Consumer Behaviour  

Consumer Buying Behaviour: The buying Behavior of final consumersindividuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption Consumer Markets: All the individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption

Model of Buyer Behaviour Marketing and Other Stimuli Product Price Promotion Place Economic Technological Political Cultural Buyers Characteristics Buyers Decision Process Product Choice Brand Choice Dealer Choice Purchase timimg Purchase amount Buyers Black Box Buyers Response .

Reference Group. Roles & Status PERSONAL.Characteristic affecting Consumer Behavior CULURAL. Subcluture. Social Class SOCIAL. Age & Life Cycle Stage. Family. Beliefs & attitudes BUYER . Perception. Culture. Personality & Self Concept PSYCHOLOGICAL: Motivation. Occupation. Economic Status. Learning. Life style.

wealth. and behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions SubCulture:A group of people with shared value systems based on common experiences and situations Social Classes: Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values. and other variables. perceptions. interests and behaviour. . education.CULTURE    Culture: The set of basic values. income. It is not only determined by income but by occupation. wants.

Cultural Values (US)           Achievement & success Activity & involvement Efficiency and practicality Progress Material comfort Individualism Freedom Humanitarianism Youthfulness health .

SOCIAL FACTORS  Group. knowledge. exerts influence on others . personality. persons within a reference group who. Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals ± ± ± ± Membership group Primary group Reference group Asp rational group  Opinion Leaders. or other characteristics. because of special skills.

activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them Status.SOCIAL FACTORS    Family Roles . general esteem given to it by society .

A persons distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to his or her own environment . A persons pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities.PERSONAL FACTORS     Age & Family Life Cycle Stage Occupation Economic Situation Lifestyle. interest. and opinion (AIO) ± Values & Lifestyle (VALS)  Personality.

NATURAL RESOURCES Princple Oriented Actualizes Status Ori ented Action Oriented Experiences Fulfilled Achievers Fulfilleds Beleivers Acheivers Strivers Experiencers Strugglers MINIMAL RESOURCES .

FAMILY LIFE CYCLE STAGES  Young ± ± ± ± Single Married without children Married with children Divorced Single Married without children Married with children Married without dependent children Divorced without children Divorced with children Divorced without dependent children Older Married Older unmarried  Middle aged ± ± ± ± ± ± ±  Older ± ± .

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS  Motive (drive). a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need .

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS  Perception. organise. A process by which people select. and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world ± ± ± Selective attention: the tendency of people to screen out most of information to which they are exposed Selective distortion. marketers must understand how the minds of consumers and how these will affect interpretations of advertising and sales information Selective retention. retain that information that supports their belief and attitudes .

feeling and tendencies towards an object or idea . Changes in an individual¶s behaviour arising from experience ± ± ± ± ± Drives. where. minor stimuli that determine when. Cues. strong internal stimuli that calls for action Stimuli.PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS  Learning. and how a person responds Responses reinforcement   Belief. A persons consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations. A descriptive thought that a person holds about something Attitude.

in situations characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differences.TYPES OF BUYER DECIDION BEHAVIOUR     Complex buying Behaviour. in situations characterized by high consumer involvement in a purchase and significant perceived differences among brands eg computers Dissonance reducing buying behaviour. biscuits . in situations characterized by high involvement but few perceived differences among brands eg carpets Habitual Buying Behaviour. in situations characterized by low consumer involvement and few significant perceived brand differences eg salt Variety Seeking Buying Behaviour.

FOUR TYPES OF BUYING BEHAVIOUR High Involvement Low Involvement Significant differences between Brands Few differences between Brands Complex Buying behaviour Variety Seeking Buying behaviour Habitual buying Dissonance reducing Buying behaviour Buying behaviour .

THE BUYER DECISION PROCESS Need recognition Information Search Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase Decision Post purchase decision .

in which the consumer is aroused to search for more information.THE BUYER DECISION PROCESS   Need recognition. the first stage in which the consumer recognizes a problem or need by external or internal stimuli Information search. the consumer may simply have heightened attention or may go into active information search ± ± ± ± Personal sources Commercial sources Public sources Experiential sources .

in which the consumer uses information to evaluate alternative brands in the choice set ± ± ± ± Product attributes Degree of importance to different attributes Brand belief Brand image  Purchase decision. in which the consumer actually buys the product ± ± Attitudes of others Unexpected situational factors  Post purchase Decision. in which consumer take further action after purchase based on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction ± Cognitive dissonance. Buyer discomfort caused by post purchase conflict .THE BUYER DECISION PROCESS  Evaluation of Alternatives.

decides to make full and regular use of the new product . considers whether trying the new product makes any sense Trial. The consumer becomes aware of the new product. tries the product on a small scale to improve his or her estimate of its value Adoption. but lacks information about it Interest. Seeks information about the new product Evaluation.STAGES IN THE CONSUMER ADOPTION PROCESS of New Products      Awareness.

Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption      Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Divisibility Communicability .

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