‡

‡

‡

‡

Although the contact between Indans and Arabs had already existed for a long time, during the 1 C of the Hegira, the Arabs created tighter trading laces with the Indians. However, during the caliphate of Omar (634 -644) and after the conquering of Egypt and Persia, the Arabs attacked the ports of Thana, Broach and Debal. Although unimportant results of those attacks, some Arabs settled along the coasts of Malabar and mixed with the Indian population, marrying them and converting them. A new community was created, the Moplas.

these contacts, the Arabs absorbed Indian culture in a richer way: € By the VIII century Bagdad had already learned the Indian culture: mathematics (Zero, decimal system), astronomy, literature (Fables and narratives were translated to Arab) and religion (Sufism).
€ From

‡

‡

‡

‡

The main Arab thrust in direction to India yet not inside their territory would not come by sea, but by land: In two military operations, the Arabs attacked #1 Seistan and Kabul, and #2 the Sind. # 1 represented the beginning of a slow decay of the Indian culture in the region of Afganistan and Western Pakistan. #2 Was the first Indian territory to be occupied by the Arabs, in the Indo Valley.

‡ ‡

‡ ‡

‡

The Sind had been mainly Buddhist with Hindi governors. However, it wasn·t 711 when the Arabs, commanded by Muhammad ibn al-Qasim, finally conquered the whole region all the way to Multan. The region would be ruled from afar by the Caliphs of Bagdad and until ca. 850 a.D. That doesn·t mean that the Sind became independent, but that two new independent Arab kingdoms where formed: Mansura and Multan. Mansura and Multan represented the largest Arab expansion in India, since the powerful kingdom of Pratihara (750 ² 960) wouldn·t let them come farther into the Panjab.

€ Although

the Arabs opened a bridge to India, they did not penetrate further. € However, they paved the way for the Turks to come. € In the 9th Century, flowing along the Oxus river, peoples that spoke several languages derived from Turkish, penetrated Samanid (Persian) India.

‡

‡

‡

‡

The victorious general commanded a legal document that regulated the treatment the Arabs should give the Hindis. This was necessary since the Hindis didn·t represent a dhimmi people (Jewish and Christians did). Based on a law issued at Damascus, the document established a very simple rule: you pay the jiza, you are an ´honoraryµ dhimmi. That meant their personal rights would be protected, such as property and they could live according to their uses and traditions.

€ This

prerogative did not signify that there were something as religious tolerance. It meant more that the Arabs recognized their limitations to control any aspect of a different culture and took as much as they could (economically ²not that much- and culturally ²a lot-) from it.

‡

‡

‡

The governmental structure of the Turks those days functioned like this: Turkish soldiers would conquer territories and capture people who would turn into ´slavesµ. Slaves could as well be bought from human traffickers. Slaves would not be used as serfs but as soldiers who, if proven as skilled, disciplined and loyal would even get to higher administrative and governmental posts.

‡

‡

‡

The narratives from the epoch, tell how they deceived the enemy letting them think they were being retrieved and defeated just to bring them to the place where they could apply the famous ´tweezers maneuver ´. Some other narratives say that the bounties captured by Mahmud were so impressive that the victorious were tired and bored of keep on counting. One of their targets: the Somnath temple (1025).

€ The

Sabuktigin family, of slave origin, was picked to rule the Indian conquered territories. € From them, the most famous one was: Mahmud Sabutkigin from Ghazna (998 ² 1030). € Mahmud conquered all the territory that comprehended from the Caspian sea to the Panjab (Ghazna).

‡

‡

‡

Mahmud was able to penetrate India, conquering cities as Gwailor, Kanauj and Mathura. His armies comprised mainly slaves who were specifically trained for the old version of a Blitzkrieg. They attacked fast and effectively with all that they had: Horses, Elephants, infantry, archers) using the combined battle technics of all of the cultures from where the slaves came from: Arabs, Persians, Turcs.

‡

‡

‡

Mahmud·s intentions were not only expansionist but also to get economical resources for the Muslim empire to be financed for new conquering quests. After his death, the Ghaznavi power weakened and by the 11th C. all of his conquest had been diminished and reduced to those Mahmud had in India. However, Lahore, his capital city, had turned into one of the most brilliant Islmaic culture centers.

‡

‡

‡

‡

Narratives also tell how: ´infidels were left as spread all over as a sort of carpet of corpses, turned into food for the beasts and buzzardsµ. Indians interpreted Mahmud as a religious predator. Muslims interpret him as a hero who simply acted according to the epoch, whose performed destructions were needed and common. As a result of his conquests the northern part of India was inserted in the trading economy of eastern Arabs. His campaigns resulted in the capturing of more than 50 K Indian slaves, who were, as the tradition dictated it, assimilated.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful