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# AIRPORT CAPACITY

landing and takesoff.What is Airport Capacity?  It is defined as the number of aircraft movements which an aircraft can process within a specified period of time. .  Each aircraft makes two movement i. with an average delay to the departing aircraft within the acceptable time limit.e.

Airport capacity will include :       Aircraft movements Terminal Capacity Apron capacity Runway Capacity Taxiway Capacity Gate Capacity etc. .

.  Loading apron space.  Weather conditions.Factors affecting Airport Capacity  Runway configurations and the connected taxiways.  Terrain and manmade obstruction.  Aircraft characteristics and their arrival to departure ratio.  Navigational aids  Aircraft processing techniques.

e.  Reasonably acceptable delay level depends on the aircraft mix for precise estimates of capacity . operations per hour or operations per year.Runway Capacity  Runway Capacity is defined as the ability of a runway system to accommodate aircraft landings and take-offs.  It is expressed in operations per unit time. i.

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Measures of Runway Capacity  Maximum throughput Capacity (Saturation capacity)  Practical hourly Capacity  Sustained Capacity  Practical Annual Capacity .

PHC of a runway system is approximately equal to 80-90 percent of its maximum saturation capacity. Practical hourly Capacity It is defined as the expected number of movements that can be performed in 1hr. .Saturation capacity It is defined as the maximum number of aircrafts that can be handled during a given period under conditions of continuous demand. On a runway system with an average delay per movement of 4 min. Mathematical model are available for the computation of saturation of capacity. depending on the specific conditions at hand.

operations at such a level of full efficiency and maximum performance often cannot be sustained in practice for periods of more than one or two consecutive hours. the ATM system should work to its full potential all the time. to achieve maximum saturation capacity. However.Sustained Capacity  It is measured as the number of movements per hour than can be reasonably sustained over a period of several hours. .  The rationale is that.

.Factors Affecting Runway Capacity     Air traffic control. Environmental factors. Characteristics of demand. Layout and design of the runway system.

horizontal and lateral separations for aircraft in the interest of air safety.  Since two airplanes are not allowed on the runway at the same time.  In the vicinity of an airport. the minimum allowable horizontal separation is typically 3.6 to 8 nautical km depending on the aircraft size. the runway occupancy time may also influence the capacity . availability of radar and the sequencing of operations.Air traffic control  FAA specifies minimum vertical.

normally varies from 6. that.Separation is the dominant ATC factor affecting capacity Others factors are:  Length of the common path from the ILS gate to be threshold.8 km.  Scheduling/ sequencing of aircraft (FCFS/speed class sequence)  Allowable probability of violation of the separation rule recognizes. it is not possible to maintain the allowable separation with perfect precision at all times. .4 to 12.

A runway used exclusively for arrivals have a capacity different from one used for departure or mixed operations. This regulation decreases the capacity of runways that serves significant numbers of heavy jets and small aircrafts. .Characteristics of demand  The FAA has introduced air traffic control rules to increase the separation between small aircraft following a heavy jet to 8 nautical km.  Touchdown speed.  Percentage of all aircraft arrival operations is another characteristic of demand that can significantly affect the capacity of a runway. which. determines the time that a departing aircraft can be released. in turn. braking capability and ground maneuverability affect the runway occupancy time for landing.

 Poor visibility conditions .Environmental Factors  Environmental factors influencing runway capacity are  Visibility  Runway surface conditions  Winds and noise abatement requirements.

.  Number. locations and design of exit taxiways. length and orientation of runways.  Design of ramp entrances.Layout and design runway system  Number. spacing.

. by the number of aircraft per hour that the taxiway system can deliver from the apron areas to the runway system and vice-versa. in theory.  Capacity of the taxiway system of major airports almost always exceed the capacity of the runway system and does not constitute a significant constraint on runway capacity.Taxiway Capacity  The overall capacity of the taxiway system can be determined.

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This is sometimes referred to as the static capacity of the apron.Apron Capacity  Aprons consist of areas reserved for remote and contact aircrafts stands and for the taxi lines that transverse these areas.  A good indication about the available apron capacity is given by number of stands at hand. because it indicates the maximum number of aircraft that can be occupying simultaneous the apron at any given instant. .

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 On the other hand as the name suggests the gate capacity is simply the capacity of the gate.mail and cargo. baggage. adjacent to the terminal and this is generally used for the purpose of loading and unloading of passengers.Gate Capacity  The gate is generally the term used for aircraft parking space. It is the ability of a specified number of gates to accommodate aircraft loading and unloading operations under conditions of continuous demand. .

or through flight.  The amount of baggage and mail.  The efficiency of apron personnel.Gate occupancy time depends on the following factors:  The type of aircraft. .  The number of deplaning and enplaning passengers. turn around.  Whether each gate is available to all users or is allocated for exclusive use of one airline or class of aircraft.  Whether the flight is an originating.

215 X 60 = 13 aircraft/hour.5 x 60) Gate Capacity = 1 = weighted service time = 0.0215 = 0.0215 aircraft/min/gate.the capacity for all gate is Gate CapacityG = 10.EVALUATING GATE CAPACITY Aircraft Class 1 2 3 Mix (%) 15 35 50 Average Occupancy Time (min) 25 45 60 1 (0. or 0. If G = the total number of gates. Gate Capacity = 10 X 0.15 x 25)+(0. .35 x 45)+(0.215 aircraft/min.

 Convey the passengers to and from the aircraft.Terminal Capacity The passenger building is the major connection between airport access and the aircraft.  Process departing and arriving passengers. . The purpose of the passenger building is to  Interface with the passenger¶ mode of aircraft access.

 Transfer passengers going on to other flights.Nature of loads  Arriving passengers.  Departing passengers who will need waiting areas. . terminating their travel at the airport.  Passengers on charter or ³cheap fare´ airlines who will use special facilities.  Originating passengers starting their trip at the airport and needing check-in facilities.  International and domestic passengers.  Shuttle or commuter passengers needing minimal checkin lounge. and baggage facilities.

It¶s just the beginning«««« AN EFFORT BY: Atin Rawat (R120108010) Chandra Prakash (R120108013) Danish Mohd. Khan (R120108015) Manish Yadav (R120108025) .