(PAM)
Dr. I. J. Wassell
Introduction
•
The purpose of the modulator is to convert
discrete amplitude serial symbols (bits in a
binary system) a
k
to analogue output pulses
which are sent over the channel.
•
The demodulator reverses this process
Modulator Channel Demodulator
Serial data
symbols
a
k
‘analogue’
channel pulses
Recovered
data symbols
Introduction
•
Possible approaches include
–
Pulse width modulation (PWM)
–
Pulse position modulation (PPM)
–
Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)
•
We will only be considering PAM in these
lectures
PAM
•
PAM is a general signalling technique
whereby pulse amplitude is used to convey
the message
•
For example, the PAM pulses could be the
sampled amplitude values of an analogue
signal
•
We are interested in digital PAM, where the
pulse amplitudes are constrained to chosen
from a specific alphabet at the transmitter
PAM Scheme
H
C
(ω )
h
C
(t)
Symbol
clock
H
T
(ω ) h
T
(t)
Noise N(ω )
Channel
+
Pulse
generator
a
k Transmit
filter
∑
∞
−∞ ·
− ·
k
k s
kT t a t x ) ( ) ( δ
∑
∞
−∞ ·
− ·
k
T k
kT t h a t x ) ( ) (
Receive
filter
H
R
(ω ), h
R
(t)
Data
slicer
Recovered
symbols
Recovered
clock
) ( ) ( ) ( t v kT t h a t y
k
k
+ − ·
∑
∞
−∞ ·
Modulator
Demodulator
PAM
• In binary PAM, each symbol a
k
takes only
two values, say {A
1
and A
2
}
•
In a multilevel, i.e., Mary system, symbols
may take M values {A
1
, A
2
,... A
M
}
•
Signalling period, T
•
Each transmitted pulse is given by
) ( kT t h a
T k
−
Where h
T
(t) is the time domain pulse shape
PAM
•
To generate the PAM output signal, we may
choose to represent the input to the transmit
filter h
T
(t) as a train of weighted impulse
functions
∑
∞
−∞ ·
− ·
k
k s
kT t a t x ) ( ) ( δ
• Consequently, the filter output x(t) is a train of
pulses, each with the required shape h
T
(t)
∑
∞
−∞ ·
− ·
k
T k
kT t h a t x ) ( ) (
PAM
•
Filtering of impulse train in transmit filter
Transmit
Filter
∑
∞
−∞ ·
− ·
k
T k
kT t h a t x ) ( ) (
∑
∞
−∞ ·
− ·
k
k s
kT t a t x ) ( ) ( δ
) (t h
T
) (t x
s
) (t x
PAM
•
Clearly not a practical technique so
–
Use a practical input pulse shape, then filter to
realise the desired output pulse shape
–
Store a sampled pulse shape in a ROM and read out
through a D/A converter
•
The transmitted signal x(t) passes through the
channel H
C
(ω ) and the receive filter H
R
(ω ).
•
The overall frequency response is
H(ω ) = H
T
(ω ) H
C
(ω ) H
R
(ω )
PAM
•
Hence the signal at the receiver filter output is
) ( ) ( ) ( t v kT t h a t y
k
k
+ − ·
∑
∞
−∞ ·
Where h(t) is the inverse Fourier transform of H(ω )
and v(t) is the noise signal at the receive filter
output
•
Data detection is now performed by the Data
Slicer
PAM Data Detection
• Sampling y(t), usually at the optimum instant
t=nT+t
d
when the pulse magnitude is the greatest
yields
n
k
d k d n
v t T k n h a t nT y y + + − · + ·
∑
∞
−∞ ·
) ) (( ) (
Where v
n
=v(nT+t
d
) is the sampled noise and t
d
is the
time delay required for optimum sampling
•
y
n
is then compared with threshold(s) to determine
the recovered data symbols
PAM Data Detection
Data Slicer decision
threshold = 0V
0
Signal at data
slicer input, y(t)
Sample clock
Sampled signal,
y
n
= y(nT+t
d
)
Ideal sample instants
at t = nT+t
d
0
TX data
TX symbol, a
k
‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’
+A A A +A A
Detected data ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’
Τ
t
d
Synchronisation
•
We need to derive an accurate clock signal at
the receiver in order that y(t) may be sampled at
the correct instant
•
Such a signal may be available directly (usually
not because of the waste involved in sending a
signal with no information content)
•
Usually, the sample clock has to be derived
directly from the received signal.
Synchronisation
•
The ability to extract a symbol timing clock
usually depends upon the presence of transitions
or zero crossings in the received signal.
•
Line coding aims to raise the number of such
occurrences to help the extraction process.
•
Unfortunately, simple line coding schemes often
do not give rise to transitions when long runs of
constant symbols are received.
Synchronisation
•
Some line coding schemes give rise to a
spectral component at the symbol rate
•
A BPF or PLL can be used to extract this
component directly
•
Sometimes the received data has to be non
linearly processed eg, squaring, to yield a
component of the correct frequency.
Intersymbol Interference
•
If the system impulse response h(t) extends over
more than 1 symbol period, symbols become
smeared into adjacent symbol periods
•
Known as intersymbol interference (ISI)
•
The signal at the slicer input may be rewritten as
n
n k
d k d n n
v t T k n h a t h a y + + − + ·
∑
≠
) ) (( ) (
– The first term depends only on the current symbol a
n
–
The summation is an interference term which
depends upon the surrounding symbols
Intersymbol Interference
•
Example
–
Response h(t) is ResistorCapacitor (RC) first
order arrangement Bit duration is T
•
For this example we will assume that a
binary ‘0’ is sent as 0V.
Time (bit periods)
0 2 4 6
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0.5
1.0
Time (bit periods)
0 2 4 6
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0.5
1.0
Modulator input Slicer input
Binary ‘1’ Binary ‘1’
Intersymbol Interference
•
The received pulse at the slicer now extends
over 4 bit periods giving rise to ISI.
•
The actual received signal is the
superposition of the individual pulses
time (bit periods)
0 2 4 6
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0.5
1.0
‘1’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’
Intersymbol Interference
•
For the assumed data the signal at the slicer
input is,
•
Clearly the ease in making decisions is data
dependant
time (bit periods)
0 2 4 6
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0.5
1.0
Note nonzero values at ideal sample instants
corresponding with the transmission of binary ‘0’s
‘1’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’
Decision threshold
Intersymbol Interference
•
Matlab generated plot showing pulse superposition
(accurately)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Decision
threshold
time (bit periods)
Received
signal
Individual
pulses
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Intersymbol Interference
•
Sending a longer data sequence yields the
following received waveform at the slicer input
Decision
threshold
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Decision
threshold
(Also showing
individual pulses)
Eye Diagrams
•
Worst case error performance in noise can be
obtained by calculating the worst case ISI over all
possible combinations of input symbols.
•
A convenient way of measuring ISI is the eye
diagram
•
Practically, this is done by displaying y(t) on a
scope, which is triggered using the symbol clock
•
The overlaid pulses from all the different symbol
periods will lead to a crisscrossed display, with
an eye in the middle
Example RC response
Eye Diagram
Decision
threshold
Optimum sample instant
h = eye height
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
h
Eye Diagrams
•
The size of the eye opening, h (eye height)
determines the probability of making incorrect
decisions
•
The instant at which the max eye opening occurs
gives the sampling time t
d
•
The width of the eye indicates the resilience to
symbol timing errors
•
For Mary transmission, there will be M1 eyes
Eye Diagrams
•
The generation of a representative eye
assumes the use of random data symbols
•
For simple channel pulse shapes with
binary symbols, the eye diagram may be
constructed manually by finding the worst
case ‘1’ and worst case ‘0’ and
superimposing the two
Nyquist Pulse Shaping
•
It is possible to eliminate ISI at the sampling
instants by ensuring that the received pulses
satisfy the Nyquist pulse shaping criterion
• We will assume that t
d
=0, so the slicer input is
n
n k
k n n
v T k n h a h a y + − + ·
∑
≠
) ) (( ) 0 (
•
If the received pulse is such that
¹
'
¹
≠
·
·
0 for 0
0 for 1
) (
n
n
nT h
Nyquist Pulse Shaping
•
Then
n n n
v a y + ·
and so ISI is avoided
•
This condition is only achieved if
T
T
k
f H
k
·
,
`
.

+
∑
∞
−∞ ·
•
That is the pulse spectrum, repeated at
intervals of the symbol rate sums to a
constant value T for all frequencies
Nyquist Pulse Shaping
1/
Τ
−1/Τ 0
T
−2/Τ 2/Τ
f
0
H(f)
T
f
Why?
•
Sample h(t) with a train of δ pulses at times kT
∑
∞
−∞ ·
− ·
k
s
kT t t h t h ) ( ) ( ) ( δ
•
Consequently the spectrum of h
s
(t) is
∑
− ·
k
s
T k H
T
H ) 2 (
1
) ( π ω ω
•
Remember for zero ISI
¹
'
¹
≠
·
·
0 for 0
0 for 1
) (
n
n
nT h
Why?
•
Consequently h
s
(t)=δ (t)
• The spectrum of δ (t)=1, therefore
1 ) 2 (
1
) ( · − ·
∑
k
s
T k H
T
H π ω ω
•
Substituting f=ω /2π gives the Nyquist
pulse shaping criterion
∑
· −
k
T T k f H ) (
Nyquist Pulse Shaping
1/
Τ
−1/Τ 0
T
−2/Τ 2/Τ
f
•
No pulse bandwidth less than 1/2T can
satisfy the criterion, eg,
Clearly, the repeated spectra do not sum to a constant value
Nyquist Pulse Shaping
•
The minimum bandwidth pulse spectrum
H(f), ie, a rectangular spectral shape, has a
sinc pulse response in the time domain,
¹
'
¹
< <
·
elsewhere 0
2 1 2T 1  for
) (
T f T
f H
•
The sinc pulse shape is very sensitive to
errors in the sample timing, owing to its low
rate of sidelobe decay
Nyquist Pulse Shaping
•
Hard to design practical ‘brickwall’ filters,
consequently filters with smooth spectral
rolloff are preferred
•
Pulses may take values for t<0 (ie non
causal). No problem in a practical system
because delays can be introduced to enable
approximate realisation.
Causal Response
Noncausal response
T = 1 s
Causal response
T = 1s
Delay, t
d
= 10s
Raised Cosine (RC) FallOff
Pulse Shaping
•
Practically important pulse shapes which
satisfy the criterion are those with Raised
Cosine (RC) rolloff
•
The pulse spectrum is given by
2 1 2 1
2 1 0
) 2 1 (
4
cos
2 1
) (
2
β β
β
β
β
π
β
+ ≤ < −
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ >
+ −
− ≤
· T f T
T f
T f T
T f T
f H
With, 0<β <1/2T
RC Pulse Shaping
•
The general RC function is as follows,
H(f)
f (Hz)
T
0
T 2
1
β +
T 2
1
β −
T 2
1
T
1
2 1 2 1
2 1 0
) 2 1 (
4
cos
2 1
) (
2
β β
β
β
β
π
β
+ ≤ < −
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ >
+ −
− ≤
· T f T
T f
T f T
T f T
f H
RC Pulse Shaping
•
The corresponding time domain pulse shape
is given by,
( )
,
`
.

−
,
`
.

,
`
.

,
`
.

·
2
4 1
2 cos
sin
) (
t
t
t
T
t
T
t h
β
πβ
π
π
•
Now β allows a tradeoff between bandwidth and the pulse decay
rate
•
Sometimes β is normalised as follows,
( )
T
x
2
1
β
·
RC Pulse Shaping
•
With β =0 (i.e., x = 0) the spectrum of the filter is
rectangular and the time domain response is a sinc
pulse, that is,
T f T f H 2 1 ) ( ≤ ·
,
`
.

,
`
.

,
`
.

·
t
T
t
T
t h
π
π
sin
) (
•
The time domain pulse has zero crossings at
intervals of nT as desired (See plots for x = 0).
RC Pulse Shaping
•
With β =(1/2T), (i.e., x = 1) the spectrum of the
filter is full RC and the time domain response is a
pulse with low sidelobe levels, that is,
T f
Tf
T f H 1
2
cos ) (
2
≤
,
`
.

·
π
,
`
.

,
`
.

−
· t
T
t
T
t h
π 2
sinc
4
1
1
) (
2
2
•
The time domain pulse has zero crossings at
intervals of nT/2, with the exception at T/2
where there is no zero crossing. See plots for x
= 1.
RC Pulse Shaping
Normalised Spectrum H(f)/T Pulse Shape h(t)
x ·
0
x · 0.
5
x · 1
f *T t/T
RC Pulse Shaping Example 1
•
Eye diagram
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
•
Pulse shape and received signal, x = 0 (β = 0)
RC Pulse Shaping Example 2
•
Eye diagram
•
Pulse shape and received signal, x = 1 (β = 1/2T)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
RC Pulse Shaping Example
•
The much wider eye opening for x = 1 gives
a much greater tolerance to inaccurate
sample clock timing
•
The penalty is the much wider transmitted
bandwidth
Probability of Error
•
In the presence of noise, there will be a finite chance of
decision errors at the slicer output
• The smaller the eye, the higher the chance that the noise will
cause an error. For a binary system a transmitted ‘1’ could
be detected as a ‘0’ and viceversa
• In a PAM system, the probability of error is,
P
e
=Pr{A received symbol is incorrectly detected}
•
For a binary system, P
e
is known as the bit error probability,
or the bit error rate (BER)
BER
•
The received signal at the slicer is
n i n
v V y + ·
Where V
i
is the received signal voltage and
V
i
=V
o
for a transmitted ‘0’ or
V
i
=V
1
for a transmitted ‘1’
• With zero ISI and an overall unity gain, V
i
=a
n
,
the current transmitted binary symbol
•
Suppose the noise is Gaussian, with zero mean
and variance
2
v
σ
BER
2
2
2
2
2
1
) (
v
n
v
v
n
e v f
σ
π σ
−
·
Where f(v
n
) denotes the probability density
function (pdf), that is,
dx x f dx x v x
n
) ( } Pr{ · + ≤ <
and
∫
· ≤ <
b
a
n
dx x f b v a ) ( } Pr{
BER
dx
v
n
f(v
n
)
b a
0
BER
•
The slicer detects the received signal using a
threshold voltage V
T
•
For a binary system the decision is
Decide ‘1’ if y
n
V
T
Decide ‘0’ if y
n
<V
T
≥
For equiprobable symbols, the optimum threshold
is in the centre of V
0
and V
1
, ie V
T
=(V
0
+V
1
)/2
BER
y
n
f(y
n
‘0’ sent)
V
T
0
f(y
n
‘1’ sent)
P(error‘0’) P(error‘1’)
V
1
V
0
BER
•
The probability of error for a binary system can be written as:
P
e
=Pr(‘0’sent and error occurs)+Pr(‘1’sent and error occurs)
≥
≥
) ( ) 0  (
o T n
V V v P error P − ≥ ·
1
) 1  ( ) 0  ( P error P P error P P
o e
+ ·
•
For ‘0’ sent: an error occurs when y
n
V
T
–
let v
n
=y
n
V
o
, so when y
n
=V
o
, v
n
=0 and when y
n
=V
T
, v
n
=V
T
V
o
.
–
So equivalently, we get an error when v
n
V
T
V
0
BER
y
n
f(y
n
‘0’ sent)
V
T
0
P(error‘0’)
V
0
v
n
f(v
n
)
V
T
 V
0
0
P(error‘0’)
BER
•
The Q function is one of a number of
tabulated functions for the Gaussian
cumulative distribution function (cdf) ie the
integral of the Gaussian pdf.
∫
∞
−
,
`
.

−
· ·
o T
V V
v
o T
n n
V V
Q dv v f error P
σ
) ( ) 0  (
Where,
∫
∞
−
·
z
x
dx e z Q
2
2
2
1
) (
π
BER
•
Similarly for ‘1’ sent: an error occurs when y
n
<V
T
–
let v
n
=y
n
V
1
, so when y
n
=V
1
, v
n
=0 and when y
n
=V
T
, v
n
=V
T
V
1
.
–
So equivalently, we get an error when v
n
< V
T
V
1
) ( ) ( ) 1  (
1 1 T n T n
V V v P V V v P error P − > · − < ·
∫
∞
−
,
`
.

−
· ·
T
V V
v
T
n n
V V
Q dv v f error P
1
1
) ( ) 1  (
σ
BER
y
n V
T
0
f(y
n
‘1’ sent)
P(error‘1’)
V
1
V
T
V
1
v
n
0
f(v
n
)
P(error‘1’)
(V
T
V
1
)
V
1
V
T
BER
•
Hence the total error probability is
P
e
=Pr(‘0’sent and error occurs)+Pr(‘1’sent and error occurs)
1
) 1  ( ) 0  ( P error P P error P P
o e
+ ·
1
1
P
V V
Q P
V V
Q P
v
T
o
v
o T
e
,
`
.

−
+
,
`
.

−
·
σ σ
Where P
o
is the probability that a ‘0’ was sent and P
1
is the
probability that a ‘1’ was sent
2
1
V V
V
o
T
+
·
BER
•
Consequently,
o
v v
o
e
V V h
h
Q
V V
Q P − ·
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

−
·
1
1
min
here, w
2 2 σ σ
•
Notes:
–
Q(.) is a monotonically decreasing function of its
argument, hence the BER falls as h increases
–
For received pulses satisfying Nyquist criterion, ie
zero ISI, V
o
=A
o
and V
1
=A
1
. Assuming unity overall
gain.
–
More complex with ISI. Worst case performance if h
is taken to be the eye opening
BER Example
•
The received pulse h(t) in response to a
single transmitted binary ‘1’ is as shown,
Where,
h(0) = 0, h(T) = 0.3, h(2T) = 1, h(3T) = 0, h(4T) = 0.2, h(5T) =0
Bit period = T
t
0 Τ 2Τ 3Τ 4Τ 5Τ
−0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
h(t)
(V)
BER Example
•
What is the worst case BER if a ‘1’ is received as
h(t) and a ‘0’ as h(t) (this is known as a polar
binary scheme)? Assume the data are equally likely
to be ‘0’ and ‘1’ and that the optimum threshold
(OV) is used at the slicer.
•
By inspection, the pulse has only 2 nonzero
amplitude values (at T and 4T) away from the ideal
sample point (at 2T).
BER Example
•
Consequently the worst case ‘1’ occurs
when the data bits conspire to give negative
nonzero pulse amplitudes at the sampling
instant.
•
The worst case ‘1’ eye opening is thus,
1  0.3  0.2 = 0.5
as indicated in the following diagram.
BER Example
•
The indicated data gives rise to the worst case ‘1’ eye
opening. Don’t care about data marked ‘X’ as their pulses
are zero at the indicated sample instant
t
0 Τ 2Τ 3Τ 4Τ 5Τ
−0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
‘1’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘X’ ‘X’ ‘X’
6Τ 7Τ 8Τ
−0.4
−0.6
−0.8
−1.0
Optimum sample point for circled bit, amplitude = 10.30.2 = 0.5
−0.3 −0.2
BER Example
•
Similarly the worst case ‘0’ eye opening is
1 + 0.3 + 0.2 = 0.5
•
So, worst case eye opening h = 0.5(0.5) = 1V
•
Giving the BER as,
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

·
v v
e
Q
h
Q P
σ σ 2
1
2
min
Where σ
v
is the rms
noise at the slicer input
Summary
•
For PAM systems we have
–
Looked at ISI and its assessment using eye diagrams
–
Nyquist pulse shaping to eliminate ISI at the
optimum sampling instants
–
Seen how to calculate the worst case BER in the
presence of Gaussian noise and ISI
Introduction
• The purpose of the modulator is to convert discrete amplitude serial symbols (bits in a binary system) ak to analogue output pulses which are sent over the channel. • The demodulator reverses this process
ak Modulator Serial data symbols Channel ‘analogue’ channel pulses Demodulator Recovered data symbols
Introduction
• Possible approaches include
– Pulse width modulation (PWM) – Pulse position modulation (PPM) – Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)
• We will only be considering PAM in these lectures
where the pulse amplitudes are constrained to chosen from a specific alphabet at the transmitter .PAM • PAM is a general signalling technique whereby pulse amplitude is used to convey the message • For example. the PAM pulses could be the sampled amplitude values of an analogue signal • We are interested in digital PAM.
PAM Scheme Modulator xs (t ) = k =− ∞ ∑ a δ (t − kT ) k ∞ x(t ) = k = −∞ ∑ a h (t − kT ) k T ∞ ak Pulse generator Transmit filter HT(ω ) hT(t) Symbol clock Recovered symbols Demodulator y (t ) = k = −∞ ∑ a h(t − kT ) + v(t ) k ∞ Channel Receive filter HR(ω ). hR(t) HC(ω ) hC(t) Data slicer + Noise N(ω ) Recovered clock .
T • Each transmitted pulse is given by ak hT (t − kT ) Where hT(t) is the time domain pulse shape . A2 . each symbol ak takes only two values... say {A1 and A2} • In a multilevel. Mary system. AM} • Signalling period... symbols may take M values {A1.e.PAM • In binary PAM. i.
PAM • To generate the PAM output signal. we may choose to represent the input to the transmit filter hT(t) as a train of weighted impulse ∞ functions xs (t ) = ∑ ak δ (t − kT ) k = −∞ • Consequently. each with the required shape hT(t) x(t ) = k = −∞ ∑ a h (t − kT ) k T ∞ . the filter output x(t) is a train of pulses.
xs (t ) = k = −∞ ∑ a δ (t − kT ) k ∞ PAM x(t ) = k = −∞ ∑ a h (t − kT ) k T ∞ xs (t ) Transmit Filter x(t ) hT (t ) • Filtering of impulse train in transmit filter .
then filter to realise the desired output pulse shape – Store a sampled pulse shape in a ROM and read out through a D/A converter PAM • The transmitted signal x(t) passes through the channel HC(ω ) and the receive filter HR(ω ).• Clearly not a practical technique so – Use a practical input pulse shape. • The overall frequency response is H(ω ) = HT(ω ) HC(ω ) HR(ω ) .
PAM • Hence the signal at the receiver filter output is y (t ) = k = −∞ ∑ a h(t − kT ) + v(t ) k ∞ Where h(t) is the inverse Fourier transform of H(ω ) and v(t) is the noise signal at the receive filter output • Data detection is now performed by the Data Slicer .
usually at the optimum instant t=nT+td when the pulse magnitude is the greatest yields yn = y (nT + td ) = k = −∞ ∑ a h((n − k )T + t ) + v k d ∞ n Where vn=v(nT+td) is the sampled noise and td is the time delay required for optimum sampling • yn is then compared with threshold(s) to determine the recovered data symbols .PAM.Data Detection • Sampling y(t).
PAM.Data Detection TX data TX symbol. 0 yn= y(nT+td) Detected data ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’ +A A A +A A Τ 0 td Ideal sample instants at t = nT+td Data Slicer decision threshold = 0V . ak Signal at data slicer input. y(t) Sample clock Sampled signal.
the sample clock has to be derived directly from the received signal. .Synchronisation • We need to derive an accurate clock signal at the receiver in order that y(t) may be sampled at the correct instant • Such a signal may be available directly (usually not because of the waste involved in sending a signal with no information content) • Usually.
• Line coding aims to raise the number of such occurrences to help the extraction process. • Unfortunately. simple line coding schemes often do not give rise to transitions when long runs of constant symbols are received.Synchronisation • The ability to extract a symbol timing clock usually depends upon the presence of transitions or zero crossings in the received signal. .
Synchronisation • Some line coding schemes give rise to a spectral component at the symbol rate • A BPF or PLL can be used to extract this component directly • Sometimes the received data has to be nonlinearly processed eg. to yield a component of the correct frequency. squaring. .
symbols become smeared into adjacent symbol periods • Known as intersymbol interference (ISI) • The signal at the slicer input may be rewritten as yn = an h(td ) + ∑ ak h((n − k )T + td ) + vn k≠n – The first term depends only on the current symbol an – The summation is an interference term which depends upon the surrounding symbols .Intersymbol Interference • If the system impulse response h(t) extends over more than 1 symbol period.
5 0 2 4 6 Time (bit periods) amplitude Binary ‘1’ Slicer input 1.Intersymbol Interference • Example – Response h(t) is ResistorCapacitor (RC) first order arrangement.0 0. .5 0 Binary ‘1’ 2 4 6 Time (bit periods) • For this example we will assume that a binary ‘0’ is sent as 0V.Bit duration is T amplitude Modulator input 1.0 0.
amplitude 1.0 0.Intersymbol Interference • The received pulse at the slicer now extends over 4 bit periods giving rise to ISI.5 0 2 4 6 time (bit periods) ‘1’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ • The actual received signal is the superposition of the individual pulses .
Intersymbol Interference • For the assumed data the signal at the slicer input is.5 0 2 4 6 ‘1’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘1’ Decision threshold time (bit periods) Note nonzero values at ideal sample instants corresponding with the transmission of binary ‘0’s • Clearly the ease in making decisions is data dependant . amplitude 1.0 0.
1 0 0 Decision threshold 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Received signal time (bit periods) Individual pulses .5 0 .9 0 .6 0 .4 0 .8 0 .2 0 .7 amplitude 0 .Intersymbol Interference • Matlab generated plot showing pulse superposition (accurately) 0 .3 0 .
5 0 . 4 0 .Intersymbol Interference • Sending a longer data sequence yields the following received waveform at the slicer input 1 0 . 8 0 . 3 0 . 8 0 . 6 0 . 6 0 . 9 0 . 9 0 . 4 0 . 1 0 0 (Also showing individual pulses) Decision threshold 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 . 2 0 . 7 0 . 7 0 . 5 0 . 3 0 . 1 0 0 Decision threshold 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 1 0 . 2 0 .
• Worst case error performance in noise can be obtained by calculating the worst case ISI over all possible combinations of input symbols. • A convenient way of measuring ISI is the eye diagram • Practically, this is done by displaying y(t) on a scope, which is triggered using the symbol clock • The overlaid pulses from all the different symbol periods will lead to a crisscrossed display, with an eye in the middle
Eye Diagrams
Example RC response
Eye Diagram
1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
h = eye height h Decision threshold
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Optimum sample instant
Eye Diagrams
• The size of the eye opening, h (eye height) determines the probability of making incorrect decisions • The instant at which the max eye opening occurs gives the sampling time td • The width of the eye indicates the resilience to symbol timing errors • For Mary transmission, there will be M1 eyes
Eye Diagrams • The generation of a representative eye assumes the use of random data symbols • For simple channel pulse shapes with binary symbols. the eye diagram may be constructed manually by finding the worst case ‘1’ and worst case ‘0’ and superimposing the two .
Nyquist Pulse Shaping • It is possible to eliminate ISI at the sampling instants by ensuring that the received pulses satisfy the Nyquist pulse shaping criterion • We will assume that td=0. so the slicer input is yn = an h(0) + ∑ ak h((n − k )T ) + vn • If the received pulse is such that 1 h(nT ) = 0 for n = 0 for n ≠ 0 k≠n .
Nyquist Pulse Shaping • Then y n = a n + vn and so ISI is avoided • This condition is only achieved if k ∑ H f + T = T k = −∞ ∞ • That is the pulse spectrum. repeated at intervals of the symbol rate sums to a constant value T for all frequencies .
Nyquist Pulse Shaping H(f) T 0 f T − 2/Τ − 1/Τ 0 1/ Τ 2/Τ f .
Why? • Sample h(t) with a train of δ pulses at times kT hs (t ) = h(t ) ∑ δ (t − kT) ∞ k = −∞ • Consequently the spectrum of hs(t) is 1 H s (ω ) = ∑ H (ω − k 2π T ) T k • Remember for zero ISI 1 h(nT ) = 0 for n = 0 for n ≠ 0 .
therefore 1 H s (ω ) = ∑ H (ω − k 2π T ) = 1 T k • Substituting f=ω /2π gives the Nyquist pulse shaping criterion ∑ H( f − k T) = T k .Why? • Consequently hs(t)=δ (t) • The spectrum of δ (t)=1.
T f 1/ 2/Τ Τ Clearly.Nyquist Pulse Shaping • No pulse bandwidth less than 1/2T can satisfy the criterion. eg. the repeated spectra do not sum to a constant value − 2/Τ − 1/Τ 0 .
T H( f ) = 0 for . has a sinc pulse response in the time domain.Nyquist Pulse Shaping • The minimum bandwidth pulse spectrum H(f). ie.1 2T < f < 1 2T elsewhere • The sinc pulse shape is very sensitive to errors in the sample timing. a rectangular spectral shape. owing to its low rate of sidelobe decay .
No problem in a practical system because delays can be introduced to enable approximate realisation. consequently filters with smooth spectral rolloff are preferred • Pulses may take values for t<0 (ie noncausal).Nyquist Pulse Shaping • Hard to design practical ‘brickwall’ filters. .
td = 10s .Causal Response Noncausal response T=1s Causal response T = 1s Delay.
0<β <1/2T .Raised Cosine (RC) FallOff Pulse Shaping • Practically important pulse shapes which satisfy the criterion are those with Raised Cosine (RC) rolloff • The pulse spectrum is given by T f ≤ 1 2T − β π H ( f ) = T cos 2 ( f − 1 2T + β ) 4β f > 1 2T + β 0 1 2T − β < f ≤ 1 2T + β With.
H(f) T 0 1 −β 2T 1 2T 1 +β 2T 1 T f (Hz) T f ≤ 1 2T − β π H ( f ) = T cos 2 ( f − 1 2T + β ) 4β f > 1 2T + β 0 1 2T − β < f ≤ 1 2T + β .RC Pulse Shaping • The general RC function is as follows.
RC Pulse Shaping • The corresponding time domain pulse shape is given by. β x= 1 2T ( ) . π sin t t T cos 2πβ h(t ) = π 1 −( 4 β ) 2 t t T • Now β allows a tradeoff between bandwidth and the pulse decay rate • Sometimes β is normalised as follows.
x = 0) the spectrum of the filter is rectangular and the time domain response is a sinc pulse.. that is.e. .RC Pulse Shaping • With β =0 (i. H ( f ) =T f ≤1 2T π t sin T h(t ) = π t T • The time domain pulse has zero crossings at intervals of nT as desired (See plots for x = 0).
that is.e. with the exception at T/2 where there is no zero crossing.RC Pulse Shaping • With β =(1/2T). . See plots for x = 1. (i. x = 1) the spectrum of the filter is full RC and the time domain response is a pulse with low sidelobe levels. πTf H ( f ) = T cos 2 2 f ≤1 T 1 2π h(t ) = sinc t 4 2 T 1 − 2 t T • The time domain pulse has zero crossings at intervals of nT/2..
5 x= 1 f *T t/T .RC Pulse Shaping Normalised Spectrum H(f)/T x = 0 Pulse Shape h(t) x = 0.
8 0 . 2 1 0 . 0 5 1 0 0 . 4 1 .Example 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 • Eye diagram 2 1 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 3 0 . 4 0 . RC Pulse Shaping. 6 0 .• Pulse shape and received signal. 8 0 . 5 1 0 . 7 0 . 1 0 . 2 0 2 0 . x = 0 (β = 0) 1 . 6 0 . 5 0 . 4 0 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 9 .
8 0 . 3 0 . 6 RC Pulse Shaping.Example 2 0 . 0 0 . 5 0 . 2 0 2 0 . 8 0 . 4 0 . x = 1 (β = 1/2T) 1 . 6 0 . 1 0 . 9 . 2 0 2 0 . 4 0 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 2 1 0 .• Pulse shape and received signal. 2 1 0 . 8 0 . 6 0 . 7 0 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 • Eye diagram 1 .
Example • The much wider eye opening for x = 1 gives a much greater tolerance to inaccurate sample clock timing • The penalty is the much wider transmitted bandwidth .RC Pulse Shaping.
For a binary system a transmitted ‘1’ could be detected as a ‘0’ and viceversa • In a PAM system. the probability of error is.• In the presence of noise. Pe=Pr{A received symbol is incorrectly detected} • For a binary system. the higher the chance that the noise will cause an error. or the bit error rate (BER) Probability of Error . Pe is known as the bit error probability. there will be a finite chance of decision errors at the slicer output • The smaller the eye.
• The received signal at the slicer is yn = Vi + vn Where Vi is the received signal voltage and Vi=Vo for a transmitted ‘0’ or Vi=V1 for a transmitted ‘1’ BER • With zero ISI and an overall unity gain. with zero mean and variance σ v2 . the current transmitted binary symbol • Suppose the noise is Gaussian. Vi=an.
BER f ( vn ) = 1 2 2π σ v 2 − vn e 2 2σ v Where f(vn) denotes the probability density function (pdf). that is. Pr{x < vn ≤ x + dx} = f ( x)dx and Pr{a < vn ≤ b} = ∫ f ( x)dx a b .
BER f(vn) 0 dx a b vn .
ie VT=(V0+V1)/2 .BER • The slicer detects the received signal using a threshold voltage VT • For a binary system the decision is Decide ‘1’ if yn≥ VT Decide ‘0’ if yn<VT For equiprobable symbols. the optimum threshold is in the centre of V0 and V1.
BER f(yn‘0’ sent) f(yn‘1’ sent) 0 V0 P(error‘1’) VT V1 P(error‘0’) yn .
we get an error when vn VTV0 P (error  0) = P (vn ≥ VT −Vo ) . vn=0 and when yn=VT. – So equivalently.BER • The probability of error for a binary system can be written as: Pe=Pr(‘0’sent and error occurs)+Pr(‘1’sent and error occurs) Pe = P (error  0) Po + P (error  1) P 1 • For ‘0’ sent: an error occurs when yn VT ≥ ≥ – let vn=ynVo. vn=VTVo. so when yn=Vo.
V0 P(error‘0’) vn .f(yn‘0’ sent) BER 0 f(vn) V0 VT P(error‘0’) yn 0 VT .
.BER P(error  0) = Where. ∞ VT −Vo ∫ VT − Vo f (vn )dvn = Q σ v Q( z ) = ∫ z ∞ −x 2 1 e 2 dx 2π • The Q function is one of a number of tabulated functions for the Gaussian cumulative distribution function (cdf) ie the integral of the Gaussian pdf.
vn=0 and when yn=VT. we get an error when vn < VTV1 P (error  1) = P (vn < VT −V1 ) = P (vn > V1 −VT ) P (error  1) = ∞ V1 −VT ∫ V1 − VT f (vn )dvn = Q σ v . vn=VTV1. so when yn=V1.BER • Similarly for ‘1’ sent: an error occurs when yn<VT – let vn=ynV1. – So equivalently.
BER f(yn‘1’ sent) 0 P(error‘1’) VT V1 f(vn) yn P(error‘1’) VT V1 0 (VT V1) V1VT vn .
BER • Hence the total error probability is Pe=Pr(‘0’sent and error occurs)+Pr(‘1’sent and error occurs) Pe = P (error  0) Po + P (error  1) P 1 VT − Vo V −V Po + Q 1 T Pe = Q σ σv v P1 Where Po is the probability that a ‘0’ was sent and P1 is the probability that a ‘1’ was sent Vo +V1 VT = 2 .
– More complex with ISI. ie zero ISI. Worst case performance if h is taken to be the eye opening . Assuming unity overall gain. Vo=Ao and V1=A1. P min e BER w here.) is a monotonically decreasing function of its argument. h = V1 − Vo V1 − Vo h = Q 2σ = Q 2σ v v • Notes: – Q(. hence the BER falls as h increases – For received pulses satisfying Nyquist criterion.• Consequently.
6 (V) 0.2 Where.BER Example • The received pulse h(t) in response to a single transmitted binary ‘1’ is as shown.4 0. h(4T) = 0. 1.2 0 − 0. h(T) = 0.3. h(3T) = 0.8 h(t) 0.2. h(5T) =0 . h(2T) = 1. Bit period = T 0 Τ 2Τ 3Τ 4Τ t 5Τ h(0) = 0.0 0.
• By inspection. .BER Example • What is the worst case BER if a ‘1’ is received as h(t) and a ‘0’ as h(t) (this is known as a polar binary scheme)? Assume the data are equally likely to be ‘0’ and ‘1’ and that the optimum threshold (OV) is used at the slicer. the pulse has only 2 nonzero amplitude values (at T and 4T) away from the ideal sample point (at 2T).
.BER Example • Consequently the worst case ‘1’ occurs when the data bits conspire to give negative nonzero pulse amplitudes at the sampling instant.0.3 .0. • The worst case ‘1’ eye opening is thus.5 as indicated in the following diagram.2 = 0. 1 .
3 − 0.8 − 1.5 0 Τ 2Τ 3Τ 4Τ 5Τ 6Τ 7Τ 8Τ t • The indicated data gives rise to the worst case ‘1’ eye opening.30.4 0.BER Example 1.6 0.0 0.2 − 0. amplitude = 10.2 0 − 0. Don’t care about data marked ‘X’ as their pulses are zero at the indicated sample instant .2 = 0.8 0.2 Optimum sample point for circled bit.4 − 0.0 ‘X’ ‘1’ ‘X’ ‘1’ ‘0’ ‘X’ − 0.6 − 0.
5 • So. worst case eye opening h = 0.5) = 1V • Giving the BER as. h 1 = Q 2σ = Q 2σ v v P min e Where σ v is the rms noise at the slicer input .BER Example • Similarly the worst case ‘0’ eye opening is 1 + 0.5(0.2 = 0.3 + 0.
Summary • For PAM systems we have – Looked at ISI and its assessment using eye diagrams – Nyquist pulse shaping to eliminate ISI at the optimum sampling instants – Seen how to calculate the worst case BER in the presence of Gaussian noise and ISI .