Types of Instructional Materials

y 1. Concrete objects , including objects

from the world of nature minerals rocks raw materials apparatus

2. Representation of concrete objects and
phenomena globes experimental models charts pictures photographs 3. Descriptions of such phenomena by means of the signs, words and sentences of natural and artificial languages. reference , textbooks, books of problem and exercises , methodological teaching aids , manuals

ALTERNATIVES TO WORKSHEETS
y Increase student involvement and motivation y Require students to apply skills, not just circle and y y y y y

answers , and fill in blanks Emphasize written expression Promote critical thinking Allow all students to experience success Encourage creative expression Require minimal teacher preparation

ACCORDION BOOKS
good for sequencing activities, stories, poems or factual information. Directions: Cut to the desired length. Fold paper in half lengthwise for greater strength then fold I into equal segments. Segments can be cut into special shapes and tape together.

Accordion Books

Awards
y Making awards encourages students to look for the

unique qualities of a book , another person or themselves. Awards generate positive feelings in both the giver and the receiver.
y Direction : y

Have students design their own award . Awards can be made in a ribbon or certificate format.

Belts
y Students love to exhibit their work. Give them an

opportunity to display it in wearable form by making tagboard belts.
y Directions : y After student draw and write on the tagboard strip,

punch a hole in each end and tie a yarn

Bookmarks
y Students love to exhibit their work . Give them an

opportunity to display in wearable form by making tagboard belts, Materials :
hole punch yarn Directions: After students draw and write on tagboard strip punch a hole in each end and tie with yarn tagboard crayons scissors pencils

Bookmarks

Buttons and Bumper Stickers
y Students think creatively as they play with words and

phrases. They learn to get their message across in as few words as possible
y Materials :

construction paper , tagboards circle , crayons/ markers y - make a statement - Friendship - Health Hint y -Campaign slogan - Team Literature

Buttons and Bumper stickers

Chains
y The strip of a chain visually emphasize the important

parts of a whole idea such as interdependence, life cycles. Each student can make a chain or contribute one link to a class chain. y Materials:
Paper strips 3 x 12 Topic Ideas - Attributes - Time line crayons /markers glue pencils

Facts Literature

Life Cycles pattern chain

Chains

Circle Activities
y A basic circle is useful for many activities .This

shape is a natural for life cycles, fractions and circle stories
y Spirals

Cut a circle into a spiral . Write about theme being studied on the spiral

Spiral

Cubes
y A six sided cube encourages multiple responses to

assignments . This in turn stretches student thinking and fosters creativity.
y Materials :

square box, or cube pattern , Tape or glue , crayons , wrapping paper, markers

Directions : Construct cubes from a square box. Cover cube with wrapping paper or use a cube pattern.

Door Hangers
y Offer students an opportunity to write brief message to

others y Experience the excitement of delivery and discovery.
y Topic Ideas: y - Factual Information y - Friendship y - Good News

- School Workers - Invitation - Book recommendation

Envelope and Stamps
y Knowing how to address an envelope properly is an

important life skill. Envelopes can be addressed and mailed, or make believe addresses and stamps can be correlate with specific themes or units of studt. This activity goes hand in hand with letter writing experiences. y Direction: y Students create and envelope and instruct them to write correct procedure for writing the address and return address. Student can design stamps .

Flip -Flaps
y Versatile , easy to make projects that offer fun of

manipulation and a hint of secrecy and surprise
y Material :

12 x18 or 9x12 paper scissors Pencils crayons Directions: Fold paper into eights. Open and cut to center fold . Topic Ideas: - Science - Following Directions - Ordering by size -Math - Phonics - Life Cycle

Greeting Cards and Invitations
y Writing greeting cards and invitations provides a

meaningful way for students to practice written communication. In addition, designing and decorating the card offers opportunities for creative expression.
y Direction : y

Cut construction paper to the desired size students fold the paper in half and write a message on the card adding appropriate illustrations.

Journals
y Making ang keeping a journal is a good project for

children of all grade levels. Journal writing encourages written fluency and the expression of thoughts and feelings. Younger students can draw pictures instead of writing journal entries.
y Directions : y

Staple several sheets of paper together for a simple journal or bind into construction paper or tagboard covers.

Mobiles
y Mobile activities spark creativity and provide another opportunity for students to write. A mobile is constructed around a theme and its parts reflect aspects of that theme.
y Directions:
Students create people or object that represent the theme being studied, then write facts on the back of the pictures or on index cards. Attach the work to the hanger with yarn. Topic Ideas Literature Mobiles Personal Attributes

Historical Figure

Peek-overs and Add-ons
y Peek-overs and add-ons, art projects related to the theme being studied, are added to student writing. These creative additions make especially appealing classroom displays.
y Direction:

Direct students to write about the selected topic. Next, have them design an appropriate peek-over or add-ons. Attach the art to the writing Topic Ideas: Science Holidays/seasons Self-concept

Pop-ups
y Pop-ups add action and an element of surprise to writing activities. Pop-up

projects can be one page or a multipage book. Children love pop-ups and will read them again and

y Directions: Fold a sheet of construction paper in half. Make a tab by cutting two slits on the fold, one inch apart. Push the tab through to the inside. Draw, color, and cut out a figure that will not extend beyond the book page. Glue the figure to the tab

Topic Ideas: Story Sequence Award

Story Setting

Puzzles
y By working puzzles, children improve visual discrimination and spatial

relationship skill. When students create their own puzzles, they learn to think creatively. Writing should be incorporated into the puzzle whenever possible. Puzzles can be reassembled using the picture side or the story side. y Directions: Students create a picture according to the project selected. Next, they write on the back of the picture and cut it into large pieces. Store the puzzle pieces in envelopes or plastic bag. Topic Ideas: Theme-Related Puzzles Puzzling Message Shape Puzzle

Step Book
y This may give students the opportunity to explore on writing their own

book of favorite characters, topics about social studies and science or acrostic poem or writing sequential directions. y Directions: Overlap the three sheets of paper, leaving a 1 margin at the bottom of each page. Hold the pages securely so they remain overlapped and fold . Staple through all layers next to me fold. Write the title on the outside of the top page, or make a separate cover. Write on each step and illustrate under each flap.

Shape Books
y Use shape books to motivate student writing and to

create class books. This shape books adapts equally well to big books.
y Directions: y

Cut the cover and the writing paper into the desired shape .Assemble the book with paper fasteners or yarn.

Triaramas and Quadraramas
y Triaramas are a three dimensional way for students to

display what they have learned. Four triaramas can be glued together to form a quadrarama.
y Directions :
1. Fold top right corner of the square down to the lower left corner. Repeat with opposite corners. 2. Open and cut one fold line to the center of the square. 3. Draw background scene on half of

Venn Diagrams
y Venn diagrams can be used to write compare / contrast

paragraphs.
y Directions :

Have students draw two overlapping circles. Instruct students to compare two topics by listing differences on the left and right and similarities in the center. y Topic Ideas
Character Literature Looking for Attributes Two Books on the Same theme Science

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