# Retrofit of Palm Oil Complexes as an Integrated Biorefinery

H84DEV PROJECT

Presentation outline
 Introduction  Objectives  Palm Oil Mill Process Description  Methodology

A Case Study of Palm Oil Mill Superstructure Approach Mathematical Optimization
 Result and Analysis  Conclusion
H84DEV PROJECT

1

6–7% shell.Introduction  Palm fruit is also known as Elaeis Guineensis.  Generation of palm oil mill waste could be valuable by using it in biorefinery to produce Biodiesel. 60% POME and 23% EFB. H84DEV PROJECT 2 .  Malaysia is currently the world second largest producer and exporter of palm oil. 11-12% fiber.  Originated in the tropical rain forest region of west Africa.  At the palm oil mill. 6–7% palm kernel. 1 ton of FFB contains about 20% palm oil. Methanol and other valued products.  The biomass generated can be used as source of fuel to generate steam and electricity to fulfill the plant energy requirements.  Oil Palm fruit processing has been practiced in Africa for ages on small- scale for edible oil.

 Mathematical analysis was applied as to ascertain the technologies that give high yield by optimization  Selected Pathways by the model that give optimal solution and products for maximum profit would be involved for an integrated biorefinery H84DEV PROJECT 3 .  Development of mathematical optimization model to retrofit palm oil mill as an integrated biorefinery.Objectives  Retrofit of palm oil mill complexes as an integrated biorefinery.

Palm Oil Process Description Diagram H84DEV PROJECT 4 .

3% CPO =11.6% CPO =14.03% PULP PRESSING LIQUID OUTLET 19071 kg CPO =15.4% SHELL = 15% 11505 kg/h POME = 58.45% DIGESTER Steam = 3900 kg/h SOLID OUTLET FIBER = 3600 kg/h 15105 kg FIBER CYCLONE FIBER =26.6% SHELL = 23% POME = 77% NUT CRACKER EFB = 7171 kg/h WW = 3377 kg/h 30876 kg Steam = 3300 kg/ h FIBER =13.56% POME = 84.44% CLARIFICATION POME 12771 kg/h CPO 6300 kg/h KERNEL 1609 kg/h POME 7577 kg/h SHELL 2121 kg/h H84DEV PROJECT 5 .  The Material Balances of a Case Study Palm Oil Mill FFB = 30000 kg/h FFB Steam = 7500 kg/h H2 O=24 kg/h STERILIZATION EFFLUENT =34147 kg/h THRESHING 26976 Kg /h FIBER =14.Methodology Case Study of Palm Oil Mill  A case study of 30 tonnes/h of FFB was considered to obtain the different amount of products and biomass generated from each of the processes involved.37% SHELL = 13% POME = 59.3% SHELL = 13% POME = 61.

004 KWh/Kg CPO EFB=1.536/CPO FFB = 4.337/CPO Steam = 2.004/CPO POME=3.333/CPO KERNEL=0.762/CPO Power = 0.Methodology Case Study of Palm Oil Mill WW=0.229/CPO CPO POME H84DEV PROJECT H84 DEV PROJECT 6 .138/CPO PPF= 0.287/CPO PK S KERNEL CPO= 1 Water= 0.571/CPO PPF WW EFB PKS= 0.

Energy Conversion and End products.Superstructure Approach   A superstructure approach was used to built a model that would run an integrated biorefinery Many conversion technologies. Upgrading techn.. Primary products. Intermediate Products. BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY PRIMARY PRODUCTS UPGRADING TECHNOLOGY INTERMEDIAT E PRODUCTS ENERGY CONVERSION END PRODUCTS F11 Direct Combustion J1 J11 J12 K1 K11 Boiler L1 L11 Steam M1 M11 Steam Turbine N1 Engine N2 N11 N12 N21 N22 Electricity P1 Heat P2 K21 SHELL F1 F13 Bio-char K2 J23 J32 J33 F12 Gasification J2 J26 K32 Syngas K3 Methane K4 Bio-Oil K5 CO2 K6 K57 K33 Methanol Synthesis L2 Catalytic Conversion L3 Water Gas Shift L4 L22 Methanol M2 M22 M23 F21 F22 F23 F32 L35 FIBER F2 K34 K35 H2 M3 N3 M34 N33 Methanol P3 Pyrolysis J3 J35 J44 J34 L43 M42 Biofuel (Gasoline ) M4 M52 Ethanol M5 M62 N4 M45 N44 H2 P4 Biofuel (Gasoline ) P5 F31 EFB F3 F33 F34 Anaerobic Digestion J4 Fisher Tropsch L5 K56 L54 N5 M56 J46 N55 F44 J5 J57 Briquette K7 Catalytic Cracking L6 Transesterification L7 L63 N6 N66 Ethanol P6 POME F4 F46 L76 L85 Biodiesel M6 M67 Fermentation J6 J68 K8 N7 N77 Biodiesel P7 K88 L8 J69 M7 L97 M78 K9 K99 L9 N8 N88 Acid P8 H84DEV PROJECT .

 Information from the literature about conversions . and prices of the products were used. technical specification and process modeling.Mathematical Optimization  The optimization models consist of objective functions are formed from the source-sink material balance. operating conditions.  The built model was allow to select reasonable and productive pathway for the whole process and other individual product. H84DEV PROJECT 8 .  A software-LINGO was used to solve the model to maximum profit from the integrated biorefinery. unit operation material balance.

[Purchase Elect + Purchase Steam] Results and Analysis UPGRADING TECHNOLOGY INTERMEDIAT E PRODUCTS BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY PRIMARY PRODUCTS SHELL F1 SHELL F1 F13 F11 F12 Direct Combustion J1 J11 J12 K1 K11 Boiler L1 L11 Methanol Synthesis L2 Steam M1 M11 ENERGY CONVERSION 22 Turbine N1 Engine N2 Methanol Steam M2N11 N12 N21 N22 END PRODUCTS Electricity M23 P1 Heat P2 K21 Bio-char K2 J23 FIBER F2 FIBER F2 F13 Gasification J2 K32 Syngas K3 Methane K4 F23 F22 F23 F32 Pyrolysis J32 J26 J3 J33 J34 J35 K33 Methane K4 Catalytic Methanol Synthesis L2 L22 Methanol M2 M22 M23 N3 N33 Methanol P3 F21 J35 Pyrolysis J3 Bio-Oil K5 Water Gas Shift K35 K34 Conversion L3 L35 H2 M3 N3 M34 N33 Methanol P3 L4 L43 M42 Biofuel (Gasoline ) M4 M52 Ethanol M5 M62 N4 M45 F33 Anaerobic Digestion J4 EFB F31 F3 EFB F3 F33 Anaerobic J44 Digestion J4 J46 J44 Bio-Oil K5 CO2 K6 K57 N44 H2 P4 Biofuel (Gasoline ) P5 Fisher Tropsch L5 K56 L54 N5 M56 N55 F34 F44 F44 F46 J5 J57 Briquette K7 Catalytic Cracking L6 K57 L63 N6 POME F4 POME F4 Fermentation J6 J68 K8 Transesterification L7 K88 Transesterification M6 L76 M67 L7 L85 Biodiesel L76 N7 Biodiesel M6 N77 N66 Ethanol P6 Biodiesel M67 P7 N7 N77 Biodiesel P7 Solve the model for Maximum Profit (MP) Objective value: 990046.4 Total solver iterations: 15 Variable Value Reduced Cost MP 990046.000000 P7 631.6002 0.000000 P3 1601.000000 L8 L9 M7 M78 J69 K9 K99 L97 N8 N88 Acid P8 H84DEV PROJECT 9 .4 0.Maximum Profit Equation MP= Products Price + Electricity Profit.988 0.

Objective value: 9812.754 Total solver iterations: 19 Variable Value Reduced Cost P1 9812.1653 0.754 0.000000 H84DEV PROJECT 10 .000000 MP 499.Results and Analysis Electricity P1 SHELL F1 N21 F12 Gasification J2 Engine N2 J23 Syngas K3 F22 FIBER F2 F32 Catalytic Conversion L3 L35 EFB F3 Ethanol M5 M52 Maximize the Electricity Global optimal solution found.

000000 0.300 0.000000 F1 3597.11 0.3875170E-02 0.11 Total solver iterations: 21 Variable Value Reduced Cost P2 13297.000000 MP 0.000000 F11 3597.000000 P7 0.7461148E-02 11 . Objective value: 13297.221 0.Results and Analysis F11 Direct Combustion J1 J11 K1 K11 Boiler L1 L11 Steam M1 M11 Steam Turbine N1 N12 Heat P2 SHELL F1 F13 F21 Engine N2 N22 FIBER F2 F31 EFB F3 Pyrolysis J3 J35 Bio-Oil K5 M52 Ethanol M5 K57 POME F4 Fermentation J6 K8 K88 Transesterification L7 L8 L76 Biodiesel M6 M67 N7 N77 Biodiesel P7 H84DEV PROJECT Maximize the Heat Global optimal solution found.

Results and Analysis SHELL F1 F12 Gasification J2 K32 J23 Methanol Synthesis L2 22 Methanol M2 M23 Syngas K3 Methane K4 K42 F22 N3 N33 Methanol P3 FIBER F2 F32 J44 EFB F3 Anaerobic Digestion J4 F44 POME F4 Maximize the Methanol Global optimal solution found.284 0.1 0. Objective value: 2649.284 Total solver iterations: 11 Variable Value Reduced Cost P3 2649.000000 H84DEV PROJECT 12 .000000 MP 944467.

000000 H84DEV PROJECT 13 .000000 MP 8038. Objective value: 2304.052 Total solver iterations: 11 Variable Value Reduced Cost P4 2304.Results and Analysis SHELL F1 F12 Gasification J2 J23 Syngas K3 K34 F22 FIBER F2 F32 H2 M3 Water Gas Shift L43 L4 M34 H2 P4 N4 N44 EFB F3 Anaerobic Digestion J4 J46 CO2 K6 F44 POME F4 Maximize the Hydrogen Global optimal solution found.570 0.052 0.799 0.000000 K6 7526.

Objective value: 921.Results and Analysis SHELL F1 F12 Gasification J2 J23 Syngas K3 F22 FIBER F2 K35 F32 L54 Biofuel (Gasoline) M4 M45 EFB F3 Anaerobic Digestion J4 Fisher Tropsch L5 J46 N5 Biofuel (Gasoline ) P5 N55 CO2 K6 F44 POME F4 Maximize the Gasoline Global optimal solution found.000000 H84DEV PROJECT 14 .000000 MP 65616.799 0.6207 Total solver iterations: 9 Variable Value Reduced Cost P5 921.6207 0.000000 K6 7526.82 0.

Objective value: 6132.Results and Analysis SHELL F1 F12 Gasification J2 J23 Syngas K3 K33 F22 Catalytic Conversion L3 FIBER F2 F32 EFB F3 Ethanol M5 M56 N6 N66 Ethanol P6 POME F4 F46 L85 Fermentation J6 K8 K88 L8 Maximize the Ethanol Global optimal solution found.000000 H84DEV PROJECT 15 .971 Total solver iterations: 11 Variable Value Reduced Cost P6 6132.971 0.6 0.000000 MP 307872.

6002 0.799 0. Objective value: 631.000000 H84DEV PROJECT 16 .000000 MP 418937.000000 K6 7526.8 0.SHELL F1 Results and Analysis F13 F23 FIBER F2 Pyrolysis J3 J35 Bio-Oil K5 F33 EFB F3 Anaerobic Digestion J4 J46 CO2 K6 K57 F44 POME F4 Transesterification L7 Biodiesel M6 L76 M67 N7 N77 Biodiesel P7 Maximize the Biodiesel Global optimal solution found.6002 Total solver iterations: 5 Variable Value Reduced Cost P7 631.

Result and Analysis Boiler L1 K21 11 Steam M1 Steam Turbine N1 N12 Heat P2 SHELL F1 Bio-char K2 F13 J32 FIBER F2 F23 Pyrolysis J3 EFB F3 J5 POME F4 J57 Briquette K7 F46 Fermentation J6 M7 J69 M78 K9 K99 L9 L97 N8 N88 Acid P8 Maximize the Acid Global optimal solution found.000000 0.35 7169.000000 0.7197 0.35 Total solver iterations: 5 Variable Value Reduced Cost P8 K7 P2 10171.000000 H84DEV PROJECT 17 . Objective value: 10171.400 138.

17 0.6 90.0000 944467 8038.8 103951.8 Hydrogen=2304.72 449.32 90.4 Electricity Heat Methanol Hydrogen Biofuel Ethanol Biodiesel Acetic Acid Electricity=9812.988 Biodiesel=631.82 307872.97 CO2=7526.Results and Analysis Maximize Product Product yield(kg) Maximum Profit (\$) All end products Methanol=1601.28 CO2=7526.32 65616.6 Briquette=716904 Acetic acid=10171.62 Ethanol=6132.05 CO2=7526.57 90.32 418937.35 Heat=138.8 Biofuel=921.8 Biodiesel=631.1 H84DEV PROJECT 18 .75 Heat=13297 Methanol=2649.08 4371.6 990046.

gasification. H84DEV PROJECT 19 . For maximum production of methanol and biodiesel. pathways of all the products is favored.  Product Price is a major decision factor on the pathway of the model to integrate in to the biorefinery.  Methanol and Biodiesel pathways of the model were quite promising and should be considered.Conclusions  To integrate a biorefinery to a palm oil mill of this capacity. pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion are the favourable biomass conversion technologies.

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