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COMMUNICATION

Dictionary Meaning

Communication (Com*mu`ni*ca"tion), n. - The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior.

Objective ‡ Process of Communication ‡ 7 stages of communication ‡ Possible Problems ‡ Types of Communication ‡ Good Listening ‡ Written Communication .

The Process SENDER .

The Process SENDER RECEIVER .

The Process Message SENDER RECEIVER .

The Process Message SENDER Feedback RECEIVER .

The Process Message SENDER Feedback RECEIVER It involves Sender Receiver and Medium .

‡ Receivers¶ Side ± Understanding the message as the sender wishes it to be understood. . that the contents. intent and feelings are transferred as desired by the sender.. ‡ Senders¶ Side ± Expressing the thoughts in such a manner..In words.

Why Communication is Important SENDER RECEIVER Concept/Idea in Brain .

Why Communication is Important SENDER RECEIVER ENCODING Concept/Idea in Brain .

Why Communication is Important SENDER RECEIVER RECEPTION ENCODING Concept/Idea in Brain .

Why Communication is Important SENDER RECEIVER RECEPTION ENCODING DECODING Concept/Idea in Brain .

Why Communication is Important SENDER RECEIVER RECEPTION ENCODING DECODING Concept/Idea in Brain UNDERSTANDING .

Why Communication is Important SENDER RECEIVER RECEPTION ENCODING DECODING Concept/Idea in Brain UNDERSTANDING .

Why Communication is Important SENDER MEDIUM RECEIVER RECEPTION ENCODING DECODING Concept/Idea in Brain UNDERSTANDING .

Why Communication is Important SENDER MEDIUM RECEIVER RECEPTION ENCODING DECODING Concept/Idea in Brain UNDERSTANDING .

7 Stages ‡ Idea/Concept Generation ‡ Encoding ‡ Transmission ‡ Reception ‡ Decoding ‡ Understanding ‡ Feedback .

Idea/Concept Generation Vague/Raw Idea .

Idea/Concept Generation Vague/Raw Idea REFINEMENTS .

Idea/Concept Generation Vague/Raw Idea REFINEMENTS Clear/Final Idea in the brain .

not thinking deeply .Possible Problems ‡ Conveying Idea at the RAW Stage ‡ Not waiting for Refinements or second thoughts ‡ Not allowing the idea to Ripen .

using ± Written medium ± Oral medium ± Gestures & Actions ‡ so that the target audience can understand .ENCODING ‡ Converting the idea/concept into a medium of expression.

Possible Problems ‡ Limited vocabulary ‡ Problem in usage ‡ Style of writing ± Long and narrative ± use of unnecessary jargon ± Writing ‡ Speech ‡ Too much of focus on gestures / action .

‡ It involves ± Mode of expression ± Surroundings ± Channels used .Transmission ‡ The µfinal idea¶ suitably µencoded¶ is finally despatched to its final destination.

Possible Problems ‡ Noisy Surrounding ‡ Frequent disturbances ‡ Quality of print .in cases of written documents ‡ Transmission Speed .too fast or too slow .

using ‡ EARS ‡ EYES .RECEPTION ‡ The receipt of the message by the target.

.Possible Problems ‡ Receivers Limitations ± casual listening ± side talks ± thinking. ‡ Not matching the senders¶ thought speed ‡ Surroundings ..

DECODING Receipt of Message .

DECODING Receipt of Message Using Personal Filters .

DECODING Receipt of Message Using Personal Filters Using this Filtered message for interpretation .

DECODING Receipt of Message Using Personal Filters Using this Filtered message for interpretation .

‡ Receiver¶s Perceptions ‡ Beliefs & Values ‡ Knowledge & Awareness ‡ Interests & Likings .What are these Filters ? Mental screens which prevent message from reaching its destination in its desired form. For eg.

Understanding ‡ Evaluation of the message finally received for its content and intent ‡ Prepare for feedback .

FEEDBACK ‡ Essential to complete the cycle of communication. ‡ Process same as followed by the sender .

‡ 7 stages - possible areas for ERROR ‡ Not that easy as it appears to be ‡ It affects others as well ‡ It consumes a lot Time & Effort ‡ Affects relationships

Communication Type
‡ VERBAL
± Factual /Intellectual content

‡ NON-VERBAL
± Gestures, facial expressions, voice, tone etc.

Verbal Communication .

but internally planning your own speech ± Active Listening ‡ Listening with Empathy .grasping his feelings . thoughts etc. .What is ACTIVE LISTENING ‡ Listening is of 3 types ± Peripheral listening ‡ Listening on the outside ‡ One can µTune In¶ when required ± Attentive Listening ‡ Appear to be listening.

Effects of Poor listening ‡ Increases defensiveness of speaker ‡ Shifts attention from task at hand ‡ Loss in Quality of communication ‡ Distortion of Meaning ‡ Demotivation ‡ Misunderstanding .

Useful Tips on Active Listening ‡ It is an Active Process .interact with the speaker ‡ Attend to nonverbal clues ‡ Try to get the main idea of the message ‡ DON¶T Anticipate what the speaker will say ‡ Question the Logic/ and reliability of what one hears .

... ‡ Respond Properly using ± verbal or non-verbal acknowledgements ± clarifying questions ± paraphrasing ..As a Listener . ‡ Observe for ± Eye Contact ± Body Posture ± Expression on Face ± Gestures ‡ Listen for ± Tone of the voice ± Kind of language used etc.

about 93 % ‡ Primary indicator of how a person is feeling ‡ More reliable in contradictory situations ‡ Usually unintentional & unconscious .Non Verbal Communication ‡ Substantial part of any communication .truer and spontaneous ‡ Interpretation to be done with Caution .

Components of Non-Verbal Communication Non‡ Visual ± Image ± Facial expressions ± Eye movements ± Posture ± Gestures ‡ Tactile (Touch) ‡ Vocal (How things are said?) ‡ Spacial ± Body closeness ± Furniture arrangement .

Improving Nonverbal Communication Skills ‡ Face the other person ‡ Lean towards the other person ‡ Maintain eye contact ‡ Be relaxed ‡ Show respect for the other person ‡ Practice ACTIVE LISTENING ‡ Do not evaluate .but try to understand .

INTERPRETING BODY LANGUAGE .

STEEPING Self confidence (Intellectual arrogance) POSTURES AND GESTURES .

HAND CLASP Anxious . Controlled POSTURES AND GESTURES .

NOSE TOUCH Doubt POSTURES AND GESTURES .

POSTURES AND GESTURES "L" CHIN REST Critical Evaluation .

POSTURES AND GESTURES MOUTH BLOCK Resisting speech .

POSTURES AND GESTURES ARMS UP Reserved Defensive .

POSTURES AND GESTURES ARM / LEG CROSS Closed Unconvinced .

POSTURES AND GESTURES LEAN FORWARD Ready ! .

POSTURES AND GESTURES LINT PICKING Disapproval .

POSTURES AND GESTURES LEANBACK Confident . Superiority .

WHEN IN DOUBT.EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION Facial expressions convey emotions with much more accuracy than voice tone or even body postures. WATCH THEIR FACES AND TRUST YOUR OWN JUDGEMENT ! .

What is your communication style ? .

Communications Styles Socialzer Rela ter Open Direct Dire ctor Indirect Self-contained Thinker .

Communication Styles ‡ Socializer ± communicate in an open and direct manner ± speak quickly and less concerned about other styles ± emotional ± sharing & hearing other¶s feelings ‡ to interact with them ± don¶t hurry a discussion ± be entertaining .

efficient and well organized ± keep communications businesslike .Communication Styles ‡ Director ± direct about expectations ± feelings self-contained ± immediate returns ± dominating / express tough emotions ‡ to interact with them ± be precise.

organized ± provide solid.tangible and factual evidence ± explain all alternatives and their advantages & disadvantages .Communication Styles ‡ Thinker ± Feelings self-contained ± Indirect about concerns for task accomplishment ± Perfectionists so critical / picky ± non-confrontational and think before they speak ‡ to interact with them ± be systematic.

Communication Styles ‡ Relater Style ± Indirect about their desires ± Open about feelings ± Supportive and acquiescent when they talk with others ± want to know about others reactions before a decision ± speak what the listener wants to hear (dislike conflict) ± express tender feelings/hate tough emotions ‡ to interact with them ± support their feelings & show personal interest ± actively listen ± move along informally .

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Written Communication ‡ Lasts longer ‡ Influences your career ‡ Good writing is a better mode of communication .

What matters in written communication ‡ Content ‡ Style & techniques to avoid mistakes .

Tips for CONTENT ‡ Organize thoughts ‡ Focus on purpose ‡ Analyze audience ‡ choose appropriate format .

Tips for CONTENT ‡ Getting organized ± Focus ± Free association ± Connect ideas ± Branches ± Key words ± Symbols/images ± Color Mindmapping .

Tips for CONTENT ‡ Purpose ± I want (WHO) to do (WHAT) because (REASON). ‡ Anlyzing audience ± Put yourself in reader¶s shoes ± listen ‡ Choosing format ± Memos ± Reports ± Business Letters .

phrases.Tips for STYLE ‡ Clear ± Active Voice ± Avoid jargon ± Be direct ‡ Concise ± Short words.sentences and paragraphs .

Tips for STYLE ‡ Readable ± Catchy title/headline ± Use visuals ± Highlighting & spacing ± Humor ± Punctuation ± Editing ± Common Errors .

...What was covered. ‡ The Process of Communication ‡ The 7 stages of communication ‡ The Problem Areas ‡ Active Listening ‡ Communication Styles ‡ Tips for Written Communication .

your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or written word. Peter Drucker .As soon as you move one step up from the bottom.

This is just the beginning.. ..