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Chapters 1± 2± 3± 4± z-Plane Analysis State-Space Analysis Conventional Design State-Space Design

1

z-PLANE ANALYSIS

z-Transform by the Convolution Integral The Pulse Transfer Function (PTF) PTF of Various Configurations Digital PID Realization of Digital Controllers Digital Filters

2

DEFINITIONS Digital: Refers to those control systems where some signals are not CT but DT

In practical usage, ³discrete-time´ and ³digital´ are interchanged: ³Discrete-time´ is frequently used in theoretical study, ³Digital´ is used in connection with hardware or software realizations

DLTI: Discrete-time linear, time-invariant systems

3

x(t)

x(t)

0

t

0

t

(a) CT analog signal

x(t)

(b) CT quantized signal

x(t)

0

t

0

t

(c) Sampled-data signal

(d) Digital signal

4

usually a numerically coded signal Digital-to Analog Converter (D/A) also called a decoder.Sample-and-Hold (S/H) samples an analog signal and holds it at a constant value for a specified period of time Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) also called an encoder.g. is a device that converts a digital signal (numerically coded signa l) into an analog signal Transducer is a device that converts a physical signal into a different type e. a pressure signal into a voltage signal There are analog or digital transducers 5 . is a device that converts an analog signal into a digital signal.

6 .

0. « ZOH (Zero-order Hold) keeps the o/p at a constant level during the sampling x(t) T Sampler x(t) x(kT) h(t) x(kT) or x*(t) h(t) ZOH 0 t 0 T 2T kT 0 T 2T t 7 .z-PLANE ANALYSIS OF DT CONTROL SYSTEMS Sampler converts a CT signal into a train of pulses occurring at the sampling instants. T. 3T. 2T.

If we consider the sampler o/p to be a train of weighted impulses. then we can have x (t ) ! § x(t )H (t kT ) ! § x(kT )H (t kT ) * k !0 k !0 g g where a train of unit impulses is considered as H T ( t ) ( § H ( t kT ) k !0 g dT(t) 0 T 2T t The Laplace transformation yields X ( s ) ! L[ x (t )] ! § x(kT )e * * k !0 g kTs 8 .

Define eTs =z or s=(1/T)ln z where z is a complex variable. «1 » g X ( z ) ! X * ( s ) ! X * ¬ ln z ¼ ! § x (kT ) z k T ½ k !0 where X(z) is called the z-transform of x*(t). there is a table of z-transforms. 9 . Then. X ( z ) ! Z x (t ) * ? A and X (z) ! § k !0 g x ( kT ) z k As in the case of Fourier and Laplace transforms.

Of a ZOH is 1 e Ts Gh ( s) ! s [See. It is not possible to physically implement a sampler that generates impulses. 10 . p. Ogata. we have h(kT+t)=x(kT) The transfer fn.78-79] Note that the impulse sampler is a fictitous sampler introduced purely for the mathematical analysis.At the o/p of ZOH.

then it is possible to obtain Z of x(t) directly from X(s) utilizing the convolution integral method (Ogata.z-TRANSFORM BY THE CONVOLUTION INTEGRAL If x(t) is expressed in its L as X(s)=L[x(t)]. p. 83-90). X ( s) z ® ¾ X ( z ) ! § ¯residue _ of _ _ at _ the _ poles _ of _ X (s )¿ Ts z e ° À 11 .

For a simple pole at s=s j the corresponding residue K j is given by X ( s) z » « K j ! lim s ps j ¬( s s j ) z eTs ¼ ½ If a pole at s=si has a multiplicity n i then the residue K i is d ni 1 « 1 ni X ( s ) z » Ki ! lim s p si ni 1 ¬( s si ) ds z eTs ¼ (ni 1)! ½ 12 .

X(s) with ZOH Let X(s) be formed as the product of the process TF and ZOH. ¨ 1 e Ts ¸ ¨ G (s) ¸ © ¹G ( s) ! .

e Ts X ( s) ! © 1 1 Ts G © ¹ ! .

The convolution integral yields. L1 e Ts G1 ( s ) ! ´ H (t T X ) g1 (X )dX ! g1 (t T ) 0 13 ? A t . e 1 (s) s ¹ ª s º ª º where G1(s)=G(s)/s.

and the z-transform gives. X(z) with ZOH is obtained as X ( z ) ! G1 ( z ) z G1 ( z ) ! (1 z )G1 ( z ) or 1 1 « G(s) » X ( z ) ! (1 z ) Z ¬ ¼ s ½ 1 14 . Z ?g1 (t T )A! z G1 ( z ) 1 Hence.

THE PULSE TRANSFER FUNCTION (PTF) The pulse TF relates the z-transform of the o/p at the sampling instants to that of the sampled i/p. Consider a CT system G(s) driven by an impulse-sampled signal. 15 . x(t) dT x*(t) y(t) G(s) y*(t) dT We also consider a fictitious (synchronized) sampler at the o/p and observe that the sequence of values taken by y(t) only at instants t=kT.

The convolution sum gives the o/p as y ( k ) ! x( k ) * g ( k ) ! § g ( k h ) x( h) h!0 k For a causal system. Thus. 1.. the sum can be taken from 0 to 8 as y ( k ) ! § g ( k h) x ( h) h !0 g k=0. the z-transform of y(k) becomes 16 . where g(k-h)=0 for h>k. 2.

Y ( z ) ! § y ( k ) z k ! §§ g ( k h) x(h) z k k !0 g g k !0 h!0 g g g g g !§ m !0 § g ( m) x (h ) z h !0 (mh) ! § g ( m) z m !0 m x ( h) z h § h!0 = G(z)X(z) The PTF is given by with m=k-h Y ( z) ! G ( z ) ! Z [G ( s )] X ( z) X(z) G(z) Y(z) 17 .

18 G(s) y(t) Y(s) .The presence or absence of the i/p sampler is crucial in determining the PTF. Y(z) = Z[Y(s)] = Z[G(s)X(s)] = Z[GX(s)] = GX(z) ? G(z)X(z) Note that the presence or absence of a sampler at the o/p does not affect the PTF. Consider a CT system without an i/p sampler. Y(s)=G(s)X(s) x(t) X(s) In terms of the z-transform.

PTF OF VARIOUS CONFIGURATIONS (a) Cascaded Elements: x(t) dT x*(t) G(s) u(t) dT u*(t) H(s) y(t) dT y*(t) Y ( z) Y ( z) ! G ( z ) H ( z ) { GH ( z ) ! X ( z) X ( z) x(t) dT x*(t) G(s) H(s) y(t) dT y*(t) 19 .

(b-1) Closed-Loop Systems: R(s) E(s) dT H(s) G(s) C(s) C( z) G( z) ! R ( z ) 1 GH ( z ) (b-2) Closed-Loop Systems: R(s) dT H(s) G(s) dT C(s) ? C ( z) G( z) ! R( z) 1 G( z) H ( z) (c) Digital Control System 20 .

³*´ indicates of i pulse-sa pled signals 21 .

C(z) = GD(z)G(z)[R(z) ± C(z)] and 22 .103-104 for the use of Starred L] In terms of the z-transform notation. 1 e Ts G p (s) ! G (s ) s and C(s) = G(s) GD*(s) E*(s) or C*(s) = G*(s) GD*(s) E*(s) [See Ogata p. C(z) = G(z) GD(z) E(z) Since E(z) = R(z) ± C(z) we have.From the block diagram we have.

..C ( z) GD ( z )G ( z ) ! R ( z ) 1 GD ( z )G ( z ) where GD(z) represents any digital controller of the form. bn z n GD ( z ) ! ! E ( z ) 1 a1 z 1 . an z n 23 .. M ( z ) b0 b1 z 1 ..

KT/2Ti = K ± KI/2 = proportional gain KI = KT/Ti = integral gain KD = KTd/T = derivative gain and K. Ti.(d-1) Digital PID Controller (Positional Form): KI GD ( z ) ! K p K D (1 z 1 ) 1 z 1 where KP = K . Td are the proportional gain. integral (reset) time and derivative (rate) time respectively of the analog PID as 1 m(t ) ! K [e(t ) Ti de(t ) ´0 e(t )dt Td dt ] t 24 (d-2) Digital PID Controller (Velocity Form): .

25 .

R( z ) C ( z ) K D (1 z 1 )C ( z ) M ( z ) ! K PC ( z) K I (1 z 1 ) The integral term can not be excluded when velocity form is used because it involves the i/p R(z). The velocity form PID exhibits better response characteristics than the positional form PID and does not require initialization when the operation is switched from manual to automatic. 26 . The hardware restrictions of analog PID are ignored for the digital PID because control laws can be implemented by software.

.. This form is applicable to many digital controllers.REALIZATION OF DIGITAL CONTROLLERS The general form of the PTF is Y ( z ) b0 b1 z 1 . the PID controller has a 2 nd order form as.. For example.. bi are real quantities. ( K P K I K D ) ( K P 2 K D ) z 1 K D z 2 GD ( z ) ! 1 z 1 27 . an z n x(k) X(z) y(k) Y(z) G(z) where n=m and ai. bm z m G( z ) ! ! X ( z ) 1 a1 z 1 .

28 .b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2 ! 1 a1 z 1 a2 z 2 where b0 = KP + KI +KD. b1 = -(KP + 2KD). b2 = KD a1 = -1 a2 = 0 The realizations can be implemented by using the direct programming and the standard programming where the coefficients will appear as multipliers and z -1 will correspond to unit delays.

29 . which is also referred to as the direct decomposition. of delay elements are provided by the standard programming.a2z-2Y(z) .(a) Direct Programming From the general form. of delay elements are used. after carrying out cross multiplication. A minimum possible no.« .anz-nY(z) + b0X(z) + b1z-1X(z) + « + bmz-mX(z) In this realization (m+n) no. we get. Y(z) = .a1z-1Y(z) .

30 .

an z n ? H ( z ) ! X ( z ) a1 z 1 H ( z ) . bm z m ) H (z) ? and Y ( z ) ! b0 H ( z ) b1 z 1 H ( z ) . bm z m H ( z ) H (z) 1 ! X ( z ) 1 a1 z 1 .The PTF is rewritten as 1 Y ( z) Y ( z) H ( z) 1 2 m ! v ! (b0 b1 z b2 z ....... an z n H ( z ) 31 ..... an z n X ( z) H ( z) X ( z) where Y ( z) ! (b0 b1 z 1 ... bm z ) v 1 a1 z 1 .

32 .

the system becomes less sensitive to coefficient inaccuracies: * Series Programming * Parallel Programming * Ladder Programming 33 .To avoid the accumulation of errors in the coefficients a i. As a result of these implementations. bi as the order of the realization gets higher. three decomposition schemes may be utilized.

(b) Series Programming G(z) is factorized into 1 st and/or 2nd TF as. G(z) = G1(z) G2(z) « Gp(z) p 1 bi z 1 1 ei z 1 f i z 2 ! v 1 1 ai z 1 ci z 1 d i z 2 i !1 i ! j 1 j x(k) X(z) G1(z) G2(z) « y(k) Gp(z) Y(z) 34 .

H(z) 35 .

H(z) 36 .

128-135) 37 . Ogata p.(c) Parallel Programming G(z) is expanded into partial fractions as G(z) = A + G1(z) + G2(z) + « + Gq(z) q bi ei f i z 1 ! A § § 1 1 ai z 1 ci z 1 d i z 2 i !1 i ! J 1 j Note that the Ladder Programming is implemented by expanding G(z) into the continued-fraction form (See.

38 .

H(z) 39 .

40 .

.any(k-n) + b0x(k) + b1x(k-1) + « + bmx(k-m) 41 .« . bm z m ! X ( z ) 1 a1 z 1 .. Y ( z ) b0 b1 z 1 ..DIGITAL FILTERS (a) IIR (Infinite-Impulse Response) Filter Consider PTF.a1y(k-1) ± a2y(k-2) . y(k) = ... an z n n=m or in terms of the difference eq.

this type of a digital filter is called recursive filter. 42 . Hence. where errors in previous o/p may accumulate.Observe that the previous values of the o/p together with the present and past values of i/p are used to obtain the current o/p y(k). A recursive filter is recognized by the presence of both a i ans bi in the block diagram realization.

i... the impulse response is finite. 43 . bm z m X ( z) or in terms of the difference eq.e. of samples defined over a finite range of time intervals. This type is also called nonrecursive or a moving-average filter. y(k) = b0x(k) + b1x(k-1) + « + bmx(k-m) The impulse response is now limited to a finite no.filter Y ( z) ! b0 b1 z 1 ..(b) FIR (Finite-Impulse Response) Filter Consider a digital filter where all a i¶s are zero.

Observe that. (i) FIR is non-recursive. 44 . then the no. bm ¾ Y ! ¯ ¿ X ( z) zm ° À (iv) A disadvantage of FIR over IIR is that when i/p has high frequency components. (iii) The poles are at the origin and therefore it is always sta ble. ® ( z ) b0 z m b1 z m 1 . (ii) Implementation does not require feedback.. so that direct and standard programming are identical. of delay elements in the filter increases. so that no accumulation of errors through the feedback..

45 .

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