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Roof Framing

Information related to Chapter 10

Roof Framing 

Roof types 

Gable ± Most common, built with ³common´ rafters Hip ± Provides overhang on all four sides Gambrel ± Provides more space on second floor Mansard ± Combination of Hip and Gambrel ShedShed- Frequently used to attach one structure to another

Roof Framing 


Common rafter ± Runs from top plate to ridgeboard of a gable roof Hip rafter ± Runs from corner of top plates to ridgeboard on a hip roof Jack rafter ± any rafter which does not run the full length from plate to ridge ( e.g. ± Hip jack, Valley jack)

always given in terms of 12´ of run (e.Roof Framing  Roof Geometry Definitions      Span ± Measurement from outside of wall to outside of opposite wall Run ± One half of span (for symmetric roofs) Rise ± The total vertical distance that the roof projects above the top plate Slope ± The rise divided by the run. 3 on 12 written 3/12) Pitch ± The rise over the span .g.

Roof Framing      Overhang ± The section of the rafter extending past the edge of the wall Projection ± The horizontal distance that the overhang covers Rafter tail cuts ± Cuts made to form the overhang Birdsmouth ± Cuts made to sit on the top plate Ridge cut ± Cut made to attach to the ridgeboard .

for cathedral ceilings. for spans 24¶-60¶. and spans up to 24¶ Trusses used in most new construction. and most 24¶commonly for lower sloped roofs .Roof Framing  Rafters vs. for full 2nd floor storage. Trusses   Rafters used frequently for remodeling. for shed roof additions.

load.Roof Framing  Sizing Rafters ± Rafter size (like span tables for floor joists) depends on spacing. Sizing of rafters typically based on snow load in Northeast. and span. species. The specific loads come from the International building code .

builder¶s calculator.Roof Framing  Determining rafter lengths ± There are two distances needed for rafter layout   Ridge cut to birdsmouth Ridge cut to tail cut Determining rafter length can be done using calculator. or look-up tables look- .

The carpenter can use this information to avoid the need to work with trigonometric functions. the ³rafter square´ contains tables that are inscribed in the square. hips. The square includes info for common rafters. . valleys and jacks.Roof Framing  To calculate the rafter length.

Roof Framing  For example: .

Roof Framing .

and tail need cheek cuts. with some important differences. or some modification or the top surface needs to be beveled . not 12 The ridge. birdsmouth.Roof Framing  Hips and Valley rafters can also be calculated and laid out using the rafter square.   The unit run is 17.

and the length of that diagonal is 17´ for each 12´ of run of the common rafters. .Roof Framing  The Hip (or Valley) rafter forms a diagonal on the roof.

Roof Framing  The ridge cut is modified to fit into the space between the common rafters .

or the top of the rafter beveled to account for the centerline being lower than the edges of the rafter .Roof Framing  The Birdsmouth must be dropped.

Roof Framing  The tailcuts will be beveled for solid nailing at the outside corner. For Hip rafters this is an outside corner. . and for valley rafters this is an inside corner.

Roof Framing .

Roof Framing .

Roof Framing  Jack rafters have a cheek cut where they meet the hip or valley. . Each one is shorter than the last by a ³common difference´.

Roof Framing  The concept of ³common difference´ will also be applied when cutting gable end studs. .

Roof Framing .

They are framed with common rafters. .Roof Framing  Dormers ± Most dormers are either shed or gable dormers.

Roof Framing  Where shed or gable dormers meet the main roof. . the rafters must be cut to create either a valley or break.

However the overhangs are framed differently for trusses than for rafters. .Roof Framing  Gable end overhangs ± Both rafter and truss roofs commonly use gable end overhangs.

It is very rare that anyone site builds a truss today. .Roof Framing  The vast majority of new construction uses trusses for the roof framing. and delivered to the site ready to be erected. Each truss is designed for the individual characteristics of the job.

Roof Framing  There are a number of important points in building a truss roof:     Proper handling Proper lifting and setting Proper temporary bracing Proper permanent bracing  These are explained in a HIB 91. Also notes will be found on the paper that comes with the trusses .

Side loading. heat.Roof Framing  Proper Handling ± Trusses are made of small dimension lumber connected by metal plates. shock loading can damage metal plates and greatly weaken truss. .

Roof Framing  Proper lifting and setting ± A truss erection plan will show the location of each numbered truss. .

Temporary bracing stays in place until the roof is sheathed and the permanent bracing is installed.Roof Framing  Proper temporary bracing ± The most common cause of truss collapse is insufficient or improper temporary bracing. .

 .Roof Framing  47 MPH wind speed for a period of 1 minute.

Compression members will buckle easily (and truss will not develop its design strength) if not properly braced. This can be done with continuous lateral or individual T bracing .Roof Framing  Permanent Bracing ± This is usually shown on the truss erection diagram.