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Vethaiya Balasubramanian
Intl. Agricultural Consultant & Trainer Ramya Nursery Illam 42, Thadagam Road (Near TVS Nagar) Coimbatore – 641025, India Tel: 91-422-240-0327; mobile: 91-9486394901 E-mail:

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Global Population Growth AD1 - 2050

F o o d - P o p u la tio n R a ce
Billio n

2050 9.5

9 8

1999 6.0 1975 4.0 193 0 2.0

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

AD1 0.2

1650 0.5

1850 1.0



Food: A Weak Link

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Rice: Importance
Particulars Area (m ha) Global 155 India 44 142 60 30 18 18

Production, unmilled paddy rice (m 642 t) Food for (% of the total 50 population) Per capita food energy/calorie 20 intake (% of total) Per capita protein intake (% of 13 total) Contribution to GDP (%) --

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Diverse Rice Ecosystems


Rainfed uplands

Ranifed lowlands


Terraced Hill Rice

Reasons for low productivity in India

Rice Ecologies Irrigated Rainfed lowland Rainfed upland Flood prone Total

Area ( mha ) 24 . 7 14 4 1.3 44

Productio n paddy 95 . 3 ( mt ) 32 . 0 9.4 4.7 141 . 4

Percent area in different rice ecologies

India Rice Situation
Fertilizer N use ( kg ha -1 )
1 . Irrigated : 139 2 . Rainfed wetland : 58 3 . Upland : 36 4 . Flood - prone : 21

Agriculture: Natural Resources
 Genetic: rice and other crop varieties  Water, land, soil nutrients  Weather elements: temperature,

radiation, atmospheric gases (e.g. CO2)  Biological organisms: beneficial & antagonistic  External inputs: organic materials, fertilizers, chemicals

Source: S.P. Kam, IRRI
Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

1. GR Challenge: Biodiversity Loss

Genetic & Biotech Options

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Breeding HY Rice Varieties
HYVs: IR8, IR36, IR64, etc.: Yield: 8-10 t ha-1 Hybrid varieties: 10-15% higher yield Aerobic rice varieties: Water-efficient HYVs for nonpuddled rice growing Transgenic varieties: HYVs resistant to insect pests & diseases & tolerant to flood, drought, salinity, P deficiency, etc. Green Super Rice (GSR): HYVs tolerant to biotic & abiotic stresses and with rapid early growth

A high yielding hybrid with Xa 21 gene (from wild rice) released by CNRRI,China
26 May 2011

for Disease Resistance and Abiotic Stress T olerance

Wide Hybridization

ü IR73678-6-9-B) derived üIR73885-1-4-3-2-1-6 üIR 72102-4-159-1-3-3 from O. sativa cv derived from O. sativa cv derived from the cross IR64 x O. rufipogon IR64 x O. rufipogon of O. sativa x O. released as a national released as variety longistaminata variety (AS996) in (Matatag 9) in 2002 for released as a HYV cultivation in tungro(NSICRc112) in 2002 2002): tolerant to prone areas of the in the Philippines acid sulfate soils (> ü Philippines. 100,000 ha in ü Mekong Delta,
Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Molecular T agging of Major Genes for Stress T olerance
Bacterial blight Blast BPH Gall midge Submergence Salt tolerance P-deficiency Drought

Number of genes
24 30 11 6 1 1 1 several

Genes tagged
Xa1, Xa2, Xa3, Xa4, xa5, xa10, xa13, Xa21 Pi-1, Pi2, Pi4, Pi5, Pi6, Pi7, Pi9, Pi10 Bph1, Bph10 Gm1, Gm2, gm3, Gm4, Gm5, Gm6 Sub1 (e.g., Swarna sub1) Saltol Pop 1 106 GSR (drought-tolerant) 56 GSR (multiple pestsdisease tolerant)

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

2. Water Use & Irrigation Issues & Options

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Water Resources: Characteristics
 Water: Most precious NR essential for life on

 97.5% saline: oceans, salt lakes  2.5% freshwater: 2.24% glaziers & 0.26% renewable

freshwater in rivers, lakes, aquifers, soil moisture  Highly variable in time & space and continuously circulating

 India: Water resources
 4% annual runoff in global rivers to support 16% of

global population  Annual rain: 1120 mm  Water flow in Indian rivers: 1863 b m3  Annual per capita: 2340 m3 in 1980  1170 m3 in 2009 due to population growth  Agriculture use > 70%-80% of the freshwater

Per Capita Water Availability in Selected Countries (‘000 m3)
60 50 40 30 20.7 20 10 0
China India Pakistan UK USA Bangladesh Ne pal

1955 1990 2025



14.9 10.6 4.6 2.41.8 5.3 2.51.5 4 1.8 2.32.1 2 9.9 7.7 10.6 8.7 4.2

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Water Loss & Degradation: I. Natural Causes
 Tropical weather  High temp  Rapid

evaporation  Destruction of water structures by cyclones & floods  Poor rainfall distribution: droughts, floods  Poor water use  Climate change  Reduced rainfall, sealevel rise & salinization of coastal aquifers

Water Loss & Degradation II. Human-made Causes
 Pollution of surface waters: Dumping of sewage,     

industrial & hospital wastes in water bodies Uncontrolled, excessive soil mining from riverbeds  Reduced recharge of aquifers Encroachment & blocking of natural waterways Poor maintenance and/or closure village/temple tanks, ponds, wells Over-exploitation of groundwater  500-600 m deep wells  heavy metals (Arsenic) Poor adoption of water harvesting methods: household, roadside, large buildings, village level, state level, national

Annual Water Dem and by Various Sectors

5% 5%


irrigation domestic

industry energy

1.10-15% less in share of irrigation
Annual Water Dem and by Various Sectors




11% 5%
irrigation domestic industry

Higher generation of waste water



Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Water supply   A major economic driver in 21st Century

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Coping with Water Shortages

Improve the use of all water sources
 Treat and reuse non-traditional water  

 

sources (waste water, brackish groundwater, seawater, mine water) Use non-traditional water for cooling & processing in power plants Switch to renewable energy technologies (wind, solar) that do not need water for cooling Condense evaporation from cooling towers for reuse Conserve and efficiently use May 2011 all water Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26

Rice Farming: Enhancing Water Use Efficiency

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Crops/Varieties vs. Water Use
Water Use Per kg Grain Rice :3000-4000 l Wheat :800 l Irrigated rice variety:

For each day reduction in duration, farmers can save 50,000 l water ha-1
Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Precision Land Leveling on Water Use & Yield of Unpuddled TPR
Leveling method Laser leveling Traditional leveling Water use (m3 ha-1 ) 6900 9050 % Saving Rice yield WP in water (kg ha-1 ) (kg m-3 ) 31 5800 0.84 5500 0.61

† Mean of 40 farmer participatory trials (Source: R.K. Gupta, 2005)

Rice NRM-TVM-Kerala (Bala)03 April 2008

Improving Water Use-I
 Efficient irrigation: Drip, Fertigation,

AWD, farmer-managed small irrigation systems  Groundwater irrigation >> Surface irrigation  Water harvesting systems:
 houses & large buildings, road & highway

sides, village level  State level  National level  restore tanks/ponds/wells  groundwater recharge (excess flood

Improving Water Use-II
 Dryland agriculture: Farm ponds,

life-saving irrigation at critical crop stages, portable sprinklers, solarpowered water pumps, etc.  Better climate predictionwarning & crop insurance systems

Agriculture & Water Use
Water use parameters Water volume Reliability Crop yields Production risks Possibility of Precision for Energy use agriculture irrigation Farmers’ Preference Water source
Rainfall Surface irrigation Groundwater irrigation

High Low Low, variable High No Nil Low

Moderate Medium to variable High Low Yes Low High

Low High, ondemand Highest irrigation Lowest Yes High Highest

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

3. Land Issues

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Land Availability Issues
 Land area limited  Land available per capita

decreasing fast:  Population growth  Conversion of farm land to other uses: housing, recreation, industry, infrastructure  Degradation of land:  desertification, salinity, etc.  Deterioration of irrigation infrastructure
Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Land-use Change Issues

Land Management Options
 Reduced & zero tillage  Direct seeding under crop residues  Vegetation cover, mulching, barriers

across slopes  Rehabilitation of degraded lands:
 Rehabilitation of saline-alkaline lands  Recovery of nutrient depleted land:

efficient, crop need-based nutrient mgt  Polluted land: waste treatment  nutrients recovery & use

Planting Rice-Wheat into Loose Residues

Less weeds; better moisture conservation; & higher OM addition
Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Mulch: Brown Manuring in DSR

qNo additional irrigation water needed qReduces weed population by nearly half, controls second flush qRecycles nutrients & supplies 15-20 kg N ha-1

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

4. Soil Resource Degradation Issues & options

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Soil Resource Degradation

Nutrient deficiencies in Indian Soils
( PPI - Canada - India 2000 )

N P K S Mg Zn Fe B

Number of development blocks with indicated nutrient status
228 170 47

118 184 194

8 17 122

S deficiency scattered over 130 districts Very acid soils in Kerala and other southern states deficient in Mg 50% of 200,000 soil samples analyzed found deficient in Zn Widespread Zn deficiency in upland, calcareous soils Parts of West Bengal, Karnataka and Kerala deficient in B

Progressive Depletion of Soil Nutrients - India

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Motto: Use All Nutrient Sources To Maintain Soil Fertility

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

BNF: Green Manures
Rich in N, K, Ca & Mg; Poor in P & S

Biosolid Wastes: Nutrients + Energy
   

Home composter: 3-pots method Rural composting: Pile or pit methods Vermi-composting Mesophilic or Thermophilic digesters: Industrial, municipal use

03-07 Dec 2010

ING-N2010-Delhi-N Forms-Bala

Potential Nutrient Contribution
Organic Wastes - India

Waste Water Management Options

Eco-san Toilet: Waste Recycling
Developed by SCOPE

Treated Urine as Liquid Fertilizer for Rice
(Trial by SCOPE + TNAU)

Wastewater Agriculture

Animal Farming & Manure Mgt
 Reduce CH4 production: Improving

feeds, feed additives, grass  Small farm crop-animal systems: Coupling crops & animals  crop residues for animals & manure for land  Mesophilic & thermophilic digestion of manure: Recover energy & nutrient-rich sludge, recycled water for crops
CRRI-Rice-2010 WS- Sust NRM (Bala)27-29 Nov 2010

Fertilizer Use: Challenges & Options

MD Team - MD Rice PPT – New Delhi (Bala)31 Oct 2008

Factors Controlling NUE

Nitrogen Flows in Food Chain, China 2005
(Ma et al 2010)

NUE (%)
Crops: 26
Animals: 11
Food Chain: 9

Add 13 kg N to Food-Chain

1 kg Food-N to Consumers
Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

External N supply Options

Minimize Leakage of N into Environment  Improve N-Use Efficiency Plant N Demand

Mineral Fertilizer

Soil N Supply

INS: Legumes Residues, Org wastes, SOM

Precision Farming – Developed Countries
Computer-GPS-Variable Rate N Application

N Management Tools



INM: Principles

MD Team - MD Rice PPT – New Delhi (Bala)31 Oct 2008

SSNM Approach for Irrigated Rice
 Adjust fertilizer rates and timing

 Use organic sources + fertilizers    

to location and season-specific conditions
(INM) “Feed” rice with nutrients as per crop need Use of LCC for N and OP for P and K Balance N, P, and K in ratio required by rice Apply K in 2 splits (50% basal & 50% at PI) Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

5. GHG Emissions & Weather Elements: 4. ClimateChange Challenge & Climate Climate Adaptation

ICPN-2010-Custom Nut Mgt (Bala)11-13 Aug 2010

Sector-wise Global GHG Emissions (2000)
(Source: Wikipedia)

Sector-wise GHG Emissions, India

GHG Emissions, Indian Agriculture

Manure m anagem ent 5%

Rice cultivation 23%

Crop residues 1%

Em ission from soils 12% Enteric ferm entation 59%

Reducing Emission of GHGs from Rice Fields
Improve water and fertilizer use in rice : fertilizer tates & timing, nitrification inhibitors, controlled release fertilizers, nano fertilizer molecules Improve management of livestock population and their diet Increase soil carbon sequestration: minimal/zero tillage, residue management, live mulches Improve energy use efficiency in agriculture : energy-efficient farm machines, conservation agricultural (tillage) practices
AK Shukla, CRRI

1.4 1.2 N2O flux (kg/ha) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Mitigation of GHGs - N2O UseNiminnitrification inhibitors of and DCD on cumulative N O emission Effect of

from flooded rice, Cuttack





AK Shukla, CRRI

Nitrous oxide mitigation with nitrification inhibitor
Nitrification inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD) Neem cake Neem oil Nimin Coated Ca-carbide Thiosulphate Mitigation (%) 13-42 10-21 15-21 25-30 12-29 15-20

Source: Pathak et al. (2001, 2007), Majumdar et al. (2002), Malla et al. (2005), Jain et al. (2010)

GWP in Different RCTs in Modipuram, India
4000 GWP (kg CO equi. ha ) 2



3000 2000 1000 0 FP Mid drain Bed DSR Bed TPR ZT DSR ZT TPR

Calculated GWP is more in the conventional system because of more methane emission in continuously submerged condition in rice and more fuel consumption for tillage and

Climatic Adaptation in Agriculture:
1.Agriculture diversity is a manifestation of climatic adaptation 2.Farmers/society have always adapted when allowed by technology availability, their socio-economic capacity, and economics 3.Induced adaptation by innovation:  Green revolution of 1960s  Resource conservation technologies such as zero tillage  GMOs
AK Shukla, CRRI

A Continuous Process

Traditional adaptations/coping strategies to climatic stress practiced by farmers
Drought proofing by mixed cropping Low yielding, tolerant crops Resource conservation Single cropping Frost management by irrigation Heat stress alleviation by frequent irrigation Shelter belts Water harvesting structures

AK Shukla, CRRI

Adaptation Options to Climatic Change: Autonomous
qChanging varieties/crops qAltering fertiliser rates & methods to be more suited to the prevailing climate qEfficient irrigation methods: groundwater >>> surface water; conjunctive water use qWater harvesting for rainfed agriculture qConserve soil moisture (e.g. crop residue retention) qAltering the timing & location of farming activities qDiversifying: livestock raising, crop processing
AK Shukla, CRRI

Enhancing Rice Productivity
 Raising yield:

Integrating technologies - ICM  Increasing cropping intensity  Reducing crop losses & adding value  Crop diversification   Increasing net profitability  Sustainability

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Ecological, Sustainable Yield Increases
 Improving soil fertility

 Judicial, balanced fert. use; reducing soil erosion;

 INM strategies for efficient nutrient

enhancing soil structure; improving plants’ access to water & nutrients; improving crop rotations  Avoid soil mining practices


 Seed quality, seeding rates & early

 SSNM, IPNS, ISFM, etc.

crop mgt  Timely field operations mechanization  Improved integrated disease and insect pest management (IPM)

 Host plant resistance: HYVs with resistance to major

 Improved post-harvest processing and Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

stresses such as drought, flood, salinity, insect pests and pathogens

ICM Options  GAP
Adapted HYV 1 seedling per hill - 25 x 25

Good seed Modified mat nursery Robust, young seedlings Inter-row cultivation


Appropriate Mechanization Options
(Timely field operations, higher labor productivity, higher yield & quality produce)

Total Food Waste in Developed and Developing countries

H. C. J. Godfray et al., Science 327, 812-818 (2010)
Published by AAAS
Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala

Reducing Crop/Food Losses
 INM: Improving soil health  Better flood control and drainage  IPM: Minimizing crop damage by insect    

pests and diseases Mechanization for timely operations Better harvest and post-harvest processing Improving storage Improving packaging and transportation

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Post-Harvest Options
Reducing losses after production

Way Forward

Unsustainable Intensive Farming: Any Solutions?

Organic farming : Can it be an alternative?
 Advantages claimed by proponents
     

Food safety Environmental health Resource conservation Preservation of biodiversity Sustainability Local food economy

 Difficulties
 Population growth (9.5 billion by 2050): Can it

feed all?  Availability and processing of inputs  High labor needs: Can automation in processing help?

Sustainable Production Systems

System Sustainability
Increase profitability
1. Increase land productivity
Variety, Quality seed, Improved nursery mgt., Balanced fertilization, ICM

Environmental quality with food security
1. Air quality & CO2 prod.
Reduce residue burning

2. Increase labor productivity
Appropriate mechanization options

2. Water quality
Efficient Fert., pesticide use

3. Increase resource use efficiency
Water-saving options, SSNM, IPM

4. Reduce grain losses
Resistant varieties, IPM, IWM, Reduce post-harvest losses

3. Ground water depletion Water-saving, farm ponds 3. Global warming Less methane, N2O emiss. 5. Biodiversity erosion
Mixed planting of varieties, preservation of local var

5. Improve grain quality 6. Diversify crops & enterprises

Rice Productivity-TNAU-CBE-Bala26 May 2011

Thank yo u
Rice NRM-TVM-Kerala (Bala)03 April 2008