Introduction to UML

y y y y

What is Modelling? What is UML? Understanding the basics of UML UML diagrams

y Models are abstractions that portray the essentials

of a complex problem or structure by filtering out nonessential details. y Used for requirements and specifications y Models help us organize, visualize, understand, and create complex things.

What is Visual Modelling?
y Visual modelling is a way of thinking about

problems. y Models are useful for ‡ Communicating with everyone involved with the project(customer, domain expert, analyst, designers, etc.) ‡ Preparing documentation ‡ Designing programs and databases

What is UML?
y UML stands for ³Unified Modelling Language´ y It is an industry-standard graphical language for

specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting the artefacts of an object-oriented system under development. y The UML uses mostly graphical notations to express the OO analysis and design of software projects. y Simplifies the complex process of software design

Why UML for Modelling
y Use graphical notation to communicate more clearly

than natural language (imprecise) and code(too detailed). y Help acquire an overall view of a system. y UML is not dependent on any one language or technology.

The Unified Modelling Language
y Several different notations for describing object-

oriented designs were proposed in the 1980s and 1990s. y The Unified Modelling Language is an integration of these notations. y It describes notations for a number of different models that may be produced during OO analysis and design.

Object communication
y Conceptually, objects communicate by message

passing. y Messages y ‡ The name of the service requested by the calling object.

UML Diagrams
y Use case diagram y Sequence diagram y State diagram y Class diagram y Object diagram y Component diagram y Deployment diagram y Activity diagram

Use Case Diagram
y Used for describing a set of user view Mainly used for

capturing user requirements y Work like a contract between end user and software developers

Use Case Diagram

Class diagram
y Used for describing structure and behaviour in the

use cases y Provide a conceptual model of the system in terms of entities and their relationships y Used for requirement capture, end-user interaction y Detailed class diagrams are used for developers

Class diagram

Sequence diagram
y Sequence diagrams demonstrate the behaviour of

objects in a use case by describing the objects and the messages they pass. y The horizontal dimension shows the objects participating in the interaction. y The vertical arrangement of messages indicates their order.

Sequence diagram

State diagram
y State Diagrams show the sequences of states an

object goes through during its life cycle in response to stimuli, together with its responses and actions; an abstraction of all possible behaviours.

State diagram

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