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Chapter 2

Perception, Personality, and Emotions

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Chapter Outline
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? Factors Influencing Perception Perception and Judgement: Attribution Theory Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Personality Emotions

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Perception and Personality,Consideration and Emotions Questions for
Questions for Consideration
‡ What is perception, and why is it important for understanding the workplace? ‡ To what extent does personality affect behaviour? ‡ Does understanding emotions lead to better understanding of how people interact?

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Perception
‡ What Is Perception?
± A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

‡ Why Is it Important?
± Because people s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. ± The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important.
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Chapter 2. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Third Canadian Edition. ‡ The attribution process guides our behaviour. Robbins and Nancy Langton. regardless of the truth of the attribution. Stephen P. We interpret what we see and call it reality. ‡ We don¶t see reality.Why We Study Perceptions ‡ We study this topic to better understand how people make attributions about events. . Organizational Behaviour.

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Organizational Behaviour.Factors Influencing Perception ‡ The Perceiver ‡ The Target ‡ The Situation Chapter 2. Third Canadian Edition. .

. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Exhibit 2-1 Figure-Ground Illustrations Chapter 2. Stephen P. Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition.

Organizational Behaviour. Robbins and Nancy Langton.Exhibit 2-2 Factors that Influence Perception The Situation ‡ Time ‡ Work setting ‡ Social setting ‡ Attitudes ‡ Motives Perception ‡ Interests ‡ Experience ‡ Expectations The Perceiver The Target ‡ Novelty ‡ Motion ‡ Sounds ‡ Size ‡ Background ‡ Proximity Chapter 2. Third Canadian Edition. . Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Stephen P.

Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton.Factors Affecting Judgment ‡ Attribution Theory ‡ Perceptual Errors ± Selective Perception ± Halo Effect ± Contrast Effects ± Projection ± Stereotyping Chapter 2. . Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Third Canadian Edition. Organizational Behaviour.

Stephen P. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. Third Canadian Edition.Attribution Theory ‡ When individuals observe behaviour. . ± Distinctiveness ‡ Does individual act the same way in other situations? ± Consensus ‡ Does individual act the same as others in same situation? ± Consistency ‡ Does the individual act the same way over time? Chapter 2. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Organizational Behaviour.

Third Canadian Edition. . ‡ Self-Serving Bias ± The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. Organizational Behaviour.Attribution Theory ‡ Fundamental Attribution Error ± The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others. Chapter 2. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Third Canadian Edition. Robbins and Nancy Langton.Exhibit 2-3 Attribution Theory Attribution Observation Interpretation of cause High External Distinctiveness Low Internal High External Individual behaviour Consensus Low Internal High Internal Consistency Low External Chapter 2. Organizational Behaviour. Stephen P. . Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. background. .Perceptual Errors ‡ Selective Perception ± People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests. and attitudes ‡ Halo Effect ± Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic ‡ Contrast Effects ± A person¶s evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered Chapter 2. experience. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Third Canadian Edition. Organizational Behaviour. Stephen P.

Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition. Stephen P. . Robbins and Nancy Langton.Perceptual Errors ‡ Projection ± Attributing one¶s own characteristics to other people ‡ Stereotyping ± Judging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs Chapter 2. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Applications of Perception in Organization ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Employment Interview Performance Expectations Performance Evaluation Employee Effort Chapter 2. . Stephen P.

Organizational Behaviour. ‡ Also called Pygmalion effect. Chapter 2. Third Canadian Edition. . Stephen P.Self-fulfilling prophecy ‡ A situation in which one person inaccurately perceives a second person and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Robbins and Nancy Langton.

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual react and interacts with others. Organizational Behaviour. Stephen P. ‡ Personality Determinants ± Heredity ± Environment ± Situation ‡ Personality Traits ± Enduring characteristics that describe an individual s behaviour ‡ The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) ‡ The Big Five Model Chapter 2. Third Canadian Edition. Robbins and Nancy Langton. .

11. vs. vs. 12. 10. vs. Organizational Behaviour. vs. vs. Stephen P. vs. vs. 13. Third Canadian Edition. 15. 16. vs. vs. vs. 14. vs. Reserved Less intelligent Affected by feelings Submissive Serious Expedient Timid Tough-minded Trusting Practical Forthright Self-assured Conservative Group-dependent Uncontrolled Relaxed vs.Exhibit 2-4 Sixteen Primary Personality Traits 1. vs. . 3. 5. 9. Outgoing More intelligent Emotionally stable Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Sensitive Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Experimenting Self-sufficient Controlled Tense Chapter 2. 7. Robbins and Nancy Langton. 2. vs. 8. vs. vs. 6. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ‡ Personality test to determine how people usually act or feel in particular situations ‡ Classifications: ± ± ± ± Extroverted (E) or introverted (I) Sensing (S) or intuitive (I) Thinking (T) or feeling (F) Perceiving (P) or judging (J) ‡ Combined to form types. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. . Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition. Organizational Behaviour. for example: ± ESTP ± INTJ Chapter 2.

Organizational Behaviour.The Big Five Model ‡ Classifications ± Extroversion ± Agreeableness ± Conscientiousness ± Emotional Stability ± Openness to Experience Chapter 2. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. . Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Third Canadian Edition.

Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Organizational Behaviour. . Third Canadian Edition.Exhibit 2-6 Big Five Personality Factors and Performance Big Five Personality Factor Extroversion Relationship to Job Performance * Positively related to job performance in occupations requiring social interaction * Positively related to training proficiency for all occupations * Positively related to job performance in service jobs Relationship to Team Performance * Positively related to team performance * Positively related to degree of participation within team * Most studies found no link between agreeableness and performance or productivity in teams * Some found a negative link between person¶s likeability and team performance Agreeableness Conscientiousness * Positively related to job performance for all occupational groups * May be better than ability in predicting job performance Chapter 2. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Stephen P. greater degrees not related to job performance * Positively related to performance in service jobs * May be better than ability in predicting job performance across all occupational groups *Positively related to training proficiency *Data unavailable Relationship to Team Performance Openness to Experience Chapter 2.Exhibit 2-6 Big Five Personality Factors and Performance Big Five Personality Factor Emotional Stability Relationship to Job Performance * A minimal threshold amount may be necessary for adequate performance. . Robbins and Nancy Langton. Organizational Behaviour. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Third Canadian Edition.

Organizational Behaviour. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition. . Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Locus of Control Machiavellianism Self-Esteem Self-Monitoring Risk Taking Type A Personality Type B Personality Chapter 2.

Stephen P. . Robbins and Nancy Langton. Third Canadian Edition.Locus of Control ‡ The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate ± Internals ‡ Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them ± Externals ‡ Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance Chapter 2. Organizational Behaviour. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition. maintains emotional distance. Organizational Behaviour.Machiavellianism ‡ Degree to which an individual is pragmatic. . Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. and believes that ends can justify means Chapter 2.

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton.Self-Esteem ‡ Individuals¶ degree of liking or disliking of themselves Chapter 2. Third Canadian Edition. Organizational Behaviour. .

Robbins and Nancy Langton. . Third Canadian Edition. Organizational Behaviour. Stephen P.Self-Monitoring ‡ A personality trait that measures an individual¶s ability to adjust behaviour to external situational factors Chapter 2. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Organizational Behaviour.isk-Taking ‡ Refers to a person¶s willingness to take chances or risks Chapter 2. .

. ± Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. Third Canadian Edition. walking. measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. and eating rapidly. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Organizational Behaviour. ± Cannot cope with leisure time. ± Are obsessed with numbers. ± Strive to think or do two or more things at once. Chapter 2. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Type A Personality ± Always moving.

± Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation.Type B Personality ± Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience. Robbins and Nancy Langton. ± Can relax without guilt. Third Canadian Edition. ± Play for fun and relaxation. . rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 2. Organizational Behaviour. Stephen P.

Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition.Achieving Personality Fit ‡ Person-Job Fit ± Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover. ‡ Person-Organization Fit ± Argues that people leave organizations that are not compatible with their personalities Chapter 2. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. .

Third Canadian Edition. corporate manager Lawyer. ambitious Imaginative. curious economist Sociable.Exhibit 2-7 Personality-Job Fit Type Realistic Investigative Social Conventional Personality Congruent Characteristics Occupations Shy. Biologist. musician Enterprising Artistic Chapter 2. Robbins and Nancy Langton. efficient Self-confident. teacher Accountant. drill press operator Analytical. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. . Stephen P. Organizational Behaviour. original. persistent Mechanic. genuine. disorderly Social worker. friendly Conforming. real estate agent Painter.

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition. Robbins and Nancy Langton. .Exhibit 2-8 Relationships Among Occupational Personality Types Chapter 2. Organizational Behaviour.

Third Canadian Edition. Stephen P. . Chapter 2. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. ± Emotions ‡ Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. ± Moods ‡ Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Organizational Behaviour.What Are Emotions? ‡ Three related terms: ± Affect ‡ A broad range of feelings that people experience.

Choosing Emotions: Emotional Labour ‡ When an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions. Robbins and Nancy Langton. . Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Organizational Behaviour. ‡ Employees can experience a conflict between ± Felt emotions ‡ An individual·s actual emotions ± Displayed emotions ‡ Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. Chapter 2. Third Canadian Edition. Stephen P.

Robbins and Nancy Langton. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Stephen P. Organizational Behaviour.Gender and Emotions ‡ Differences ± Women show greater emotional expression than men ± Women experience emotions more intensely ± Women display more frequent expressions of all emotions. except anger Chapter 2. . Third Canadian Edition.

± Women may have a greater need for social approval and thus show more positive emotions like happiness. ± Women may have more innate ability to read others and present their emotions than do men. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. . Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Women: nurturing. Chapter 2.Gender and Emotions ‡ Explanations ± Men and women socialized differently ‡ Men: tough and brave. Organizational Behaviour.

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Organizational Behaviour. and competencies that influence a person's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures ‡ Five dimensions ± ± ± ± ± Self-awareness Self-management Self-motivation Empathy Social skills Chapter 2. capabilities.Emotional Intelligence ‡ Noncognitive skills. Third Canadian Edition. . Stephen P.

Organizational Behaviour.Negative Workplace Emotions ‡ Negative emotions can lead to a number of deviant workplace behaviours. Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. verbal abuse) Chapter 2. blaming co-workers) ± Personal aggression (sexual harassment. sabotage) ± Political (gossiping. They fall in categories such as: ± Production (leaving early. intentionally working slowly) ± Property (stealing. . Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P.

on what they see or believe it to be ± Evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself ± Absenteeism. rather. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. turnover. Third Canadian Edition. Organizational Behaviour.Summary and Implications ‡ Perception ± Individuals behave based not on the way their external environment actually is but. and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual s perceptions Chapter 2. . Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P.

Robbins and Nancy Langton.Summary and Implications ‡ Personality ± Personality helps us predict behaviour ± Personality can help match people to jobs. Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition. . Stephen P. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. to some extent at least ‡ Emotions ± Can hinder performance. especially negative emotions ± Can also enhance performance Chapter 2.