You are on page 1of 57

Psychosocial Development During The First Three Years

Chapter 6

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

1

Guideposts for Study 
 



When and how do emotions develop, and how do babies show them? How do infants show temperamental differences, and how enduring are those differences? What roles do mothers and fathers play in early personality development? When and how do gender differences appear?
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

2

Guideposts for Study   



How do infants gain trust in their world and form attachments, and how do infants and caregivers ³read´ each other¶s nonverbal signals? When and how does the sense of self arise, and how do toddlers develop autonomy and standards for socially acceptable behavior? How do infants and toddlers interact with siblings and other children? How do parental employment and early child care affect infants¶ and toddlers¶ development?
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

3

Emotions 
 

Subjective responses to experience Sadness, joy, fear Associated with
± ±

Physiological changes Behavioral changes 

Expressions depend upon culture and personality
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

4

First Signs of Emotion: Crying! 


It is obvious when newborns are upset!
±

Piercing cries, flailing of limbs, stiff body Hunger Pain Frustration

Types of cries:
± ± ± 

More difficult to tell when the newborn is happy
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

5

Emotions: First Month 

Baby becomes quiet at:
Sound of human voice Being picked up 

Baby smiles when gently moved
±

µPattycake¶ 

Smiling and cooing

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

6

Smiling & Laughing 

Involuntary smiles
± ±

Appear at birth Result of subcortical brain activity 

Waking smiles after one month
± ±

Considered more social Elicited through gentle jiggling, tickling or kissing

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

7

Self Emotions 

Self-Awareness
A realization that one¶s existence is separate from others 

Self-Consciousness
± ±

Depends on having self-awareness Embarrassment and empathy

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

8

Self-Evaluative Emotions 


Pride, shame and guilt Require self-awareness and knowledge of socially accepted behaviors Children compare their own thoughts and behaviors against what is socially OK
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 

9

Empathy 

Ability to put oneself in another¶s place
±

Requires social cognition 
Understanding

that others have thoughts and

feelings
±

Ideas about others¶ feelings are used to gauge own behavior 

Egocentrism ± absence of empathy
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

10

Brain Growth and Emotional Development
Four Major Shifts: 
  

Cerebral cortex becomes functional Frontal lobes interact with the limbic system Infant develops self-awareness and consciousness Hormonal changes coincide with evaluative emotions
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

11

Temperament
A biological predisposition of reactivity  Highly heritable and stable  Generally, how mellow are you from situation to situation? 

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

12

Three Temperaments 

Easy
± ±

Generally happy Responds well to change and novelty Generally mild reactions Hesitant about new experiences Irritable Intense emotional responses
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 

Slow to Warm Up
± ± 

Difficult
± ±
13

temperamental differences, and how enduring are those differences? 

Difficult Children: Some babies come into the world with an especially intense and sensitive temperament. They cry a lot, they react intensely to any irritation or discomfort, they want to be carried and nursed constantly, they fall asleep with difficulty and never for long. Because they have higher-than-average needs, these babies need more and more sensitive parenting.

14

2. How do infants show temperamental differences,
Slow to warm up: hard to describe but here¶s a story about a baby that fits the profile:"Brianna is really pretty easy - until something new or unexpected comes up. Then she's like Ms. Hyde. New food, new places, new people disrupt her in a major way. I thought playgroup was going to be a complete no-go: a group of toddlers she didn't know in a place she hadn't been before. But after weeks and weeks on my knee she got into it a bit, and now she 15 enjoys herself there."  

Easy Baby:Some babies are relaxed and easygoing. They are eager to explore new places and things. They respond quickly to change. They can often calm themselves in times of stress. These babies are likely to be sound sleepers and eager eaters. 16

temperamental differences, and how enduring are those differences? 


Making a good fit: coming together "Fit" describes the way a baby's environment - that is, her parents and other caregivers - accommodates her temperament. Parents make the fit good by expecting a baby to behave in a way that feels "right" for her: they expect their shy toddler to take awhile to get used to playgroup; they anticipate that their active baby will tear around Grandmas house; they understand why their slow-to-warmup baby is upset by a new caregiver. Good fit starts with acceptance: Your child's behaviour reflects the way she feels. No one chooses a temperament, it just is.
17

Goodness of Fit 

Adjustment is easiest when the child¶s temperament matches the situation
± ± ±

Physically Socially Culturally

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

18

temperamental differences, and how enduring are those differences?  

What challenges some parents is not the temperament of their baby, but their own expectations ± another challenge is support- parents need support and advice. Acceptance of your child the way s/he is is a wonderful gift
19

Emotions During First 3 Years

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

20

The Mother¶s Role: Harry Harlow
Research with rhesus monkeys  Newborns placed with µfoster mother¶ 

± ±

Cloth mother offered no food Wire mother provided food

Babies preferred cloth mother  The importance of µcontact comfort¶ 

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

21

Harry Harlow, 1950s Surrogate mother experiments 

Critical period for attachment 

Harlow¶s

experiment separated infant monkeys from their mothers a few hours after birth, then arranged for the young animals to be ³raised´ by two kinds of surrogate monkey mother machines, both equipped to dispense milk. One mother was made out of bare wire mesh. The other was a wire mother covered with soft terry cloth. 

Link

to video of harlow
22

The Father¶s Role
Entails emotional commitment and direct involvement  Amount of involvement can vary greatly  In North America., father involvement has increased dramatically since 1970s 

±

More women work outside the home
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

23

Gender Differences 

Gender
What it means to be male or female 

Gender-typing
±

±

Socialization by which children learn gender roles Parents important in socialization

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

24

Gender differences 


Measurable differences are few Behavioral differences between 1 and 2 years
± ± ±

Boys play more aggressively Word choices Perceptions of gender

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

25

Basic Trust v. Basic Mistrust  

Newborns and infants develop a sense of reliability of people and objects Erikson Stage 1: Basic Trust
± ±

Sensitive, responsive and consistent care. µCan I count on you to feed me when I¶m hungry?¶

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

26 

Erikson¶s theory of psychosocial development list trust v mistrust as the first crisis that must be developed. This stage lasts until about 18 months and requires infants to develop a sense of being able to rely upon their caregivers. They need to believe that their physical and emotional needs will be met.

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 27

Attachment 

Attachment: Children develop different styles of attachment based on experiences and interactions with their primary caregivers. Four different attachment styles have been identified in children: secure, anxiousambivalent, anxious
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

28

Attachment in Strange Situation
Attachment Secure InsecureResistant Child¶s Behavior Plays freely when mother is near Happy when mother returns Hovers around mother Angry when mother returns

Inconsistent & erratic Disorganized Seems overwhelmed by stress
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

29

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 30

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 31 

Disorganized children don¶t know what to expect from their parents. Children with relationships in the other categories have organized attachments. This means that they have all learned ways to get what they need, even if it is not the best way. 

This happens because a child learns to predict how his parent will react, whether it is positive or negative. They also learn that doing certain things will make their parents do certain things.

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 32

Influences on Attachment 

Parental
± ± ±

Level of warmth and responsiveness Employment and amount of separation Own memories about their attachment 

Baby¶s temperament

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

33

Long-Term Effects of Attachment
More securely attached children develop good relationships with others  Larger vocabularies  Higher levels of curiosity and selfconfidence  Preparation for adult intimacy 

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

34

Box 1: Postpartum Depression 
 

 

Detrimental effects Babies may become depressed themselves Unusual patterns of brain activity Insecurely attached Treatment strategies
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

35

Mutual Regulation of Emotions
Infant and caregiver responding to each other¶s emotional states  Social Referencing 

Baby¶s attempt to understand an ambiguous situation by seeking out cues from caregiver
What would baby do if you said µYECH!¶ to a toy?
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

36

Emergence of Self Concept 
  

Self-concept: The image of ourselves Personal agency
µI can make that move!¶

Self-efficacy
µI¶m GREAT at making it move!¶

Self-awareness
± ±

Knowledge of the self as a distinct being Rouge test
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

37

Box 2: Toddler Struggles 
 

Are ³terrible twos´ universal? Methods of handling sibling conflict Individual needs versus group needs

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

38 

Erikson identifies this period from 18 months to 3 years where a child solves the crisis of autonomy vs. shame. The virtue is ³Will´

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 39 

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Between the ages of one and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc. (negativism) If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 40 © in the world 

If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack selfesteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their own abilities.

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 41

Autonomy v. Shame 

Autonomy
± ± ±

A shift from external control to self-control Emerges from trust and self-awareness The Terrible Twos 

Shame and doubt
±

Help toddler recognize need for limits

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

42

Moral Development 

Socialization
‡

How children develop habits and values that make them productive members of society Making the standards of society your own 

Internalization
‡

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

43 

Socialization: Human infants are born without any culture. They must be transformed by their parents, teachers, and others into cultural and socially adept people. The general process of acquiring culture is referred to as socialization. During socialization, we learn the language of the culture we are born into as well as the roles we are to play in life. We also learn and usually adopt our culture's norms through the socialization process. (internalization)

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 44

Developing Self-Regulation 
 

Having control over own behavior Conforming with caregiver¶s standards «.even if caregiver is not present Depends on attentional processes ± Ability to monitor negative emotions

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

45

Origins of Conscience   

Emotional discomfort about doing something wrong The ability to refrain from doing something wrong Refraining because they believe it is the right thing to do«not just self-regulation

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

46

Committed and Situational Compliance 

Committed Compliance
± ±

Willingly follows orders without lapses Shows internalization of household rules Follows orders with prompting and reminders
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 

Situational Compliance
±

47

Factors in the Success of Socialization 

Security of attachment  Receptive cooperation  Mutual responsiveness of parent and child

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

48

Sociabililty with Siblings
Becomes a vehicle for understanding social relationships outside the home  Constructive conflict helps children with empathy 

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

49

Sociability with Non-Siblings
Babies who spend more time with other babies tend to be more sociable  Toddlers can learn by imitating each other 

± ±

Playing follow-the-leader Paves the way for more complex games
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

50

Effects of Parental Employment
NLSY found little or no effect of maternal employment on children¶s:  Compliance  Behavioral problems  Self-esteem  Cognitive development  Academic achievement
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

51

Factors in Impact of Child Care 

Structural characteristics
± ±

Staff training Ratio of children to staff Warmth and sensitivity of workers Appropriateness of activities 

Process characteristics
± ±

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

52

Types of Child Abuse
Physical  Neglect  Sexual  Emotional Maltreatment 

± ±

Causes behavioral, cognitive or mental disorders May include rejection
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

53

Traits of Abusive & Neglectful Families 


Perpetrator usually mother Aggravated by:
Marital problems Stressful events (getting laid off) Lack of parental education Poverty Alcoholism Depression
© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

54

Community & Cultural Factors in Child Abuse
Abuse is more likely if:  Criminal activity is rampant in community  There are few community programs  Violent crime is frequent in that country
±

USA v. Japan

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

55

Abuse-Prevention Programs
Teach parenting skills  Offer µrespite homes¶ and µrelief parents¶  Investigate reports of maltreatment  Provide shelters and therapy  Facilitate foster care 

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

56

Long Term Effects of Maltreatment  

1/3 of adults abused as children victimize own children Sexually abused children grow up with:
± ± ±

Lower self-esteem Greater risk of depression and anxiety Risk of precocious sexual behavior

© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

57