Filter DC to AC Inverter AC Output IGBTs AC Input DC Bus Caps M All PWM inverters (V/Hz. . Vector & Sensorless Vector) share similar power circuit topologies. filtered. AC is converted to DC. and inverted to variable frequency.

• Both reduce harmonics. DC Reactor .PWM Power Circuit: AC to DC to DC Converter Section AC Rectifier DC Filter AC Input Input Reactor (option) DC Bus Caps + - The AC input is rectified and filtered into fixed-voltage DC • Certain manufacturer’s units contain an integral DC reactor (choke) as part of the DC filter. smooth and lower peak current. • Adding an external AC input reactor will yield similar benefits.

. due to motor inductance.PWM Power Circuit: DC Filter DC to AC Inverter Section V DC to AC Inverter u -v AC Output + IGBTs U V W M Imtor o IGBT Firing Signals An IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) is a high-speed power semiconductor switch. IGBTs are pulse-width modulated with a specific firing pattern. chopping the DC voltage into 3phase AC voltage of the proper frequency and voltage. The resulting motor current is near-sinusoidal.

Basic V/HZ Control Circuit: Input. FPGA controller . µc.3 LO CA REF L PROG L R JOG RUN F W RE D V STOP RESET RESET Speed reference M µp. DSP.75 KW HEALTH 200 V S E EQ v 1. Feedback and Control Signals V DC Bus current & voltage feedback Motor current & voltage feedback IGBT Firing Signals f Operator Interface PWM AC MOTOR DRIVE 0.

µc.75 KW HEALTH 200 V S E EQ v 1. DSP.3 LO CA REF L PROG L R JOG RUN F W RE D V STOP RESET RESET IGBT Gating Signals PWM µp.Flux Vector Control Elements Input. Feedback and Control Signals Encoder Feedback Motor current & voltage feedback DC Bus voltage feedback Manmachine Interface AC MOTOR DRIVE 0. FPGA Speed and / or Torque reference M controller with Vector algorithm .

AC V/Hz Drives Pro’s & Con’s Advantages • Simple. “look-up table” control of voltage and frequency • Good speed regulation (1-3%) • No motor speed feedback needed • Multi-motor capability Limitations • Low dynamic performance on sudden load changes • Limited starting torque • Lacks torque reference capability • Overload limited to 150% Best for General Purpose & Variable Torque Applications: • Centrifugal Pumps & Fans • Conveyors • Mixers & Agitators • Other light-duty non-dynamic loads .

Variable Torque and moderate to high performance applications • Extruders • Winders and unwind stands • Process lines .AC Sensorless Vector Drives Pro’s & Con’s Advantages • High starting torque capability (150% @ 1 Hz) • Improved speed regulation (< 1%) • No motor speed feedback needed • Self-tuning to motor • Separate speed and torque reference inputs Limitations • Speed regulation may fall short in certain high performance applications • Lacks zero-speed holding capability • Multi-motor usage defaults to V/Hz operation • Torque control in excess of 2 X base speed may be difficult Suitable for all General Purpose.

01% • Full torque to zero speed • Extra-wide speed range control Limitations • Requires encoder feedback • Single motor operation only • May require premium vector motor for full performance benefits • 4-quadrant (regenerative) operation requires additional hardware Best for High Performance Applications: • Converting applications • Spindles & Lathes • Extruders • Other historically DC-applications .AC Closed-Loop Vector Pro’s & Con’s Advantages • Ultra-high torque and speed loop performance & response • Excellent speed regulation to .

1000 Hz Performance varies widely.01 -.1.10 Hz 75 .20% 2 . between drive manufacturers • Speed regulation is dependent upon speed feedback device used.Drive Performance Comparison Speed Regulation Speed Loop Response Torque Accuracy Torque Response AC V/Hz AC Sensorless Vector AC Flux Vector 1 .5 . .1% 5 .100 Hz 10 .200 Hz 200 .05% .10% .5% . • Open loop regulation is motor-dependent • Response rates are rarely published & can be misleading.5% .. 1 .25 Hz 20 .2 Hz 15 .


. • Some returned energy is dissipated in losses in the capacitors. via the IGBT switching & back diodes. and motor windings (10-15%).AC Drive Regeneration Energy Flow: ONE . switches.WAY TWO . energy cannot flow back into the AC line. such as DC Bus Overvoltage.WAY AC Input DC Bus Caps + _ IGBTs M • Current flows back into the DC bus. • AC Drive front-end rectifier is unidirectional. • Excessive regeneration can cause problems.

DB is duty-cycle limited to a set number of stopping operations . Resistor Grids (external on ratings 5 HP & above) dissipate the excess energy. is modulated when DC Bus voltage is excessive.Dynamic Braking on AC Drives V DC Feedback AC Input DC Bus Caps + _ DBR M SIGNAL DB is ACTIVE when: • Motor has an overhauling load • Fast decel of high-inertial load • Stopping in ramp-to-rest mode DYNAMIC BRAKING CONTROL DB is NOT ACTIVE when: • Decelerating a frictional load • Stopping in coast-to-rest mode • Drive is disabled or if power is removed DYNAMIC BRAKING is typically an option for AC Drives A seventh IGBT. integrally mounted.

DB will not function. DB only operates when the drive is running: in coast-rest or stand-by. DB is inactive. DB should not be used in EMERGENCY STOPPING: the drive will continue on a timed ramp.Dynamic Braking on AC Drives: Application Considerations DB is not failsafe: if the drive faults or power is removed. DB is suitable for intermittent operation only: other regenerative solutions exist for long-term overhauling loads . producing torque the entire time.

AC DRIVE MOTORING .AC Drives on a Common DC Bus: Theory of Operation + AC DRIVE REGEN NET POWER Net power usage is minimal. due to the efficient use of returned energy. the returned energy is redistributed to motoring drives via the common DC bus. AC DRIVE MOTORING AC DRIVE REGEN As individual drives regenerate.


IGBT bridges Gating control for both sets Converter IGBTs modulate on when bus voltage is excessive.Line Regenerative AC Drives BI-DIRECTIONAL POWER FLOW V DC Feedback LINE M LOAD IGBT Firing Signals CONVERTER IGBT Firing Signals INVERTER PWM microprocessor controller • • • • • Two sets of 6 . More complex regulator design More conducted noise to power line Cost of drive is 1.8 times standard non-regen AC Drive .

Multi-motor Applications Motor amps must total less than controller amp capability • Each motor must have its own overload • Drive must be in the “V/Hz” control mode • Motor speeds will be within slip-speed range. • Interlock output contactors to drive run logic. with respect to each other. when used.8 amps 3 hp 3.9 amps 10 hp 12 amps 2 hp 2.9 amps 5 hp 7. AC DRIVE (V/Hz mode) 30 HP 38 Amps OVERLOAD CONTACTS 2 hp 2.6 .8 amps 3 hp 3.2 amps Total HP = 25 Total Amps = 32.

Application of Contactor Bypass on AC Drives Provides back-up. across-the-line operation of motor • Single-speed operation on line only (must have mechanical control in place) • Motor overloads are mandatory. • Contactors are interlocked to prevent inverter back-feed. • Not recommended on “inverter duty only” motors (high inrush current). • Popular in HVAC / VT applications. OFF INVERTER BYPASS INVERTER CONTACTOR INVERTER DISCONNECT MAIN CB AC DRIVE BYPASS CONTACTOR MOTOR OVERLOAD TYPICAL 3-POSITION SELECTOR SWITCH .

• Input PF has no relationship to motor PF.96 REACTIVE FLOW AC Input M AC Drives inherently correct motor Power Factor • Reactive current bi-directionally flows between the inductive motor and bus capacitors. Never use power factor correction capacitors with AC Drives!!! . • Since input current is in-phase with voltage. input displacement PF is always near unity. = .F.AC Drives and Power Factor Motor P. = .70 (Light Load) AC INPUT P.F.

Power losses in AC controllers (5 .5% EFFICIENCY SCR / Diode losses = 1% CONTROL & FANS Fixed losses = 800 -1500W .100 HP. excluding motor. full speed & load) AC to DC Cap losses = .5% DC to AC 96% IGBT losses = 1.

General classification of induction motor control method .

OPEN LOOP VOLTS/HZ CONTROL WITH VOLTAGE-FED CONVERTER 60Hz AC supply 1 or 3 phase Diode rectifier L Vs Vo Vo Boost voltage + + Vs*' G ω* e Speed or frequency command *' Vs/ωe * Vs ωe C Vd DB + va*= vb*= 2 Vs sin θe 2π 2 VsSin(θe − 3 ) 2π 2 VsSin(θe + 3 ) va* vb* vc* Inverter ω* e ∫ θ* e * vc= Induction motor .

CLOSE LOOP SLIP-CONTROLLED DRIVE WITH VOLTS/HZ CONTROL -Vd + Vs* ωsl* + + ωr Motor ω* r + ωr K2 K1+ S P-I Controller ωe* Inverter Speed Encoder a 2 b 3 TL' b a 2 1 c 1 TL ωr ωr ωr .


Stationary and Rotating Reference Frames .

Field Oriented Control (FOC)  Field Orientation  General Block Diagram of FOC  Direct Field Oriented Control  Indirect Field Oriented Control .

Classification of Field Orientation  Rotor flux orientation  Stator flux orientation  Air-gap flux orientation - Focus on rotor flux orientation It is relatively simple and widely used .

.Torque Production in DC Motors Te – electromagnetic torque Ka .armature current • λf = const → Te is proportional to ia • Flux λf and ia can be controlled independently → high dynamic performance.flux produced by field circuit ia .armature constant λf .

Rotor Flux Orientation .Rotor flux orientation is achieved by aligning the d-axis of the synchronous reference frame with the rotor flux vector λr .

Electromagnetic Torque • With rotor field orientation. Te is proportional to iqs . the torque expression in (4) for the induction motor is similar to that of a dc motor in (1). • Keep flux λr constant.

Flux and Torque Producing Components • ids – flux-producing component ← kept at the rated value • iqs – torque-producing component ← controlled independently .

Rotor Flux Angle θf .

General Block Diagram of FOC

Direct and Indirect FOC
• Direct FOC
Rotor flux angle θf is obtained by using fluxsensing devices embedded inside the motor or using measured motor terminal voltages and currents

• Indirect FOC
Rotor flux angle θf is obtained from detected rotor position angle θr and calculated slip angle θsl θf = θr + θsl

Direct FOC

Indirect FOC .

DISADVANTAGES OF VECTOR CONTROL  Three stator current regulators (hysteresis)  Indirectly controlled by stator currents  Torque ripple  Flux control : .Slow dynamics  Sensitive to variations of rotor time constant  High complexity  Calculations requiring trigonometric functions .Indirectly controlled by stator currents .

Direct Torque Control (DTC)  DTC Principle  Switching Logic  Flux and Torque Calculation  Simulation of VSI Drive with DTC  DTC and FOC Comparison .

in which inverter switching directly controls flux and motor torque. .What is DTC?  It is an optimized AC drives control principle. which updates stator flux and torque every 25 microsecond.  The input variables for DTC are * Motor currents * DC link * Voltage (defined from DC-bus voltage and inverter switch position)  The voltage and current signals are input to a an accurate motor model.

 Absence of coordinate transformation (required in FOC). Decoupled and direct control of flux and torque.ADVANTAGES OF DTC SCHEME High performance and simplicity. Inherent motion-sensorless control method (the motor speed is not required to achieve the torque control).       . Quick torque response. Approximately sinusoidal stator fluxes and stator currents. Indirect control of stator currents and voltages. as well as other controllers such as PID and current controllers (used in FOC).  Absence of voltage modulator.

DTC Principle .

DTC Principle .

DTC Principle .

DTC Principle .

Block Diagram of DTC .

DTC Principle .

Switching Logic .

Switching Table .

Flux and Torque Calculation .

Flux and Torque Calculation .

Stator Flux bandwidth .

DTC Simulation Using Matlab / SIMULINK .

Stator Flux Trajectory with Flux Error .

How to reduce stator flux error?    Space Vector PWM Hysteresis Band Controller Fuzzy Logic .

Stator Flux Trajectory without Flux Error .

Llr .Comparison between DTC and FOC Comparison DTC FOC Field Orientation (Reference Frame Transformation) Control Scheme Stator Current Control Motor Parameters Required Sensitivity to Motor Parameter Variations PWM Scheme Switching Behavior Not required Required Simple No RS Not very sensitivity Hysteresis Band Variable Complex Yes RS. SVM or Hysteresis Band Defined ( for Carrier Based and SVM ) . Lls . Lm and Rr Sensitivity Carrier Based.

Programmable Logic Devices for Drives  Programmable logic devices (PLDs) are increasing their presence in power electronics and motion control applications. and complex PLDs (CPLDs). With rising gate densities of PLDs. control.  These include the use of hardware description languages (HDLs). With higher gate densities and lower costs. and communication functionality. FPGAs can target a large market of application specific standard products (ASSPs). larger functionality is being incorporated. fieldprogrammable gate arrays (FPGAs). ac drive applications have evolved from mere components like pulse width-modulation (PWM) controller or encoder feedback to complete drive controller capable of executing feedback.  With increasing densities of PLD. .  These PLDs are taking advantage of matured front-end design tools and philosophy of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs).

 Rapid Prototyping Advantages of FPGA-based Control  Simple Hardware & Software Design  Higher Switching Frequency  Relieving the Computation Load of µPs  Easy use  Low Cost  High Performance  SRAM based FPGA’s provide reconfigurable hardware designs  User is independent of architecture of the device  FPGA’s can process information faster than a general purpose DSP .

…more Advantages of FPGA-based Control  Controller architecture can be optimized for space or Speed  Bit widths for data registers can be selected based on application needs  Implementation in VHDL or Verilog allows the targeting of variety of commercially available FPGA’s  FPGA’s are available in radiation tolerant packages. digital control operations and controller interface peripherals can both be contained in a compact form factor  Multiple digital control loops in one FPGA can replace analog control loops implemented in many space consuming and power hungry radiation tolerant analog IC’s . whereas availability of radiation tolerant DSP devices is extremely limited  Complex.

(Hardware Description Language) HDLs  High-density digital design has become feasible by the use of HDLs. HDLs are a common language throughout most design phases [17].  Today. code written in HDL can be synthesized into target-specific architectures. with the help of electronic design automation (EDA) synthesis tools.  VHDL and Verilog were originally developed for system-level modeling. Today. The maturity of EDA tools for design and implementation of digital architectures has contributed to the growth of PLDs and HDLs. . Two of the most popular HDLs used for digital design are very high speed integrated design HDL (VHDL) and Verilog.

.  Make the system independent of the target technology and the final implementation details. so CAD (Computer-aided design) tools and user’s benefit from it.  VHDL supply a common interface between different people involved in the project and between designers and CAD tools. in the early stages of the project.HDLs Advantages  Allow shorter development phases in the projects.  Provides continuous checking and verification of the system performance and behavior.  VHDL is a common language throughout most design phases.

PLD’s USE IN MOTOR CONTROL  Motor Control Blocks  Complete Motor Control  Motion Control Within System Design  Power Electronic Control .

i. An acceleration and deceleration circuit for industrial robots and CNC machines has been designed using HDL and FPGA. HDL blocks like counter.. motor current control algorithms have attracted a lot of PLD usage. almost 14%. An FPGA-based motor speed and position measurement peripheral with DSP interface is described in using adaptive time base measurement technique. Due to fast computation needs. The system microprocessor has to devote considerable bandwidth to update the current loop. It is an improvement over constant elapsed time (CET) measurement technique. and position increment are used to generate a velocity profile.e. Different types of PWM techniques have been used for this purpose. Speed Feedback—Encoder: Motor speed measurement process takes up considerable DSP bandwidth. Due to its ease of implementation using digital logic. Firing Circuit—SVPWM: PWM is a key aspect of power electronic and motion control. Current Loop Control: The current or torque loop is the fastest loop for motor control. comparator. Chip vendors have reported update times of 4 µs for this loop using dedicated hardware logic . space vector modulation has been a preferred PWM technique for PLDs. Motor Control Blocks    . Speed Profile Generation: An FPGA can be used for generating velocity profile for a single-axis control system.

Complete Motor Control .

Motion Control Within System Design .

Power Electronic Control  The concurrency of FPGA processing is exploited to add protection features without causing any drawback in performance. The protections are executed continuously. as in the case of a processor controlled system. providing dead time. which requires deterministic response times like transistor switching.  Power electronic control functionality. and emergency shut-down of inverter. control of braking transistor. instead of periodically. can be assigned to an FPGA .

Developed model of DTC using Simulink ModelSim Cosimulation .

Future Trends and Needs  Reliable self-commissioning will become more and more mandatory. market share of vector controls as FOC/DSC will grow compared to v/f control.  Servo-type drives seem to be of decreasing importance.  Depending on the preceding item.  Because induction motors possess low inertia and are free of cogging torque. because this area is captured more and more by permanent magnet synchronous motors. there is a growing market segment of high speed and test stand drives requiring smoothest stationary torque. . but also capability of rapid torque and speed changes in order to apply desired test profiles.

.  Controller hardware which is based today on microprocessors or DSP may change in the future more and more towards ASICs or FPGA. A growing number of contributions are observed in this area.  Efficiency-optimized operation will grow more importance with respect to energy saving demands.… More Future Trends and Needs  Safety aspects are getting more important. That addresses software development standards as already partly introduced as well as operational measures like redundancy or fallback operation.

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