The RDA Vocabularies

What They Are, How They Work

What We’ll be Doing Today
Sorting out some important definitions A brief history of the RDA Vocabularies A structural tour of the vocabularies,

including:
Rationale and decision making General and FRBR-constrained elements Potential for extension

Language versions of RDA Vocabularies Important related work Putting it all together, and shifting our focus
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What We Can’t Show You Yet
How RDA will be working in the real world
WHY?: There aren’t tools yet, and we don’t

really know what they’ll look like …

But maybe we can make some educated

guesses?

Most likely the tools will be form-based (like

the MARC tools are) There are likely to be fewer places where text is typed in and more where pull-down lists are available (the benefit of vocabularies)
The FRBR structure, if used intelligently by
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vendors, should save time and money,25, 2011 ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May as re-use of data will be easier

About the RDA Vocabularies

Where we started; where we are now

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ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA

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A Brief History
It all started in London, the last day of April 2007

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May 25, 2011

What Was Accomplished
The participants agreed that DCMI and

the Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA should work together to: Develop an RDA Element Vocabulary Expose RDA Value Vocabularies Develop an RDA Application Profile, based on FRBR and FRAD The first two are largely complete and under review; the third is started
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Why Was This Meeting Important?
It represented a recognition on the part

of library leaders of the importance of a more web-focused approach The collaboration begun at that meeting has significantly changed the conversation around library data standards
We’re talking about new ways of creating

and managing data We’re broadening our view of the role of libraries within the larger world of information
7 May 25, 2011 Our new world is collaborative, multi-lingual, ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA

Building the Vocabularies

Decisions and reasoning

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The General Strategy
lWe used the Semantic Web as our “mental model”
lWanted to create a “bridge” between XML and RDF to support innovation in the library community as a whole, not just those at the cutting edge or the trailing edge lWe registered the FRBR entities as classes in a ‘FRBR in RDA’ vocabulary, to enable specific relationships between RDA properties and FRBR

lIFLA has followed suit using the Open Metadata Registry to add the ‘official’ FRBR entities, FRAD, FRSAR and ISBD
9 ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, lThis provides exciting opportunities to relate 2011

Structure: Rationale & Decisions
Property and value vocabularies are

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registered in the Open Metadata Registry (formerly the NSDL Registry): http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm Used RDF Schema (RDFS), Simple Knowledge Organisation System (SKOS) and Web Ontology Language (OWL) Decisions were oriented to favor approaches that can be generalized to make other vocabulary based standards web-friendly, available for use in applications, and easily updated and mapped by communities of ALA TechSource May 25, 2011 practice Webinar:RDA

The Structure, Simplified
FRBR in RDA Vocabulary declared as classes RDA Properties declared as a ‘generalized’

vocabulary, with no explicit relationship to FRBR entities Subproperties for the generalized elements include those explicitly related to FRBR entities (using ‘domain’)
Label/Name includes (Work) or other class to

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provide unique name (unless the entity name already appears in the name of the property) Other generalized subproperties usable by others not tied ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA to FRBR May 25, 2011

Why Generalized Properties?
We think of the ‘generalized’ RDA properties

as the real RDA vocabulary

The ‘bounded’ properties should be seen as

the first pass at an RDA Application Profile Extensions can be built easily from the generalized properties Mapping will be simpler and cleaner using the generalized properties (since most properties mapped to or mapped from RDA will not be based on FRBR) Generalized properties are much more acceptable to non-library implementers (not often using FRBR)
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Property (Generalized, no FRBR relationship)

S e m a n ti c W eb

Subproperty (with relationship to one FRBR entity) FRBR Entity

Li ra ry A p p l ca ti n s b i o

T h e S i p l C a se : m e O n e Pro p e rty -O n e FR B R E n ti ty

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Book format

Semantic Web

Book format (Manifestation) Manifestation

Library Applications

The Simple Case: One Property-One FRBR Entity

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http://RDVocab.info/Elements/bookFormatManifestation

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More Complex Relationships
lThere are multiple techniques used in RDA to make the connection between FRBR entities and RDA properties
lWe tried to reconcile those in the RDA Vocabularies

lSome properties related to more than one FRBR entity
lRelationships in Appendix J actually include the name of the FRBR entity in the name and have separate definitions (we re-used this strategy for the FRBRbounded properties) lOther properties and sub-properties ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May appear multiple times in the text and 25, 2011 ERDs, with the same definitions and no

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Property (Generalized, no FRBR relationship)

Semantic Web

Subproperty (with relationship to one FRBR entity) FRBR Entity Subproperty (with relationship to one FRBR entity) FRBR Entity

Library Applications
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The Not-So-Simple Case: One Property—more than One FRBR Entity
May 25, 2011

Extent

Semantic Web

Extent (Manifestation) FRBR Manifestation Extent (Item) FRBR Item

Library Applications
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The Not-So-Simple Case: One Property—more than One FRBR Entity
May 25, 2011

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Roles: Attributes or Properties?
In 2005, the DC Usage Board worked with

LC to build a formal representation of the MARC Relators so that these terms could be used with DC lThis work provided a template for the registration of the role terms in RDA (in Appendix I) and, by extension, the other RDA relationships
lRole and relationship properties are registered at the same level as elements, rather than as attributes (as MARC does with relators, and the RDA Toolkit does in its XML schemas) ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, lApplications can choose either approach 2011

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“Super” Property

Mapping, Etc.

Subproperty (Generalized, no FRBR relationship)

Semantic Web

Subproperty (with relationship to one FRBR entity) FRBR Entity

Library Applications
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The Roles Case: Properties, Subproperties and FRBR Entities
May 25, 2011

RDA:Creator

Mapping, Etc.

RDArole:Composer

Semantic Web

RDArole:Composer (Work) Work

Library Applications
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The Roles Case: Properties, Subproperties and FRBR Entities
May 25, 2011

Aggregated Statements
lRDA sets up Publication, Distribution, Manufacture and Production statements very much the way they have been done since catalog card days: lAggregation of Place, Name and Date are obvious leftovers from catalog cards lWe viewed those aggregations as ‘Syntax Encoding Schemes’ (as defined in the Dublin Core Abstract 25, 2011 ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May Model)

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Pre-coordinated Statements: Structure
Aggregated Statement (no domain or range)

Domain: FRBR Entity

Aggregated Statement Subproperty

Range: RDA Syntax Encoding Scheme (Subclass of RDF Datatype) Range: [Specific] Encoding Scheme (Subclass)

General Property (no domain or range) Subproperty
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Option 1
May 25, 2011

Pre-coordinated Statements: Example
Publication Statement (no domain or range)

Domain: Manifestation

Publication Statement (Manifestation)

Range: RDA Syntax Encoding Scheme (Subclass of RDF Datatype)

Range: Publication Statement Encoding Scheme (Subclass)

Place of publication (no domain or range) Place of publication (Manifestation)
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Option 1
May 25, 2011

Time for Questions?

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Why This Works
How do we take full advantage of

the RDA Vocabulary infrastructure?
Relationships between properties is

built-in, allowing ‘bottom up’ aggregation of data Repeating the property relationships in ‘nested’ schemas is redundant
Tools to enable easier data creation

(with machine assistance) are critical
Humans using these tools will have

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ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA

access to the structure but need not know all the details

May 25, 2011

ID= 234 5

ID =2 34 56 ha tra sP de ub 987” edit “1 li ion nDate sh catio ” er Publi s ” 456 ha “De ID=23 sh la i co ge “English” gl n r ua “E alLang te P rigin on re 6 hasO ss 2345 si ” es ID ID= r p =2 Ex 34 f 5 eO g a“Kurt Vonnegut” 6 ha ID=23456 hasAuthor u sP ng la a ce sL Of ha ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel” Pu ID=2 456 bl 3456 ic 3 h 2 at asPre io D= ferre I n dTitl “Ne e “Bl w uebea Yo rd, a rk novel ” ” ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, 2011 28

6 h asE dit ion Sta tem ent “1 st

Statements on the Floor?

Is This Really Chaos?
6 h asE dit ion Sta tem ID ID ent =2 =2 “1 st 34 tra 345 56 6 ”de ed h ha 7 ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt tVonnegut” sP itas e “198 a ion Pl” ub ationD li ublic h”ace hasP glis isFormOfWorkshe Of 456 “Novel” n “ En ” r Pu ID=23 sioID=23456 es “ae e “English bl xpr OfE ic lLanguD gla guage a an co ID=2 gina ti rt 3456 asL hasOri on 6 hh 5 6 e asPre D=2345 D= 234 I “Ne I Pr ferre es w dTitl s” Yo e “B l rk uebea ” rd, a ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, 2011 29 novel ” ID= 234 5

ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut”

6 h asE dit ion Sta tem ID ID ent =2 =2 “1 st 34 tra 345 56 6 ”de ed h ha 87 sP itas te “19 a ion Pl” ub ationD li ublic h”ace hasP glis isFormOfWorkshe Of 456 “Novel” n “ En ” r Pu ID=23 sioID=23456 es “ae e “English bl xpr OfE ic lLanguD gla guage a an co ID=2 gina ti rt 3456 asL hasOri on 6 hh 5 6 e asPre D=2345 D= 234 I “Ne I Pr ferre es w dTitl s” Yo e “B l rk uebea ” rd, a ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, 2011 30 novel ”

ID= 234 5

Or an Aggregation In the Making?

ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 hasPreferredTitle “Bluebeard, a novel”

ID= 234 5

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6 h asE dit ion Sta tem ID ID ent =2 =2 “1 st 34 tra 345 56 6 ”de ed h ha 87 sP itas te “19 a ion Pl” ub ationD li ublic h”ace hasP glis isFormOfWorkshe Of 456 “Novel” n “ En ” r Pu ID=23 sioID=23456 es “ae e “English bl xpr OfE ic lLanguD gla guage a co gina ti Lan rt hasOri on 6 has 5 6 e D=2345 D= 234 I “Ne I Pr es w s” Yo rk ”
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ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 hasPreferredTitle “Bluebeard, a novel” ID=23456 hasOriginalLanguage “English”
ID= 234 5 6 h asE dit ion Sta tem ID ID ent =2 =2 “1 st 34 tra 345 56 6 ”de ed h ha 87 sP itas te “19 a ion Pl” ub ationD li ublic h”ace hasP glis isFormOfWorkshe Of 456 “Novel” n “ En r Pu ID=23 sioID=23456 es “De bl xpr E ic la ageOf u at co sLang io rt 6 ha 5 n e D= 234 “Ne I Pr es w s” Yo rk ”
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ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 hasPreferredTitle “Bluebeard, a novel” ID=23456 hasOriginalLanguage “English”

ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel”
ID ID =2 =2 34 ID= 34 56 234 56 56 ” ha 87 ha has sP te “19 sP Edi Da ub la tio blication li unSt h” ce sh hasP glis n Of 56 ate er on “ E D=234 Pu men I essi t Expr “De bl ic la ageOf“1 st tr u at co ade sLang io rt 6 ha 5 edi n e D= 234 tio “Ne I Pr n” es w s” Yo rk ”
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ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 hasPreferredTitle “Bluebeard, a novel” ID=23456 hasOriginalLanguage “English”

Work

ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel”
ID ID =2 =2 34 ID= 34 56 234 56 56 ” ha 87 ha has sP te “19 sP Edi Da ub la tio blication li unSt h” ce sh hasP glis n Of 56 ate er on “ E D=234 Pu men I essi t Expr “De bl ic la ageOf“1 st tr u at co ade sLang io rt 6 ha 5 edi n e D= 234 tio “Ne I Pr n” es w s” Yo rk ”
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ID=23456 hasLanguageOfExpression “English”

ID ID =2 =2 34 ID= 34 56 234 56 56 ” ha 87 ha has sP te “19 sP Edi Da ub la tio blication li unSt ce sh hasP Of 56 ate er D=234 Pu men I t “1 st “De bl ic la tra at co de io rt edi n e tio “Ne Pr n” es w s” Yo rk ”
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ID=23456 hasLanguageOfExpression “English”

Expression

ID ID= ID =2 =2 234 34 56 34 56 56 has ” ha Edi 87 ha sP te “19 tio sP Da ub la nublication Sta li ce sh hasP tem Of 56 er ent D=234 Pu I “De bl “1 st ic la tra at co io de rt n edi e “Ne Pr tio es w n” s” Yo rk ”
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ID=23456 hasPublicationDate “1987”

ID= 234 56 has Edi tio nSt ate men t “ 1 st

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ID ID =2 =2 34 34 56 56 ha ha sP sP ub la li ce sh Of er Pu “De bl ic la tra at co io de rt n edi e “Ne Pr tio es w n” s” Yo rk ”
May 25, 2011

ID=23456 hasPublicationDate “1987”

=23456 hasEditionStatement “1st trade edition”

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ID ID =2 =2 34 34 56 56 ha ha sP sP ub la li ce sh Of er Pu “De bl ic la at co io rt n e “Ne Pr es w s” Yo rk ”
May 25, 2011

ID=23456 hasPublicationDate “1987”

=23456 hasEditionStatement “1st trade edition” ID=23456 hasPublisher “Delacorte Press”

ID =2 34 56

ha sP la ce Of Pu bl ic at

io n

“Ne w

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Yo rk ”

ID=23456 hasPublicationDate “1987”

=23456 hasEditionStatement “1st trade edition” ID=23456 hasPublisher “Delacorte Press”

Manifestation

ID=23456 hasPlaceOfPublication “New York”

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that Edition Statement is a Manifestation Property

Edition Statement

Edition Statement (Manifestation)
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R e l ti n sh i d e fi e d h e re a o p n

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Extension
The inclusion of generalized properties

provides a path for extension of RDA into specialized library communities and nonlibrary communities
They may have a different notion of how

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FRBR ‘aggregates’ For example, a colorized version of a film may be viewed as a separate work They may not wish to use FRBR at all They may have additional properties to include, that have a relationship to the RDA properties This allows other communities to use ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, 2011 this data without problems

R D A : a d a p te d A s
ha y sSu bp ro pe rt

R D A : a d a p te d A sA R a d i S cri t o p

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R D A : a d a p te d A s
sS ha y t er op pr ub

hasSu bprop y ert

R D A : a d a p te d A sA R a d i S cri t o p

K i Li : a d a p te d A sA Pi re B o o k d t ctu

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R D A : a d a p te d A s

hasSu bprop y ert

R D A : a d a p te d A sA R a d i S cri t o p

t er op pr ub sS ha y

KidLit:adaptedAsAChapterBook

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t per pro Sub has y

K i Li : a d a p te d A sA Pi re B o o k d t ctu

May 25, 2011

What Does This Structure Buy Us?
Release from the tyranny of records Potential for use with a variety of

encodings Ability to maintain statements at a more granular level Opportunity to re-think how we build, maintain and share data Potential for sharing data beyond the library silo A challenge to our old notions of what library data can do and should be doing
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What We’ve Learned
We wrote about the decisions we made

for RDA in DLib Magazine:

http://dlib.org/dlib/january10/hillmann/01hillmann.
We need to continue to disclose what

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we’ve learned and work on building best practices documentation in this environment We need research and innovation to help us move forward! Review by JSC is in process, and announcements will be made when ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA vocabularies are ‘published’ May 25, 2011

What About Internationalization?

And other library vocabularies?

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Multi-Lingual RDA
Registered elements and vocabularies

can include multiple languages The Open Metadata Registry has been working with the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek to demonstrate this with German translations in the OMR
Other language versions being discussed

with national libraries and language groups by ALA Publishing in conjunction with translations of RDA guidance text

OMR enhancements are planned to
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make building of language versions2011 ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, easier

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Important Related Work: IFLA
“Functional Requirements” family or

“FRBR family of models”:

FRBR, 1998: Bibliographic Records [data] FRAD, 2009: Authority Data FRSAD, 2010: Subject Authority Data

Consolidated model in development
RDF/XML representation of the consolidated

edition of ISBD in development Relating FR, ISBD and RDA, SKOS, FOAF, etc.

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FR in RDF
Representation of FRBRer model element set

is mainly complete

Classes and properties have “approved”

status FRAD and FRSAD close behind

Representation in Resource Description

Framework Schema (RDFS) is informing work on combining and consolidating the model family
Also supplies “learning curve” for Semantic

Web environment

FRBR is a conceptual model built on the E-R
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methodology which is intrinsically applicable to representation in RDF, May 25, 2011 while ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA ISBD is a data standard

RDA p ro p e rti s e
E xte n t

E xte n t ( M /)

E xte n t o f textE xte n t o f sti li a g e E xte n t ( I l m /)

E xte n t o f te xt ( M /)

E xte n t o f text ( I/)E xte n t o f sti li a g e ( I E xte n t o f sti li a g e ( M /) l m /) l m

La b e l ( Domain / Range ) 55

S u b p ro p e r ty May 25, 2011

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R D A /I FLA p ro p e rti s ( m i i a l e n m l n ka g e ) i
E xte n t has exte n t

h a s exte n t o f th e ca rri r e

h a s exte n t ( R /)

E xte n t o f te xt

E xte n t ( M /)

h a s exte n t o f th e ca rri r ( M /) e N o te : M a n i sta ti n su b -cl ss- o f fe o a R e so u rce

E xte n t o f te xt ( M /) FR B R l te i La b e l ( Domain / Range ) 56 S u b p ro p e r ty Sam e As RD A FR B R IS B D l te i IS B D May 25, 2011

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R D A /I FLA p ro p e rti s ( m a xi u m e m l n ka g e ) i
E xte n t has exte n t

h a s exte n t o f th e ca rri r e

h a s exte n t ( R /)

E xte n t o f te xt

E xte n t ( M /)

h a s exte n t o f th e ca rri r ( M /) e

E xte n t o f te xt ( M /) RD A La b e l S u b p ro p e r Sam e ( Domain / Range ) ty As ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA 57 FR B R FR B R l te i IS B D IS B D l te i May 25, 2011

R D A /I FLA / o th e r p ro p e rti s ( m i i a l e n m l n ka g e ) i
fo rm a t

E xte n t

has exte n t h a s exte n t o f th e ca rri r e h a s exte n t ( R /)

E xte n t (/ S )

E xte n t o f te xt E xte n t o f te xt ( M /)

E xte n t ( M /)

h a s exte n t o f th e ca rri r ( M /) e

num Vol m es u (C /l ) N o te : D o cu m e n t su b -cl ss- o f a a sse s: M a n i sta ti n , R e so u rce , C o l e cti n , D o cu m e n t, S i O rD u ra ti n , fe o l o ze o R e so u rce e ra l S u b p ro p e r Sam e La b e l RD FR B IS B DC B IB ty As ( Domain / Range ) A R D T O ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA 58 D FR B R l te IS B D l te i i May 25, 2011 C

n u m Pa g e s (D /l )

Clearing Up Some Confusion …

What we are (and aren’t) talking about …

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The XML Model of ‘the World’
XML assumes a 'closed' world

(domain), usually defined by an XML schema:
"We know all of the data describing

this resource. The single description must be a valid document according to our schema. The data must be valid.”
XML's document model provides
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a neat equivalence to a metadata 'record’ ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA

May 25, 2011

The RDF Model of ‘the World’
RDF (Resource Description

Framework, language of the Semantic Web) assumes an 'open' world:
"There's an infinite amount of unknown data

describing this resource yet to be discovered. It will come from an infinite number of providers. There will be an infinite number of descriptions. Those descriptions must be consistent."

RDF's statement-oriented data

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model has no notion of 'record’ (rather, Webinar:RDA statements can be ALA TechSource May 25, 2011 aggregated for a fuller description

In Both, We Talk About Statements
In XML these are ‘attribute/value pairs’
Where, in the context of a bounded record

structure we know what we’re describing (there’s an identifier of some kind in the record telling us we’re describing ‘Huckleberry Finn’) Ex.: Author = Twain, Mark
In RDF, these are independent statements,

in the form of ‘triples’:

Ex.: The author of Huckleberry Finn is Mark

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Twain, or Subject = Huckeberry Finn Predicate = hasAuthor Object = Mark Twain ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA

May 25, 2011

Shifting the Way We Think
We need to see ourselves as data

consumers and data providers in a much wider world Our thinking about how we build and share data needs to reflect modern ideas about data creation and use
‘Records’ are aggregations of

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information, not units Our new tools may continue to look ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, 2011 like we’re creating ‘records’ but they

The Old World
V e n d o r R e co rd s

O C LC

C a ta l g o
Human-based Updates S p e ci l C o l e cti n s a l o

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The Newer World
User Interface(s)

V e n d o r R e co rd s

O C LC

Li ra ry D a ta b

Web Data

Human-based Updates S p e ci l C o l e cti n s a l o Data Services
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What Are Data Services?
D a ta S e rvi s ce

Data Improvement Services

Ex.: Match text versions of names with URIs Ex.: Transform MARC records to RDA Ex.: Fix date formats

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What Are Data Services?
D a ta S e rvi s ce

Harvesting/Distribution Service

Ex.: Routinely harvest new statements from approved sources Ex.: Expose new human and service created for use by other services

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What Are Data Services?
D a ta S e rvi s ce

Indexing Services

Ex.: Index full text resources for combined metadata/text search Ex.: Support specialized filtering

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What Are Data Services?
D a ta S e rvi s ce

Mapping Services

Ex.: Provide extended search/browse across forma using a variety of property and value maps Ex.: Support creation and maintenance of mappin and relationships
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The Big WHY?
What are the implications of these changes in the way we see our world?

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What Does This Imply for Us?
We need to expand our ideas of what

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machines can and should do for us, and how to share the load We need to articulate better what we, as humans, bring to the table (and stop thinking we need to control it ALL) We need to educate ourselves about this new world we live in (what it is and isn’t) We need to understand enough to work with our vendors to make it happen in ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, 2011 our libraries

Friendlier Information for Humans?

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May 25, 2011

The World is Waking Up …
LCCN VIAF SELIBR

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And Beginning to Understand …

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Who’s Doing This?
 OCLC
Creating persistent URIs for VIAF authority

records, so that the can be linked from places like Wikipedia Extracting data from Wikipedia and attempting to match data with information already in VIAF (or potential candidates) Thinking about working with Wikipedia to supply more VIAF and WorldCat Identities links to them
 Library of Congress
The Linkypedia pages (and RSS feed) were

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created by Ed Summers, an LC staffer Talking about replacing MARC: http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/news/framework .html ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, 2011

More Questions?

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ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA

May 25, 2011

Links and Contact Info
DCMI/RDA Task Group Wiki:

http://dublincore.org/dcmirdataskgroup/ RDA Vocabularies: http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm Diane: metadata.maven@gmail.com

Slides on IFLA Vocabularies by Gordon Dunsire Flickr images thanks to: Trois Têtes (TT), Craft*ology


78 ALA TechSource Webinar:RDA May 25, 2011

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