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@ Communication originates from the Latin word ´communisµ which means

@ Communication may be defined giving receiving or exchanging information,

opinions or ideas by writing speech or visual means so that message
communicated is completely understood by the recipient.

@ ¦ 

   ´communication is a transfer of
information from one person to other whether or not elicits confidenceµ.

@ ¦ 

, ´communication is the process by which


information is passed between, individuals and/or organizations by means of
previously agreed symbols.µ

@ ¦ 
 ," communication is an exchange of facts, ideas,
opinions or emotions by two or more persons.µ

@ Communication involves atleast two person.
@ Message is very important in communication.
@ Communication may be written/oral/gestural.
@ Communication maybe formal/informal.
@ Communication is a two way process.
@ Communication is a continuous process.
@ Communication is less time consuming process.
@ Need of proper medium.
@ Communication as a bridge of intellectual efficiency.
@ Communication as a tool of relation building.

@ ºnformation sharing
@ Feedback
@ ºnfluence
@ Problem solving
@ Assist in decision making
@ Facilitating change
@ Group building
@ Controlling people
@ Developing persuasive skill
@ Helping interaction and discussion
@ Cultural encouragement
@ Liaison with outside world


@ Coney the right message
@ Helps in coordination of effort
@ Good industrial relation
@ Development of managerial skill
@ Ensuring effectiveness of policies
@ Motivating people
@ Performance feedback
@ Job instruction
@ Controlling people
@ Spreading rumours
@ Emotive function

@ Need for proper and efficient operation of the business
@ Need for effective leadership
@ Developing skill of coordination
@ Helps in development of management skill
@ Helps in proper planning
@ ºmproving relations
@ Maximum production at minimum cost
@ Prompt decision and its implementation
@ Achieving high productivity through job satisfaction
@ Delegation decentralization
@ Avoid illusion





M Source idea: The Source idea is the process by which one formulates an idea to
communicate to another party. This process can be influenced by external stimuli
such as books or radio, or it can come about internally by thinking about a
particular subject. The source idea is the basis for the communication.

2 Message: The Message is what will be communicated to another party. ºt is based

on the source idea, but the message is crafted to meet the needs of the audience.
For example, if the message is between two friends, the message will take a
different form than if communicating with a superior.

3 Encoding :Encoding is how the message is transmitted to another party. The

message is converted into a suitable form for transmission. The medium of
transmission will determine the form of the communication. For example, the
message will take a different form if the communication will be spoken or written.

4 Channel :The Channel is the medium of the communication. The channel must
be able to transmit the message from one party to another without changing the
content of the message. The channel can be a piece of paper, a communications
medium such as radio, or it can be an email. The channel is the path of the
communication from sender to receiver. An email can use the ºnternet as a channel
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@ Formal : a formal communication can be defined as a means
of communication that is formally controlled by managers of
people occupying positions in an organizations.
@ ºnformal communication : in any organization informal
communication also exits along with formal communication.
ºnformal communication through unofficial channels yet it is
as effective as the formal communication medium. ºt is also
known as ´Grapevineµ.
@ Oral communication : in this process of communication
sender and receiver exchange their ides through oral words
face to face in other words when communication is performed
by words and sentences it is called oral communication.
@ Written communication : when the message or information is
communicated through letters, circulars, memos, reports,
minutes of meeting agenda, schedules etc.Then it is called
written communication.

@ ºt means communication which does not
involve speech or words. By non-
communication we mean all communication that
involves neither written nor spoken words but
which occurs without the use of words. For ex-
Gestures, sign, body language, colour, tone of
voice etc.

@ Îinesics : Body language ² ºt literally means ¶body movement·. Specially
in face to face communication a no. of factors like facial expressions eye
movements and gestures. Body language is the reflection of thought, feelings
and positions.
@ Proxemics : Space language ² it is the study of how we communicate
with the space around us. Proxemics is made from ´proximityµ which means
@ Time language ² ºt is that we communicate with others in terms of time
by showing them, in our own cultural way what time means to us.
@ Paralanguage ² ºt consist of two words ¶para· which means ¶like· or
¶similar· and ¶language· which refers to convey communication. ºt includes the
quality of voice, articulation, pitch, volume, pauses and other vocal qualities.
@ Sign language ² Communicator and receiver mutually use signs, symbols,
picture to communicate the message.
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@ Wrongly express message
@ Wrong translation
@ Unclear believes
@ Unclear preconceived notions
@ Use of technical language
@ Organizational policies
@ Complex organizational structure
@ Repertory relation
@ ºmproper maintenance of communication media
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@ Noise
@ Literally exposition
@ Halo effect
@ Wealth/finance related obstacles
@ Language
@ Values and norms of behavior
@ Social relationship
@ Concept of space
@ Concept of time
@ Thinking processes
@ Perception
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@ Selective perception
@ status relationship
@ Poor attention and retention
@ ºnattention
@ Undue importance of written
@ Defensiveness
@ Closed mind
@ State of health
@ filtering
@ Body language
@ Senior officers related obstacles
@ Fear
@ Proper media
@ Lack of time
@ Problem due to subordinates
@ Lack of interest in communication
@ Lack of inspiration

@ Fostering good relationships
@ Purposeful and well focused communication
@ Co--ordination between superiors and subordinates
@ Avoid technical language
@ Feed back accuracy
@ Clarity in communication
@ Communication of organizational philosophy
@ Flat organizational structure
@ Division of labour
@ Organization policies
@ Minimize semantic problems
@ Proper communication channels
@ Right feedback

@ Courtesy/consideration
@ Clarity
@ Correctness
@ Concreteness
@ Credibility
@ Completeness and consistency
@ conciseness
@ Speech is a social need. ºn a society there are many
formal or ºnformal occasions when we feel the
necessity of a speech. e.g, inaugural function, seminars,
corporate meetings symposium etc.
@ Public speaking-
speaking- public speaking is a form of
communication in which a person speaks face to face to
a relatively large audience. ºn public speaking the
speaker speaks in a fairly continuous manner.
Activities involved in public speaking
M Selection of topic
r Background and knowledge
r ºnterest of his audience
r Occasion of the speech/ purpose of speech

2 Audience analysis

3 Researching the topic

4 Planning and drafting the speech

r ºntroduction
r Body
r Conclusion
ë Organizing the speech
Organizing the speaking aids
(speech manuscript, speaking notes, visual aids

 Presenting the speech

7 Other important aspects related to presentation of speech

r Appearance and bodily actions
r The communication environment
r Personal appearances
r Posture
r Walking use of voice
r Avoid a few words or phrases