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SEED INFECTION AND TRANSMISSION OF PLANT VIRUSES

Speaker : Somesh Jha Guide: Dr. B. N. Patel Date: 13th July,2001

Seed infection and transmission of plant viruses
Introduction Economic importance and significance Seed Seed infection Why all plant viruses are not seed transmitted? Types of viruses that are seed transmitted Seed health research activities Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

Introduction
Seed - Basic input resource Virus transmission through seed - Highly significant in virus preservation and spread. Seed transmissible viruses - adverse effect on seed and crop health 18% of known plant viruses are seed transmitted

SYMPTOMS ON PODS AND SEEDS OF COWPEA

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

Economic imp. & significance Direct loss
to seed & crop Epidemiological significance Seed transmission of viruses Ecological significance

Barrier to world trade Introduction in new area

Perpetuation

Perennation

Dissemination

SYMPTOMS OF ULCV

SOME IMPORTANT SEED BORNE VIRUSES
AlfaAlfa- alfa mosaic Barley stripe mosaic Medicago sativa Hordeum vulgare Triticum aestivum Bean common mosaic Phaseolus vulgaris Vigna unguiculata Bean southern mosaic Brinjal mosaic P. vulgaris Solanum melongena

SYMPTOM OF CABMV ON COWPEA

Contd« Citrus mosaic Cowpea mild mottle Citrus sinensis V. unguiculata Glycine max Cucumber green mottle mosaic Cucumis sativus Lagenaria siceraria Maize dwarf mosaic Pea seed borne mosaic Peanut clump Potato X Zea mays Pisum sativum Arachis hypogaea S. tuberosum

ULCV ON COWPEA

SYMPTOM

Contd«

Soyabean mosaic Tobacco etch Tobacco ring spot Urdbean leaf crinkle Wheat streak mosaic

G. max Nicotiana tabacum N. glutinosa P. aureus Zea mays

ULCV ON MUNGBEAN

S Y M PT O M S

Seed structure
Seed A fragile, living organism ± a miracle of life

corn (monocot seed)

Seed structure

Bean

(Dicot seed)

Seed infection
VIRUS CARRIED ON THE SURFACE OF SEEDS e.g. TMV

Remains viable as contaminant Seedling infection Mechanical transmission during handling

VIRUS CARRIED IN PARTS OF SEED OUTSIDE THE EMBRYO
BYMV & CMV Testa & Endosperm Sugarbeet Curly Top Virus Perisperm Very few of such viruses result in seed transmission Southern bean Mosaic Sobemovirus IPCV Virus present only in cotyledons and embryo Seed transmission
Reddy et al., (1998)

Seed Formation

EMBRYO INFECTION
Three Ways
Through introduction of virus into the embryo sac by the male gametophyte
Germination Pollen tube grows Infected pollen grain into Embryo Sac Release male gametes (if infected) Infected embryo
Union with egg cell

Union with polar nuclei

Infected Endosperm e.g. Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV) & Alfa-alfa Mosaic Virus (AMV)

SYMPTOMS

Through ovule invasion by virus from the mother plant

Adjacent cells Virus of mother plant (Infected)

Developing ovule in early stage

Infected ovule

e.g. Soybean Mosaic Potyvirus (SMV) route of Soybean embryo infection by invasion of the ovules
Dong Hong Ping et al., (1997)

COLOUR DISCOLOURATION DUE TO SMV

SOYBEAN SEEDS

Through direct invasion of the embryo

Inoculation after flowering

Infected embryo

e.g. PSbMV
BCMV
in bean Location Testa, Cotyledons Transmission Embryonic axis & Embryonic & Cotyledons axis

Bravo and Pineda (1996)

WHY ALL PLANT VIRUSES ARE NOT SEED TRANSMITTED ?
Factors preventing virus passage through seed to the next generation
Inactivation of virus in the embryo Embryo High energy Phosphates Sterility of infected gametes
Direct lethal effects

Low Conc

Medium Unfavorable No virus increase

Virus

Gametes or embryo

Infected seeds prevented

Inability of virus to infect young embryo
Embryo Virus restricted to Vascular System
No vascular connection

No embryo infection

Mother plant

Protection of the embryo from virus infection
Interposition of structures between the mother plant & embryo No movement of virus Embryo escapes infection

Other factors
Environmental factors Host plant and virus Nematode trans. Virus Seed trans.

e.g. tomato black ring virus Listler and Murant (1967) Longevity of Virus in seed Varies one month (Dodder Latent Mosaic) Scott (1961)

to >six years (Barley Stripe Mosaic)

Types of viruses that are seed transmitted

Types of viruses that are seed transmitted
Certain general characteristics Most are readily sap transmissible Transmitted by certain types of vectors e.g. Several non-persistent aphid transmitted viruses Nematode transmitted viruses Listler and Murant (1967)

Contd« Three points of plant reproduction which extrapolate virus trans. through seeds

A relatively long term conductive (embryo-supportive) function is ascribed to the developing suspensor
Infected maternal tissue Virions/ Viral RNA suspensor Developing embryo

Contd.. Cross-communicative interaction between nuceller/integument cells & the endosperm and between the endosperm & interfacing embryo cells during embryogenesis.

Integument transfer cells

VIRUS PASSAGE

Endosperm

Cellular/biochemical factors interacting with virions or viral RNA

Embryo invasion Viral genome Interactive signal Host-plant genome

Rate of seed transmission of some plant viruses
Chickpea 0.1-1.0 % 0.1-2.0 % Jones and Coutts (1995) AMV CMV Australia Lentil 0.1-5.0 % 0.1-2.0 % Soybean 12.6 % (mild mosaic sym.) Kim Yul Ho et al., (1997) SMV Korea Republic 14.1 % (severe mos. sym.) ULCV Mahajan and Joi (1999) Rahuri, India Gallo and Jurik (1995) Slovak Republic Chitra et al., (1999) India

Mung bean 2.0-16.0 % Urd bean 1.16-11.0%

Pea 1.9-32.7 % (PSbMV) (Diff. Cult.) Tomato Bell Pepper 1.0-17.0 % (ToMV) 1.0-10.0 % (TMV)

Contd..
Physalis minima 1.17 % Rajkumar and Jitender Solanum nigrum 2.20 % LMV Mohan (1994), U.P., Nicotiana plumbaginifolia 4.70 % India Cowpea 7.0-32.0 % 1.0-4.7% 1.0-3.0 % Nain et al., (1994) (V. unguiculata) BLCMV CPMV CPMMV Hissar, India Cowpea Cowpea 3.0-25.0 % 10.0-30.0% SBMV CAbMV Makwana et al., (2000) Sheela et al., (2001) Anand, India

Seed health research activities
Several IARCs in the CGIAR system are working
Effect of dry heat on lentil seeds Heat treatment 70° C BBSV eliminated Further plans with PSbMV and BYMV CIP On PVT in true seeds ICARDA

Reports
HW Soybean SMV eliminated seeds 70° C L. siceraria seeds DH Ghufran-ul-Haque et al., (1993) Pakistan

CGMMV K.D. Hyun and Lee. J. Myung 75° C, 3 days inactivated (2000), Korea Republic

conclusion
Seed infection & transmission is related to host-pathogen interactions. Only a minority of these interactions resulting in infection also result in seed transmission Even low rates of seed transmission in conjunction with secondary spread by insect vectors can result in the introduction of viruses into new area and can produce viral disease epidemics Cytoplasmic connections between the mother plant and flower and then developing seeds may influence the seed infection In terms of world trade, seed-borne viruses act as barrier. Hence, detection of seed-borne viruses has to play an important role in quarantine.