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FUTURE TRENDS AND NEEDS

IN VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES

By
Sarat Kumar Sahoo
Assistant Professor (Senior)
School of Electrical Engineering
VITU Vellore
Outline
 Introduction
 AC Machine Types
 Power Converter Topologies
 AC Drives Types
 Possible Control Method
- Scalar Control (U/f Control)
- Field Oriented Control (FOC) or Vector Control
- Direct Torque Control (DTC)
 Programmable Logic Devices for Drives ( ASICs, FPGA and CPLD)
 Future Trends and Needs
Classification of Electrical Motors
Popular AC Motors for Electric Drives

 Squirrel Cage Induction Motor (SCIM)

 Brush Less DC Motor (BLDC)

 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)


AC Drive Advantages
• Simple, low-maintenance motor - no brushes or commutator.
• High dynamic performance - low rotor inertia, compared with DC
armature.
• Motors are inexpensive & readily available
• Motors suitable for harsh, rugged environments : some explosion-
proof ratings available.
• Better open-loop speed regulation - with Sensorless Vector & slip
compensation.
• Higher torque response bandwidth - on Vector-type; not limited by
AC line frequency.
• More cost-effective drive package below 100HP
• Multi-motor & inherent load sharing on single controller
• Line-bypass option - permits single-speed motor operation during
controller maintenance
…more AC Drive Advantages

• No separate motor field - no field loss sensing required


• Wider speed ranges - motors available through 6000 RPM & higher.
• Contactor-free dynamic braking - linear braking power to zero
speed.
• Retrofit onto existing single-speed AC applications
• Smaller motor frame sizes than equivalent DC.
• Longer power-dip ride-through capabilities
• Near unity power factor regardless of speed and load
Three Phase Machine Fundamentals
Three Phase Rotating Field
Three Phase Machine Fundamentals
ACI Operation Fundamentals
Permanent Magnet Motor Operation
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Power Converter Topologies

 Voltage Source Inverter

 Current Source inverter

 Gating arrangements
- Square Wave Operation
- PWM technique
- Space Vector PWM
Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
 Inverter Configuration

 The most common frequency


converter type is the voltage-source
converter with pulse width
modulation (PWM).

 The motor voltage consists of rectangular pulses.

 The switching frequency is high in practice (3…20 kHz).

 The currents are nearly sinusoidal since the motor is inductive.

Assumption: dc capacitor very large → dc voltage ripple free


Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
Current Source Inverters
Current Source Inverters
Current Source Inverters
Current Source Inverters
Current Source Inverters
Current Source Inverters
Current Source Inverters
Current Source Inverters
Types of AC Drives
In today’s marketplace, there are 3 basic AC
Drive categories:
• Open loop “Volts / Hz” Drives V/Hz

SENSOR-
• Open loop “Sensorless Vector” Drives LESS
VECTOR

FLUX
• Closed loop “Flux Vector” Drives VECTOR
All are Pulse-Width-Modulated (PWM)
Some manufacturers offer 2-in-1 & 3-in-1 Drives,
combining these attributes.
Open loop “Volts / Hz” Drives

V 460 Motor Nameplate V/Hz

o
l 230 eB
oo
st

t To
rqu

s
0 30 60 Hz
900 1800 RPM*
(Base) *( 4-pole motor)
• Motor voltage is varied linearly with frequency
• No compensation for motor & load dynamics
• Poor shock load response characteristics
Sensorless & Flux Vector Drives

V 460 Motor Nameplate V/Hz

o
l 230
t
s
0 30 60 Hz
900 1800 RPM*
(Base) *( 4-pole motor)

• Motor voltage is varied linearly with frequency, with dynamic self-adjustments


• V/Hz compensation for motor & load dynamics
• Excellent shock load response characteristics & high starting torque
AC Motor Torque & HP vs. Speed
Torque
100
%
T & HP HP
50

0 30 60 Hz
900 1800 RPM

• Motor Torque is constant to base speed


• HP varies proportionally to speed
Pulse-Width-Modulated Inverter Basic
Power Circuit
AC to DC DC to AC
DC Filter
Rectifier Inverter
AC
Output
AC DC
Bus IGBTs M
Input
Caps

All PWM inverters (V/Hz, Vector & Sensorless Vector) share similar power circuit
topologies.
AC is converted to DC, filtered, and inverted to variable frequency, variable
voltage AC.
PWM Power Circuit:
AC to DC Converter Section
AC to DC
DC Filter
Rectifier

AC DC +
Input Bus
Caps
-
Input Reactor
(option)
DC Reactor
The AC input is rectified and filtered into fixed-voltage DC
• Certain manufacturer’s units contain an integral DC reactor (choke)
as part of the DC filter.
• Adding an external AC input reactor will yield similar benefits.
• Both reduce harmonics, smooth and lower peak current.
PWM Power Circuit:
DC to AC Inverter Section
V
DC to AC u-v
DC Filter
Inverter
AC
Output
+
U
IGBTs M
V
- W

Imotor

IGBT Firing
Signals

An IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) is a high-speed power semiconductor switch.


IGBTs are pulse-width modulated with a specific firing pattern, chopping the DC voltage into 3-
phase AC voltage of the proper frequency and voltage.
The resulting motor current is near-sinusoidal, due to motor inductance.
Basic V/HZ Control Circuit:
Input, Feedback and Control Signals

Motor current &


DC Bus current &
voltage feedback
voltage feedback f
IGBT Firing
Signals
Operator
Interface
PWM
AC MOTOR DRIVE
0.75 200 V v 1.3
KW

µp, µc, DSP, FPGA


HEALTH LO
S CA REF
E L

Speed reference
EQ PROG

M L

controller
R

F
JOG W
RE
D
V
RUN STOP

RESET
RESET
Flux Vector Control Elements
Input, Feedback and Control Signals

Encoder Feedback

Motor current &


DC Bus voltage
voltage feedback
feedback IGBT Gating
Man- Signals
machine
Interface PWM
0.75
KW
HEALTH
AC MOTOR DRIVE
200 V

LO
v 1.3 µp, µc, DSP, FPGA
Speed and / or CA REF
S
E L
EQ PROG

Torque reference
JOG
M

W
F
RE
L
R
controller with
Vector algorithm
D
V
RUN STOP

RESET
RESET
AC V/Hz Drives Pro’s & Con’s

Advantages Limitations
• Simple, “look-up table” control of • Low dynamic performance on
voltage and frequency
sudden load changes
• Good speed regulation (1-3%)
• Limited starting torque
• No motor speed feedback needed
• Lacks torque reference capability
• Multi-motor capability
• Overload limited to 150%

Best for General Purpose & Variable Torque


Applications:
• Centrifugal Pumps & Fans
• Conveyors
• Mixers & Agitators
• Other light-duty non-dynamic loads
AC Sensorless Vector Drives Pro’s & Con’s
Advantages Limitations
• High starting torque capability (150% • Speed regulation may fall short in
@ 1 Hz) certain high performance applications
• Improved speed regulation (< 1%) • Lacks zero-speed holding capability
• No motor speed feedback needed • Multi-motor usage defaults to V/Hz
• Self-tuning to motor operation
• Torque control in excess of 2 X base
• Separate speed and torque reference
speed may be difficult
inputs

Suitable for all General Purpose, Variable Torque and


moderate to high performance applications
• Extruders
• Winders and unwind stands
• Process lines
AC Closed-Loop Vector Pro’s & Con’s

Advantages Limitations
• Ultra-high torque and speed loop • Requires encoder feedback
performance & response • Single motor operation only
• Excellent speed regulation to .01% • May require premium vector motor for
• Full torque to zero speed full performance benefits

• Extra-wide speed range control • 4-quadrant (regenerative) operation


requires additional hardware

Best for High Performance Applications:


• Converting applications
• Spindles & Lathes
• Extruders
• Other historically DC-applications
Drive Performance Comparison
Speed Speed Loop Torque Torque
Regulation Response Accuracy Response

AC V/Hz 1 - 5% . 1 - 2 Hz 10 - 20% 5 - 10 Hz
AC Sensorless Vector .1- .5% 15 - 25 Hz 2 - 10% 75 - 200 Hz
AC Flux Vector .01 -.05% 20 - 100 Hz .5 - 1% 200 - 1000 Hz

Performance varies widely, between drive manufacturers


• Speed regulation is dependent upon speed feedback device used.
• Open loop regulation is motor-dependent
• Response rates are rarely published & can be misleading.
4-Quadrant Operation of AC Motors
on Inverter Power
Clockwise
TORQUE

REVERSE FORWARD
REGENERATING MOTORING
- RPM + RPM

REVERSE FORWARD
MOTORING REGENERATING

Counter-
Clockwise
TORQUE
AC Drive Regeneration

Energy Flow: ONE - WAY TWO - WAY

AC DC +
Bus IGBTs M
Input
Caps
_

• Current flows back into the DC bus, via the IGBT switching & back diodes.
• AC Drive front-end rectifier is unidirectional; energy cannot flow back into the AC
line.
• Some returned energy is dissipated in losses in the capacitors, switches, and motor
windings (10-15%).
• Excessive regeneration can cause problems, such as DC Bus Overvoltage.
Dynamic Braking on AC Drives

V DC Feedback

DBR
AC DC +
Input Bus
_ M
Caps

SIGNAL
DB is NOT ACTIVE when:
DB is ACTIVE when:
DYNAMIC • Decelerating a frictional load
• Motor has an overhauling load
BRAKING • Stopping in coast-to-rest mode
• Fast decel of high-inertial load
CONTROL • Drive is disabled or if power
• Stopping in ramp-to-rest mode
is removed

DYNAMIC BRAKING is typically an option for AC Drives


A seventh IGBT, integrally mounted, is modulated when DC Bus voltage is excessive.
Resistor Grids (external on ratings 5 HP & above) dissipate the excess energy.
DB is duty-cycle limited to a set number of stopping operations
Dynamic Braking on AC Drives: Application
Considerations

DB is not failsafe: if the drive faults or power is removed, DB


will not function.

DB only operates when the drive is running: in coast-rest or


stand-by,
DB is inactive.

DB should not be used in EMERGENCY STOPPING: the drive


will continue on a timed ramp, producing torque the entire time.

DB is suitable for intermittent operation only: other


regenerative solutions exist for long-term overhauling loads
AC Drives on a Common DC Bus: Theory
of Operation
AC
DRIVE
+ -
REGEN

AC
DRIVE
NET
As individual drives
POWER MOTORING
regenerate, the
returned energy is re-
AC distributed to
Net power usage DRIVE motoring drives via
is minimal, due the common DC bus.
to the efficient REGEN
use of returned
energy. AC
DRIVE

MOTORING
AC Drives on a Common DC Bus: Typical
Connection Diagram

THERMAL- MAG
BREAKER

INPUT LINE
REACTOR

AC AC AC
DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE

SEMICONDUCTOR
FUSES

INTERLOCKED
DC CONTACTOR
Line Regenerative AC Drives
BI-DIRECTIONAL POWER FLOW

V DC Feedback
LINE M LOAD

IGBT Firing IGBT Firing


Signals Signals
CONVERTER INVERTER

PWM
microprocessor
controller
• Two sets of 6 - IGBT bridges
• Gating control for both sets
• Converter IGBTs modulate on when bus voltage is excessive.
• More complex regulator design
• More conducted noise to power line
Cost of drive is 1.8 times standard non-regen AC Drive
Multi-motor Applications
Motor amps must total less than
controller amp capability
• Each motor must have its own overload
• Drive must be in the “V/Hz” control mode AC DRIVE
(V/Hz mode)
• Motor speeds will be within slip-speed OVERLOAD CONTACTS
range, with respect to each other. 30 HP
38 Amps
• Interlock output contactors to drive run
logic, when used.

2 hp 3 hp 10 hp 2 hp 3 hp 5 hp
2.8 amps 3.9 amps 12 amps 2.8 amps 3.9 amps 7.2 amps

Total HP = 25
Total Amps = 32.6
Application of Contactor
Bypass on AC Drives MAIN CB
Provides back-up, across-the-line
operation of motor
• Single-speed operation on line only (must
have mechanical control in place)
INVERTER
• Motor overloads are mandatory. DISCONNECT

• Contactors are interlocked to prevent


inverter back-feed. AC
• Popular in HVAC / VT applications. DRIVE
• Not recommended on “inverter duty
only” motors (high inrush current). INVERTER
BYPASS
CONTACTOR
OFF CONTACTOR

INVERTER BYPASS

MOTOR
OVERLOAD

TYPICAL 3-POSITION
SELECTOR SWITCH
AC Drives and Power Factor

Motor P.F. = .70


AC INPUT P.F. = .96
(Light Load)

REACTIVE
FLOW

AC
Input M

AC Drives inherently correct motor Power Factor


• Reactive current bi-directionally flows between the inductive motor and bus capacitors.
• Input PF has no relationship to motor PF.
• Since input current is in-phase with voltage, input displacement PF is always near unity.
Never use power factor correction capacitors with AC Drives!!!
Power losses in AC controllers
(5 - 100 HP; excluding motor; full speed & load)

AC to DC
Cap losses = .5%
DC to AC
96% EFFICIENCY
SCR / Diode losses IGBT losses = 1.5%
= 1%

CONTROL & FANS Fixed losses = 800 -1500W


General classification of induction motor
control method
OPEN LOOP VOLTS/HZ CONTROL WITH
VOLTAGE-FED CONVERTER 60Hz
AC supply
1 or 3 phase

Diode
rectifier

L
Vs C
- +

Vo ωe Vd
+
Vo DB
Boost + Vs*
voltage Vs*' va*
va*= 2 Vs sin θe
G Vs*'/ωe 2π vb*
vb*= 2 VsSin(θe − 3 ) Inverter
ω*e θ*e 2π vc*
ω*e ∫ vc*= 2 VsSin(θe + 3 )

Speed or frequency
command

Induction
motor
CLOSE LOOP SLIP-CONTROLLED DRIVE
WITH VOLTS/HZ CONTROL
-Vd +

Vs*

Inverter
ωsl* ωe*
K2
ωr* K1+
+ S +
- +
ωr P-I
Controller ωr

Motor

Speed
Encoder

a
a b

2 3 TL' b
2 1

1 TL

ωr ωr
ωr
FEATURES OF VOLTS/HZ CONTROLLED DRIVE
 SIMPLE AND INEXPENSIVE – VERY POPULAR

 NO NEED OF FEEDBACK SENSORS

 COMPLEXITY OF FEEDBACK SIGNALS PROCESSING


IS AVOIDED
– WIDE FREQUENCY VARIATION
– WIDE MAGNITUDE VARIATION
– COMPLEX HARMONICS
– PHASE UNBALANCE

 TWO-QUADRANT OPERATION

 CONSTANT TORQUE AND FIELD-WEAKENING MODES OF SPEED CONTROL


 DRIFT OF SPEED WITH LOAD TORQUE VARIATION
 DRIFT OF SPEED AND FLUX WITH SUPPLY VOLTAGE VARIATION
 POOR SYSTEM STABILITY
 SLUGGISH SYSTEM RESPONSE
 MULTI-MOTOR OPERATION POSSIBL
Stationary and Rotating Reference Frames
Field Oriented Control (FOC)

 Field Orientation

 General Block Diagram of FOC

 Direct Field Oriented Control

 Indirect Field Oriented Control


Classification of Field Orientation

 Rotor flux orientation

 Stator flux orientation

 Air-gap flux orientation

- Focus on rotor flux orientation


- It is relatively simple and widely used
Torque Production in DC Motors

Te – electromagnetic torque
Ka - armature constant
λf - flux produced by field circuit
ia - armature current
• λf = const → Te is proportional to ia
• Flux λf and ia can be controlled independently → high dynamic
performance.
Rotor Flux Orientation

- Rotor flux orientation is achieved by aligning the d-axis of the


synchronous reference frame with the rotor flux vector λr
Electromagnetic Torque

• With rotor field orientation, the torque expression in (4) for


the induction motor is similar to that of a dc motor in (1).

• Keep flux λr constant, Te is proportional to iqs


Flux and Torque Producing Components

• ids – flux-producing component ← kept at the rated value


• iqs – torque-producing component ← controlled independently
Rotor Flux Angle θf
General Block Diagram of FOC
Direct and Indirect FOC

• Direct FOC
Rotor flux angle θf is obtained by using flux-
sensing devices embedded inside the motor or
using measured motor terminal voltages and
currents
• Indirect FOC
Rotor flux angle θf is obtained from detected rotor
position angle θr and calculated slip angle θsl
θf = θr + θsl
Direct FOC
Indirect FOC
DISADVANTAGES OF VECTOR CONTROL

 Three stator current regulators (hysteresis)


 Indirectly controlled by stator currents

 Torque ripple
 Flux control : - Indirectly controlled by stator currents
- Slow dynamics

 Sensitive to variations of rotor time constant


 High complexity

 Calculations requiring trigonometric functions


Direct Torque Control (DTC)

 DTC Principle

 Switching Logic

 Flux and Torque Calculation

 Simulation of VSI Drive with DTC

 DTC and FOC Comparison


What is DTC?
 It is an optimized AC drives control principle, in
which inverter switching directly controls flux and
motor torque.

 The input variables for DTC are


* Motor currents
* DC link
* Voltage (defined from DC-bus voltage and
inverter switch position)

 The voltage and current signals are input to a an


accurate motor model, which updates stator flux
and torque every 25 microsecond.
ADVANTAGES OF DTC SCHEME
 High performance and simplicity.
 Decoupled and direct control of flux and torque.
 Indirect control of stator currents and voltages.
 Approximately sinusoidal stator fluxes and stator currents.
 Quick torque response.
 Inherent motion-sensorless control method (the motor
speed is not required to achieve the torque control).
 Absence of coordinate transformation (required in FOC).
 Absence of voltage modulator, as well as other controllers
such as PID and current controllers (used in FOC).
DTC Principle
DTC Principle
DTC Principle
DTC Principle
Block Diagram of DTC
DTC Principle
Switching Logic
Switching Table
Flux and Torque Calculation
Flux and Torque Calculation
Stator Flux bandwidth
DTC Simulation Using Matlab / SIMULINK
Stator Flux Trajectory with Flux Error
How to reduce stator flux error?

 Space Vector PWM


 Hysteresis Band Controller
 Fuzzy Logic
Stator Flux Trajectory without Flux Error
Comparison between DTC and FOC
Comparison DTC FOC

Field Orientation Not required Required


(Reference Frame Transformation)

Control Scheme Simple Complex

Stator Current Control No Yes

Motor Parameters Required RS RS, Lls , Llr , Lm and Rr

Sensitivity to Motor Parameter Not very sensitivity Sensitivity


Variations

PWM Scheme Hysteresis Band Carrier Based, SVM or


Hysteresis Band

Switching Behavior Variable Defined ( for Carrier Based and


SVM )
Programmable Logic Devices for Drives
 Programmable logic devices (PLDs) are increasing their presence in power electronics
and motion control applications. With rising gate densities of PLDs, larger functionality
is being incorporated.

 These include the use of hardware description languages (HDLs), field-


programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and complex PLDs (CPLDs).

 These PLDs are taking advantage of matured front-end design tools and philosophy of
application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). With higher gate densities and lower
costs, FPGAs can target a large market of application specific standard products
(ASSPs).

 With increasing densities of PLD, ac drive applications have evolved from mere
components like pulse width-modulation (PWM) controller or encoder feedback to
complete drive controller capable of executing feedback, control, and communication
functionality.
Advantages of FPGA-based Control
 Rapid Prototyping

 Simple Hardware & Software Design

 Higher Switching Frequency

 Relieving the Computation Load of µPs

 Easy use

 Low Cost

 High Performance

 SRAM based FPGA’s provide reconfigurable hardware designs

 User is independent of architecture of the device

 FPGA’s can process information faster than a general purpose DSP


…more Advantages of FPGA-based Control
 Controller architecture can be optimized for space or Speed

 Bit widths for data registers can be selected based on application needs

 Implementation in VHDL or Verilog allows the targeting of variety of commercially


available FPGA’s

 FPGA’s are available in radiation tolerant packages, whereas availability of radiation


tolerant DSP devices is extremely limited

 Complex, digital control operations and controller interface peripherals can both be
contained in a compact form factor

 Multiple digital control loops in one FPGA can replace analog control loops
implemented in many space consuming and power hungry radiation tolerant analog
IC’s
(Hardware Description Language) HDLs
 High-density digital design has become feasible by the use of
HDLs. Two of the most popular HDLs used for digital design are
very high speed integrated design HDL (VHDL) and Verilog.

 VHDL and Verilog were originally developed for system-level


modeling. Today, with the help of electronic design automation
(EDA) synthesis tools, code written in HDL can be synthesized
into target-specific architectures.

 Today, HDLs are a common language throughout most design


phases [17]. The maturity of EDA tools for design and
implementation of digital architectures has contributed to the
growth of PLDs and HDLs.
HDLs Advantages
 Allow shorter development phases in the projects.

 Provides continuous checking and verification of the system


performance and behavior.

 Make the system independent of the target technology and the


final implementation details, in the early stages of the project.

 VHDL is a common language throughout most design phases,


so CAD (Computer-aided design) tools and user’s benefit from
it.

 VHDL supply a common interface between different people


involved in the project and between designers and CAD tools.
PLD’s USE IN MOTOR CONTROL

 Motor Control Blocks

 Complete Motor Control

 Motion Control Within System Design

 Power Electronic Control


Motor Control Blocks
 Firing Circuit—SVPWM: PWM is a key aspect of power electronic and motion control.
Different types of PWM techniques have been used for this purpose. Due to its ease
of implementation using digital logic, space vector modulation has been a preferred
PWM technique for PLDs.

 Speed Feedback—Encoder: Motor speed measurement process takes up


considerable DSP bandwidth, i.e., almost 14%. An FPGA-based motor speed and
position measurement peripheral with DSP interface is described in using adaptive
time base measurement technique. It is an improvement over constant elapsed time
(CET) measurement technique.

 Current Loop Control: The current or torque loop is the fastest loop for motor control.
The system microprocessor has to devote considerable bandwidth to update the
current loop. Chip vendors have reported update times of 4 µs for this loop using
dedicated hardware logic . Due to fast computation needs, motor current control
algorithms have attracted a lot of PLD usage.

 Speed Profile Generation: An FPGA can be used for generating velocity profile for a single-axis
control system. An acceleration and deceleration circuit for industrial robots and CNC machines
has been designed using HDL and FPGA. HDL blocks like counter, comparator, and position
increment are used to generate a velocity profile.
Complete Motor Control
Motion Control Within System Design
Power Electronic Control

 The concurrency of FPGA processing is exploited to add


protection features without causing any drawback in
performance. The protections are executed continuously,
instead of periodically, as in the case of a processor controlled
system.

 Power electronic control functionality, which requires


deterministic response times like transistor switching,
providing dead time, control of braking transistor, and
emergency shut-down of inverter, can be assigned to an
FPGA
Developed model of DTC using Simulink
ModelSim Cosimulation
Future Trends and Needs
 Reliable self-commissioning will become more and more
mandatory.

 Depending on the preceding item, market share of vector


controls as FOC/DSC will grow compared to v/f control.

 Servo-type drives seem to be of decreasing importance,


because this area is captured more and more by
permanent magnet synchronous motors.

 Because induction motors possess low inertia and are free


of cogging torque, there is a growing market segment of
high speed and test stand drives requiring smoothest
stationary torque, but also capability of rapid torque and
speed changes in order to apply desired test profiles.
… More Future Trends and Needs
 Safety aspects are getting more important. That addresses
software development standards as already partly introduced
as well as operational measures like redundancy or
fallback operation.

 Efficiency-optimized operation will grow more importance with


respect to energy saving demands.

 Controller hardware which is based today on microprocessors


or DSP may change in the future more and more towards
ASICs or FPGA. A growing number of contributions are
observed in this area.