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Alan Lambert 26 November 2007
Sustainability is an attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into an indefinite future.
Development that meets the requirements of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own requirements.
It relates to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-human environment. It is intended to be a means of setting up civilisation and human activity so that society, its members and its economies are able to meet their needs and express their greatest potential in the present, while preserving biodiversity and natural ecosystems, and planning and acting for the ability to maintain these ideals in a very long term. Sustainability affects every level of organization, from the local neighbourhood to the entire planet.
Sustainability- The ability to meet present needs without compromising those of future generations.
Many people have pointed to various practices and philosophies in the world today as being useful to sustainability. In order to distinguish which activities are destructive and which are benign or beneficial, various models of resource allocation have been studied and developed. The need for sustainability analysis and particularly for indicators of sustainability is a key requirement to implement and monitor the development of “national sustainable development plans”, as required by Agenda 21 agreed at UNCED in June 1992.
Life cycle assessment and ecological footprint analysis
One of the striking conclusions to emerge from ecological footprint analyses is that it would be necessary to have 4 back up planets engaged in nothing but agriculture for all those alive today to live a Western lifestyle.
Global Reporting Initiative
In 1997 the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) was started as a multistakeholder process and independent institution whose mission has been "to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines". The GRI uses ecological footprint analysis and became fully independent in 2002. It is an official collaborating centre of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and during the tenure of Kofi Annan, it cooperated with the UN Secretary-General’s Global Compact.
Environmental Sustainability Index
In 2004, a joint initiative of the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy (YCELP) and the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) of Columbia University, in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission also attempted to construct an Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI). This was formally released in Davos, Switzerland, at the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum (WEF) on 28 January 2005. The report on this index made a comparison of the WEF ESI to other sustainability indicators such as the Ecological footprint Index.
Values vary greatly in detail within and between cultures, as well as between academic disciplines (e.g., between economists and ecologists). At the heart of the concept of sustainability is a fundamental, immutable value set that is best stated as 'parallel care and respect for the ecosystem and for the people within that system'. From this value set emerges the goal of sustainability: to achieve human and ecosystem well-being together. It follows that the 'result' against which the success of any project or design should be judged is the achievement of, or the contribution to, human and ecosystem well-being together. Seen in this way, the concept of sustainability is much more than environmental protection in another guise. It is a positive concept that has as much to do with achieving well-being for people and ecosystems as it has to do with reducing stress or impacts.
Critics of Western society state that the philosophy of infinite economic growth and infinite growth in consumption are completely unsustainable and will cause great harm to human civilization in the future. [See: War on Terror/ Consumerism / Globalisation] In recognition that the Earth is finite, there has been a growing awareness that there must be limits to certain kinds of human activity if life on the planet is to survive if not indefinitely, at least for the next millennium. Western consumerist ideals and their impact on the planet? This quality of life is delivered at enormous cost (calculated in terms of its ecological footprint) to the environment.
Some commentators now consider the term "sustainable development" as too closely linked with continued material development, and prefer to use terms like "sustainability", "sustainable prosperity" and "sustainable genuine progress" as the umbrella terms. These have some common principals:
o Dealing transparently and systemically with risk, uncertainty and irreversibility. o Ensuring appropriate valuation, appreciation and restoration of nature. o Integration of environmental, social, human and economic goals in policies and activities. o Equal opportunity and community participation/Sustainable community. o Conservation of biodiversity and ecological integrity.
Ensuring inter-generational equity. Recognizing the global integration of localities. A commitment to best practice. No net loss of human capital or natural capital. The principle of continuous improvement. The need for good governance.
One of the critically important issues in sustainability is that of human overpopulation combined with human lifestyle. A number of studies have suggested that the current population of the Earth, already over six billion, is too many people to support sustainability at current material consumption levels. This challenge for sustainability is distributed unevenly. According to calculations of the ecological footprint, the ecological pressure of a US resident is 13 times that of a resident of India and 52 times that of a Somali resident
Obviously, exponential growth is unsustainable in the long term, regardless of technology or lifestyle. For example, with the 2007 population of 6.5 billion, at the current world growth rate of 1.4%/year, the population will reach 1.49 x 10 in 722 years, which is equal to roughly the number of square meters of land area on the earth. This is clearly an unfeasible, and very undesirable situation.
Critics of efforts to reduce population rather than consumption fear that efforts to reduce population growth may lead to human rights violations such as involuntary sterilization and the abandoning of infants to die. Some human-rights watchers report that this is already taking place in China, as a result of its one child per family policy. [See New Scientist two weeks ago.] Eventually, a culture of unsustainable growth and consumption leads to unrest and imbalance. One consequence is a sudden collapse in population numbers The bacteria in a glass analogy
According to some economists, it is possible for the concepts of sustainable development and competitiveness to merge if enacted wisely, so that there is not an inevitable trade-off. This merger is being motivated by the following six facts (Hargroves & Smith 2005):
o Throughout the economy there are widespread untapped potential resource productivity improvements to be made to be coupled with effective design. There has been a significant shift in understanding over the last three decades of what creates lasting competitiveness of a firm. There is now a critical mass of enabling technologies in eco-innovations that make integrated approaches to sustainable development economically viable. Since many of the costs of what economists call ‘environmental externalities’ are passed on to governments, in the long-term sustainable development strategies can provide multiple benefits to the tax payer. There is a growing understanding of the multiple benefits of valuing social and natural capital, for both moral and economic reasons, and including them in measures of national well-being. There is mounting evidence to show that a transition to a sustainable economy, if done wisely, may not harm economic growth significantly, in fact it could even help it.
Types of sustainability
The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has identified considerations for technical cooperation that affect three types of sustainability:
o Institutional sustainability. Can a strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to end users? The results may not be sustainable if, for example, the planning authority that depends on the technical cooperation loses access to top management, or is not provided with adequate resources after the technical cooperation ends. Institutional sustainability can also be linked to the concept of social sustainability, which asks how the interventions can be sustained by social structures and institutions; o Economic and financial sustainability. Can the results of technical cooperation continue to yield an economic benefit after the technical cooperation is withdrawn? For example, the benefits from the introduction of new crops may not be sustained if the constraints to marketing the crops are not resolved. Similarly, economic, as distinct from financial, sustainability may be at risk if the end users continue to depend on heavily subsidized activities and inputs. o Ecological sustainability. Are the benefits to be generated by the technical cooperation likely to lead to a deterioration in the physical environment, thus indirectly contributing to a fall in production, or well-being of the groups targeted and their society.
A definition of development sustainability is "the continuation of benefits after major assistance from the donor has been completed" (Australian Agency for International Development 2000). Ensuring that development projects are sustainable can reduce the likelihood of them collapsing after they have just finished; it also reduces the financial cost of development projects and the subsequent social problems, such as dependence of the stakeholders on external donors and their resources. All development assistance, apart from temporary emergency and humanitarian relief efforts, should be designed and implemented with the aim of achieving sustainable benefits.
There are ten key factors that influence development sustainability
o Participation and ownership. Get the stakeholders (men and women) to genuinely participate in design and implementation. Build on their initiatives and demands. Get them to monitor the project and periodically evaluate it for results. o Capacity building and training. Training stakeholders to take over should begin from the start of any project and continue throughout. The right approach should both motivate and transfer skills to people. o Government policies. Development projects should be aligned with local government policies. o Financial. In some countries and sectors, financial sustainability is difficult in the medium term. Training in local fundraising is a possibility, as is identifying links with the private sector, charging for use, and encouraging policy reforms. o Management and organisation. Activities that integrate with or add to local structures may have better prospects for sustainability than those which establish new or parallel structures.
Alan Lambert o Social, gender and culture. The introduction of new ideas, technologies and skills requires an understanding of local decision-making systems, gender divisions and cultural preferences. o Technology. All outside equipment must be selected with careful consideration given to the local finance available for maintenance and replacement. Cultural acceptability and the local capacity to maintain equipment and buy spare parts are vital. o Environment. Poor rural communities that depend on natural resources should be involved in identifying and managing environmental risks. Urban communities should identify and manage waste disposal and pollution risks. o External political and economic factors. In a weak economy, projects should not be too complicated, ambitious or expensive. o Realistic duration. A short project may be inadequate for solving entrenched problems in a sustainable way, particularly when behavioural and institutional changes are intended. A long project, may on the other hand, promote dependence.
Barriers to a sustainability culture
The phenomenon of change resistance
o The above concepts focus primarily on the proper practices required to live sustainably. However, there is also the need to consider why there is such strong resistance to adopting sustainable practices. o Unruh (2000, 2002) has argued that numerous barriers to sustainability arise because today's technological systems and governing institutions were designed and built for permanence and reliability, not change. o In the case of fossil fuel-based systems this is termed "carbon lock-in" and inhibits many change efforts. o Also remember Winston’s “Suppression of radical potential” ideas
The real issue may be why is it so difficult to persuade social agents (such as people, corporations, and nations) to adopt the proper practices needed to live sustainability? Thus the heart of the matter may be the change resistance or social side of the problem.
Government and individual failure to act on the available information is widely attributed to personal greed (deemed to be inherent in human nature) especially on the part of international capitalists. most people support activities which would help to stem our headlong plunge toward extermination as a species but most engage in activities which have the opposite effect.
There is an obvious connection: Convergence Consumerism Globalisation Sustainability
The Digital Business world is going to play its part in either the sustained development of our civilisation or its demise. Which will it be?
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