Phùng Hà Thanh

DEVELOPING AUTONOMY IN EFL WRITING
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Session 2: Verbs

CONTENTS
 Review
Phùng Hà Thanh

 Sentence  Verbs
 Lead-ins

elements

 Presentation

of knowledge

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CHOICE OF -S
Animate noun classes
Phùng Hà Thanh

Personal names Personal nouns Collective nouns Higher animals

George Washington’s statue

the boy’s new shirt, my sister-in-law’s pencil the government’s conviction, the nation’s social security the horse’s tail, the lion’s
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hunger

CHOICE OF -S
Inanimate noun classes
Geographical names Institutional names Temporal nouns Nouns of special interest to human activity
Phùng Hà Thanh

Asia’s future, Hanoi’s water supply

the school’s history a moment’s thought, today’s business the brain’s total solid weight, the game’s history, science’s influence

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CONTENTS
 Review
Phùng Hà Thanh

 Sentence  Verbs
 Lead-ins

elements

 Presentation

of knowledge

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PARTS OF A SENTENCE
Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial
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Phùng Hà Thanh

PARTS OF A SENTENCE
Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial
Extensive
Phùng Hà Thanh

+ Cs (1) Intensive + A (obli) (2) intransitive (3) transitive

mono-transitive (4) di-transitive (5) complex-transitive (6,7)
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PARTS OF A SENTENCE
Sentence elements Subject Verb Object
He is lovely. He is out of the office. SVCs (1) SVA (obli) (2) SV (3) SVO (4) SVOO (5) SVOCo (6) SVOA (obli) (7) intensive

He is crying. He broke the vase. He sent me an e-mail. He found the play boring. table.

intransitive transitive

extensive

Complement He put the vase on the Adverbial
Phùng Hà Thanh

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PARTS OF A SENTENCE
Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Stative

Not progressive form

E.g.: The food he cooked tasted very good. Dynamic
Progressive form

E.g.: She is tasting the food he’s cooked.

Phùng Hà Thanh

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PARTS OF A SENTENCE
Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial
indirect (Oi) direct (Od)
Phùng Hà Thanh

E.g.: He sent me (Oi) a postcard (Od).

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PARTS OF A SENTENCE
Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial
Object Complement (Co)
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Phùng Hà Thanh

E.g.: His brother who is a teacher (Cs) considers me his best friend (Co).
Subject Complement (Cs)

PARTS OF A SENTENCE
Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial
E.g.: He goes fishing on Tuesday. (Aopt)
optional
Phùng Hà Thanh

His birthday is on Tuesday. (A
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obli)
obligatory

CONTENTS
 Review
Phùng Hà Thanh

 Sentence  Verbs
 Lead-ins

elements

 Presentation

of knowledge

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ACTIVITY 1: MISTAKE IDENTIFICATION AND CORRECTION
 She

is sleeping a book.  I am walking my dog.  He will die you.  I sat a flower.  I age my mother.  I have flown my book.  They started a family.  She went the debate.

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Phùng Hà Thanh

ACTIVITY 2: TRANSLATE THESE PHRASES INTO ENGLISH
 Nói

to  Nói nhỏ  Nói dài dòng  Nói liên tục  Khó/ dễ nói chuyện

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Phùng Hà Thanh

ACTIVITY 3: FILL IN THE BLANKS LIFE BY: SHAIRA, THE PHILIPPINES

Life Life Life Life Life Life Life Life Life Life Life Life Life Life

is is is is is is is is is is is is is is

beauty, admire it bliss, embrace it a dream, grasp it duty, complete it a gift, win it a promise, fulfill it a song, sing it a sorrow, overcome it a struggle, fight it a tragedy, confront it an adventure, explore it a gift, be thankful for it so precious, value it life, live it to the fullest

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Phùng Hà Thanh

“Somebody said to me, ‘But the Beatles were anti-materialistic.’ That’s a huge myth. John and I literally used to sit down and say, ‘Now, let’s write a swimming pool.’” – Paul McCartney

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Phùng Hà Thanh

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Verb

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classifie d according to Functions of items
Phùng Hà Thanh

= words or phrases indicating an action, an event, or a state E.g.: kiss, break out, have

Complementation

Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Structure
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2/1

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Lexical verbs Functions of items
Phùng Hà Thanh

Auxiliary verbs

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3/1

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Lexical verbs Regular Irregular Functions of items
Phùng Hà Thanh

Auxiliary verbs E.g.: book, booked, booked E.g.: teach, taught, taught

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Lexical verbs Functions of items
Phùng Hà Thanh

Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Lexical verbs Functions of items
Phùng Hà Thanh

Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary

• include: do, have, be • change meaning when becoming a full verb E.g.: I am a student. vs. I am reading.

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Lexical verbs Functions of items
Phùng Hà Thanh

Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary

• include: Can – could May – Might Shall-should Will-would Must Ought to

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Lexical verbs Functions of items
Phùng Hà Thanh

Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary

• include: used to, dare, need

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Complementation
Phùng Hà Thanh

Intensive verbs

Extensive verbs

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Complementation
Phùng Hà Thanh

Intensive verbs

Extensive verbs E.g.: be, appear, feel, look, remain, seem E.g.: become, get, go, grow, turn, make

• connect S & C • have the pattern: SVC or SVA(obli) E.g.: I feel tired. He’s in the cab.

Current copular Resulting copular

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Complementation
Phùng Hà Thanh

Intensive verbs

Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Complementation
Phùng Hà Thanh

Intensive verbs

Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive

• require no Object • have the pattern: SV • make complete sense themselves E.g.: He’s singing. The baby cried.

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Complementation
Phùng Hà Thanh

Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive Complextransitive

Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Complementation
Phùng Hà Thanh

Intensive verbs Mono-transitive

Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive

• require one direct Di-transitive Object (Od) • have the pattern: SVOd Complextransitive E.g.: I kissed her. transitive

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He caught the ball.

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Complementation
Phùng Hà Thanh

Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive

Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive

Complex• require both direct Object (Od) & indirect Object (Oi) transitive • have the pattern: SVOiOd E.g.: I gave her such a lovely present.

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Complementation
Phùng Hà Thanh

• require Object and Object Intensive verbs Complement
Mono-transitive (Co) or Obligatory Averbial

Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive

(A(obli)) SVOA(obli)

• have the pattern: SVOCo or
Complextransitive E.g.: He made me really crazy.

Di-transitive

He sent his son to the kindergarten.

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Stative verbs Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs
Phùng Hà Thanh

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Stative verbs Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
Phùng Hà Thanh

= verbs that show the condition or status and do not accept the progressive aspect E.g.: I am a boy.

Verbs of inert perception & recognition Relational verbs

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Stative verbs Verbs of inert perception & recognition Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
Phùng Hà Thanh

• adore, astonish, believe, hate, Relational verbs hear, impress, know, like, etc. E.g.: I like you He said he hated cooking.

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Stative verbs Possibility of admitting progressive aspect
Phùng Hà Thanh

• apply to, equal, deserve, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, Verbs of inert perception & resemble, possess, recognition sound, tend, etc. E.g.: She resembles her mother.
Relational verbs

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activity verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs
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Phùng Hà Thanh

= verbs that show the action or the change of status E.g.: She learns English. He hit me. She is English. ( ‘is’ isn’t dynamic verb because it denotes a permanent status)

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs
Phùng Hà Thanh

• ache, hurt, itch, feel, etc.Transitional event
verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classifie d according to Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event • ask, eat, help, learn, say, throw, write verbs etc. Momentary verbs Process verbs
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Phùng Hà Thanh

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs • arrive, Momentary verbs land, leave, lose,
Phùng Hà Thanh

die etc. Process verbs

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs
Phùng Hà Thanh

• hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, Transitional event tap etc. verbs
Momentary verbs Process verbs
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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs • change, deteriorate, grow, mature, Momentary verbs
Phùng Hà Thanh

slow down etc.

Process verbs

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Structure

One-word verbs

Multi-word verbs

Phùng Hà Thanh

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Structure
Phùng Hà Thanh

One-word verbs

• as the name suggests, these are verbs of ONE WORD E.g.: change, kiss, make, love, etc.
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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Structure
Phùng Hà Thanh

Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Structure
Phùng Hà Thanh

Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs • turn on (the light), bring up (the child), hand in (the paper), give up, Phrasal-prepositional take of, etc. verbs

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Structure
Phùng Hà Thanh

Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs

• look at (the girl), take Phrasal-prepositional after verbs (somebody), look after (somebody), etc.

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Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH VERBS
classified according to Structure
Phùng Hà Thanh

Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs • come up with, make up for, stand in for, put up with, etc.

Phrasal-prepositional verbs
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Tense

GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
Grammatical categories of verbs
Aspect Progressiv e Perfective Perfectiveprogressiv e Simple Imperative Subjunctiv e Passive Mood Voice
Phùng Hà Thanh

Present

Indicative

Active

Past

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Tense

GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
= the correspondence between the form of the verb and our concept of time • language specific • while TIME: universal, non-linguistic • includes PAST and PRESENT • no FUTURE TENSE because there’s no verb form corresponding to future time.
Phùng Hà Thanh

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Aspect

GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
• the manner in which a verbal action is experienced or regarded with respect to time • progressive aspect: verbal action experienced as in progress • perfective aspect: verbal action experienced as completed E.g.: I am writing with a special pen. (progressive aspect) I have written with a special pen. (perfective aspect) 51 • Tense & aspect are intermingled.
Phùng Hà Thanh

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GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
Tense & Aspect

Tense Aspect

Simple Progressive

Complex Perfective Perfect progressive

Present

Present simple Past simple

Present progressive Past progressive
Phùng Hà Thanh

Present perfect Past perfect

Present perfect progressive Past perfect progressive
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Past

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Mood

GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
= a grammatical category that relates the verb action to such conditions as certainty, obligation, necessity, possibility = statement of the fact = command, request = non-fact, unreal me. E.g.: She’s nice to me. (fact - indicative) Be nice to me. (command - imperative) I suggest she be nice to (non-fact - subjunctive)
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Phùng Hà Thanh

Indicative

Imperative Subjunctiv e

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GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
Phùng Hà Thanh

Subjunctive mood Mandative

Formulaic

Subjunctive “were”

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GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
Phùng Hà Thanh

Subjunctive mood Mandative

Formulaic

Subjunctiv e “were”

• Found in “-that clause” (verbs: recommend, demand, request, insist, suggest, ask, it is necessary that) • Form: the base • Aim: to be formal E.g.: The chairman demands that the farmer kill all his chicken. It is necessary that every student pay the tuition fee.

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GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
Phùng Hà Thanh

Subjunctive mood Mandative

Formulaic

Subjunctive “were”

• Found in clause in certain set expressions • Form: the base E.g.: May god bless you. Long live the King. God save the Queen. Come what may, we’ll go ahead.

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GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
Phùng Hà Thanh

Subjunctive mood Mandative

Formulaic

Subjunctiv e “were”

• Found in conditional & concessive clauses, subordinate clauses after verbs like Wish and Suppose • Form: WERE • Meaning: hypothetical/unreal E.g.: If I were rich, I would buy you anything you wanted. 57 Just suppose everyone were to give up smoking.

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Voice

GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF VERBS
= a grammatical category that makes it possible to view the action of a sentence in either of two ways, without change in the facts reported • include: passive and active voice E.g.: He ate all the apples. (active) The dog was bitten by our neighbor. (passive)
Phùng Hà Thanh

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REFERENCES

Quirk, R. & Greenbaum, S. A University Grammar of English, NXB GTVT, 2002: Chapter 2, Chapter 3 and Chapter 7
Phùng Hà Thanh

Slides by the Grammar group (Division of English Linguistics, Faculty of Linguistics and Cultures of English Speaking Countries, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University Hanoi)

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