## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Define, analyze and calculate the response of RLC (resistance R and reactance X). Define and analyze the impedance and impedance diagram for RLC elements.

1

**14.2 The Derivative
**

• To understand the response of the basic R, L and C elements to a sinusoidal signal, you need to examine the concept of the derivative. • The derivative dx/dt is defined as the rate of change of x with respect to time. • If x fails to change at a particular instant, dx = 0, and the derivative is zero. • The derivative dx/dt is actually the slope of the graph at any instant of time.

2

**14.2 The Derivative
**

• The derivative dx/dt is zero only at the positive and negative peaks (ωt = π/2 and 3π/2) since x fails to change at these instants of time. • For the sinusoidal waveform, the greatest change in x will occur at the instants ωt = 0, π, and 2π. The derivative is therefore a maximum at these points.

3

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Resistor

• For power-line frequencies and frequencies up to a few hundred kilohertz, resistance is, for all practical purposes, unaffected by the frequency of the applied sinusoidal voltage or current. • For this frequency region, the resistor R can be treated as a constant.

v = Ri

4

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Resistor

Given

v = Vm sin ωt

v Vm i= = sin ωt = I m sin ωt R R

Where;

Vm Im = R

For a given i = I m sin ωt ;

**v = iR = ( I m sin ωt ) R = I m R sin ωt = Vm sin ωt
**

Where;

Vm = I m R

5

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Resistor

vR = Vm sin ωt iR = I m sin ωt

• For a purely resistive element, the voltage across and the current through the element are in phase, with their peak values related by Ohm’s law.

6

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Inductor

• The inductive voltage is directly related to the frequency f (or more specifically, the angular velocity of the sinusoidal ac current through the coil) and the inductance of the coil L. • The voltage across an inductor is directly related to the rate of change of current through the coil.

diL v L = L dt

7

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Inductor

Given

iL = I m sin ωt

**diL d vL = L = L ( I m sin ωt ) = ωLI m cos ωt dt dt
**

Or; Where;

**vL = ωLI m cos ωt = Vm sin ωt + 90
**

Vm = ωLI m Vm = ωL = X L Im

(

)

Hence;

[ Ω]

**XL : Inductive reactance
**

8

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Inductor

vL = Vm sin ωt + 90

iL = I m sin ωt

(

)

**• For an inductor, vL leads iL by 90°, or iL lags vL by 90°.
**

9

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Capacitor

• For a particular capacitance, the greater the rate of change of voltage across the capacitor, the greater the capacitive current. • The capacitive current is directly related to the rate of change of the voltage across the capacitor.

dvC iC = C dt

10

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Capacitor

Given

vC = Vm sin ωt

**dvC d iC = C = C (Vm sin ωt ) = ωCVm cos ωt dt dt
**

Or; Where; Hence;

**iC = ωCVm cos ωt = I m sin ωt + 90
**

I m = ωCVm Vm 1 = = XC I m ωC

(

)

[ Ω]

**XC : Capacitive reactance
**

11

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Capacitor

iC = I m sin ωt + 90

(

)

vC = Vm sin ωt

**• For a capacitor, iC leads vC by 90°, or vC lags iC by 90°.
**

12

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

• If the source current leads the applied voltage, the network is predominantly capacitive. • If the applied voltage leads the source current, the network is predominantly inductive.

13

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Resistor:

vR and iR in phase

Inductor:

vL leads iL by 90°

Capacitor:

iC leads vC by 90°

14

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Relationship between differential, integral operation in phasor listed as follow:

dv dt

∫ v dt

jω 1 jω

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current Summary of voltage-current relationship
**

Element Time domain Frequency domain

R L C

v = Ri

di v=L ; dt dv i=C ; dt 1 i = ∫ v dt L 1 v = ∫ i dt C

V = RI

V = jωLI

V = I jω C

16

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.1(a)

The voltage across a 10 Ω resistor is given by the expression;

**v = 100 sin 377t
**

Find the expression for the current i through the resistor and sketch the curves for v and i.

17

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.1(a) – solution

v = Vm sin ωt = 100 sin 377t Vm = 100 V

and ω = 377 rad/s = 2πf

Vm 100 Im = = = 10 A R 10

Hence;

**im = I m sin ωt = 10 sin 377t A
**

18

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.1(a) – solution (cont’d)

The alternative waveform;

v, i 100 V 10 A 0 i 8.35 16.7 t (ms) v In phase

19

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.1(b)

The voltage across a 10 Ω resistor is given by the expression;

v = 25 sin 377t + 60

(

)

Find the expression for the current i through the resistor and sketch the curves for v and i.

20

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.1(b) – solution

v = Vm sin ( ωt + θ ) = 25 sin 377t + 60 Vm = 25 V;

(

)

ω = 377 rad/s

and θ = +60

Vm 25 Im = = = 2.5 A R 10

Hence;

im = I m sin ( ωt + θ ) = 2.5 sin 377t + 60 A

(

)

21

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.1(b) – solution (cont’d)

The alternative waveform;

v, i 25 V i 2.5 A -4.17 2.78 0 4.17 v In phase 8.33 12.5 16.67 t

22

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.3(a)

The current a 0.1 H coil is given by the expression;

i = 10 sin 377t

Find the expression for the voltage v across the coil and sketch the curves for v and i.

23

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.3(a) – solution

vL leads iL by 90°, Hence, if the current is; iL = I m sin ωt the voltage will be; where;

**vL = Vm sin ωt + 90
**

and;

(

)

Vm = I m X L

X L = ωL = 2πfL

24

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.3(a) – solution (cont’d)

From the expression;

i = 10 sin 377t

377 f = = 60 Hz; 2π

I m = 10 A;

T=

Hence;

ω = 377 rad/s;

1 1 = = 16.67 ms; f 60

X L = ωL = 377 × 0.1 = 37.7 Ω

Vm = I m X L = 10 × 37.7 = 377 V

Hence the expression for the voltage is;

v = Vm sin ωt + 90 = 377 sin 377t + 90

(

)

(

)

25

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.3(a) – solution (cont’d)

The waveforms; i = 10 sin 377t

v = 377 sin 377t + 90

(

)

16.67 -4.17 4.17 8.33 12.5

26

t(

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.3(b)

The current a 0.1 H coil is given by the expression;

i = 7 sin 377t − 70

(

)

Find the expression for the voltage v across the coil and sketch the curves for v and i.

27

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.3(b) – solution

vL leads iL by 90°, Hence, if the current is; the voltage will be; where;

iL = I m sin ( ωt + θ )

vL = Vm sin ωt + θ + 90

and;

(

)

Vm = I m X L

X L = ωL = 2πfL

28

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.3(a) – solution (cont’d)

From the expression;

**i = 7 sin ( 377t − 70°)
**

377 f = = 60 Hz; 2π

I m = 7 A;

T=

ω = 377 rad/s;

1 1 = = 16.67 ms; f 60

θ = −70°

X L = ωL = 377 × 0.1 = 37.7 Ω

Hence;

Vm = I m X L = 7 × 37.7 = 263.9 V

Hence the expression for the voltage is;

v = Vm sin ωt + θ + 90 = 263.9 sin 377t + 20

(

)

(

)

29

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.3(b) – solution (cont’d)

The waveforms;

i = 7 sin ( 377t − 70°)

v = 263.9 sin 377t + 20

(

)

16.67 0.93 3.24 4.17 8.33 12.5 t (ms)

30

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.5

The voltage across a 1 µ F capacitor is given by the expression;

v = 30 sin 400t V

Find the expression for the current i through the capacitor and sketch the curves for v and i.

31

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.5 – solution

iC leads vC by 90°, Hence, if the voltage is; the current will be; where;

vC = Vm sin ωt

iC = I m sin ωt + 90

and;

(

)

Vm Im = XC

1 1 XC = = ωC 2πfC

32

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.5 – solution (cont’d)

From the expression;

v = 30 sin 400t

400 f = = 63.7 Hz; 2π

Vm = 30 V;

ω = 400 rad/s;

1 1 T= = = 15.7 ms; f 63.7

Hence;

1 1 XC = = = 2500 Ω −6 ωC 400 ×1×10

Vm 30 Im = = = 12 mA X C 2500

Hence the expression for the current is;

i = I m sin ωt + 90 = 12 sin ( 400t + 90°) mA

(

)

33

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.5 – solution (cont’d)

The waveforms;

v = 30 sin 400t

i = 12 sin ( 400t + 90°) mA

7.85 3.93 3.93 i leads v by 3.93 ms ≡ 90°

34

t 11.78 15.7

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.6

The current through a 100 µ F capacitor is given by the expression;

i = 40 sin 500t + 60 V

(

)

Find the expression for the voltage v across the capacitor.

35

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.6 – solution

iC leads vC by 90°, Hence, if the current is; iC = I m sin ( ωt + θ ) the voltage will be; where; Vm = I m X C

**vC = Vm sin ωt + θ − 90
**

and;

(

)

1 1 XC = = ωC 2πfC

36

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.6 – solution (cont’d)

From the expression;

i = 40 sin 500t + 60

(

)

**500 ω = 500 rad/s; I m = 40 A; f = = 79.6 Hz; 2π 1 1 T= = = 12.57 ms; θ = 60 f 79.6 1 1 XC = = = 20 Ω −6 ωC 500 ×100 ×10
**

Hence;

Vm = I m X C = 40 × 20 = 800 V

Hence the expression for the voltage is;

v = Vm sin ωt + θ − 90 = 800 sin ( 500t − 30°)

(

)

37

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.7(a)

Determine the type of element in the box (C, L or R) and calculate its value if;

v = 100 sin ωt + 40 V

(

)

and

i = 20 sin ωt + 40 A

(

)

Solution

The voltage and current are in phase . The element is a resistor (R). Vm 100 R= = =5Ω Im 20

38

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.7(b)

Determine the type of element in the box (C, L or R) and calculate its value if;

v = 1000 sin 377t + 10 V

(

)

and

i = 5 sin 377t − 80 A

(

)

Solution

The voltage leads the current by 90° The element is an inductor (L).

Vm 1000 XL = = = 200 Ω; Im 5

X L 200 L= = = 0.53 H ω 377

39

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.7(c)

Determine the type of element in the box (C, L or R) and calculate its value if;

v = 500 sin 157t + 30 V

(

)

and

i = 1sin 157t + 120 A

(

)

Solution

The voltage lags the current by 90° The element is a capacitor (C).

V 500 XC = m = = 500 Ω; Im 1

1 1 C= = = 12.74 µF ωX C 157 × 500

40

**14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
**

Example 14.7(d)

Determine the type of element in the box (C, L or R) and calculate its value if;

v = 50 cos ωt + 20 V

(

)

and

i = 5 sin ωt + 110 A

(

)

Solution

v = 50 cos ωt + 20 = 50 sin ωt + 20 + 90 = 50 sin ( ωt + 110°) V

(

)

(

)

The voltage and current are in phase . The element is a resistor (R). Vm 50 R= = = 10 Ω Im 5

41

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance Z • It is a ratio of the phasor voltage V to the phasor current I. • Unit in ohms (Ω).

V Z= I

[Ω]

42

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance Z Impedance Z has two components: • Real component (ZRe ): Resistance, R • Imaginary component (ZIm ) : Reactance, X

Z = R ± jX

[Ω]

**• Reactance can be inductor, L and capacitance, C. • Positive X is for L and negative X is for C.
**

43

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Admittance Y • It is the reciprocal of impedance Z. • Unit in siemens (S).

1 I Y= = Z V 1 = R ± jX

[S]

44

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance for Resistor, R

v and i are in phase;

Vm Im = R

Or;

Vm = I m R

In phasor form;

v = Vm sin ωt

Where;

V = V∠0

Vm V= 2

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance for Resistor, R

Applying Ohm’s law and phasor algebra;

**V I= ZR V V∠0 = = R∠θ R R∠θ R V = ∠0 − θ R R
**

0 − θ R = 0 Since v and i are in phase; Hence; θ R = 0 V I = ∠0 Therefore; R

Z R = R ∠ 0°

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance for Resistor, R

• The boldface Roman quantity ZR, having both magnitude and an associate angle, is referred to as the impedance of a resistive element. • ZR is not a phasor since it does not vary with time. • Even though the format R∠ 0° is very similar to the phasor notation for sinusoidal current and voltage, R and its associated angle of 0° are fixed, non-varying quantities.

Z R = R ∠ 0°

[ Ω]

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.1

Find i in the figure.

Solution

v = 100 sin ωt

Applying Ohm’s law;

V = 70.7∠0 V

V 70.7∠0 I= = = 14.14∠0 A ZR 5∠0

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.1 – solution (cont’d)

Inverse-transform;

I = 14.14∠0 A

i = 20 sin ωt A

I = 14.14 A V = 70.7 V

vR and iR in phase

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.2

Find v in the figure

Solution

i = 4 sin (ωt + 30 ) A

Applying Ohm’s law;

I = 2.83∠30 A

V = IZ R = ( I∠θ )( R∠0°)

= 2.83∠30 × 2∠0 = 5.66∠30 V

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.2 – solution (cont’d)

Inverse-transform;

V = 5.66∠30 V

v = 8 sin (ωt + 30 ) V

V = 5.66 V I = 2.83 A 30°

vR and iR in phase

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance for Inductor, L

vL leads iL by 90°, By phasor transformation;

X L = ωL = 2πfL

[ Ω]

v = Vm sin ωt

Where;

V = V∠0 Vm V= 2

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance for Inductor, L

Applying Ohm’s law and phasor algebra;

V I= ZL V V∠0° = = X L ∠θ L X L ∠θ L V = ∠0° − θ L XL

Since v leads i by 90°; Hence;

0 − θ L = −90

θ L = 90

Therefore;

V I= ∠ − 90° XL

Z L = X L ∠90

= ωL∠90°

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.3

Find i in the figure.

Solution

v = 24 sin ωt V

Applying Ohm’s law;

V = 16.97∠0 V

**V V∠ θ 16.97∠0 I= = = Z L X L ∠90° 3∠90
**

= 5.66∠ − 90 A

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.3 – solution (cont’d)

Inverse-transform;

I = 5.66∠ − 90 A

i = 8 sin (ωt − 90 ) A

V = 16.97 V

I = 5.66 A

vL leads iL by 90°

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.4

Find v in the figure.

Solution

i = 5 sin (ωt + 30 ) A

Applying Ohm’s law;

I = 3.54∠30 A

**V = IZ L = ( I∠θ )( X L ∠90°) = 3.54∠30 × 4∠90
**

= 14.14∠120 A

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.4 – solution (cont’d)

Inverse-transform;

V = 14.14∠120 V

V = 14.14 V

v = 20 sin (ωt + 120 ) A

I = 3.54 A 120° 30°

vL leads iL by 90°

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance for Capacitor, C

iC leads vC by 90°, By phasor transformation;

1 1 XC = = ωC 2πfC

[ Ω]

v = Vm sin ωt

Where;

V = V∠0 Vm V= 2

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance for Capacitor, C

Applying Ohm’s law and phasor algebra;

V I= ZC V V∠0° = = X C ∠θ C X C ∠θ C V = ∠0° − θ C XC

Since i leads v by 90°; 0 − θ C = +90 Hence; θ C = −90

Z C = X C ∠ − 90 1 = ∠ − 90° ωC

Therefore;

V I= ∠90° XC

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.5

Find i in the figure.

Solution

v = 15 sin ωt V

By Ohm’s law;

V = 10.61∠0 V

V V∠θ I= = Z C X C ∠ − 90 10.61∠0 = = 5.31∠90 A 2∠ − 90

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.5 – Solution (cont’d)

Inverse-transform;

I = 5.31∠90 A

i = 7.5 sin (ωt + 90 ) A

I = 5.3 A

V = 10.6 V

iC leads vC by 90°

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.6

Find v in the figure.

Solution

i = 6 sin (ωt − 60 ) A

By Ohm’s law;

I = 4.24∠ − 60 A

V = IZ C = ( I∠θ )( X C ∠ − 90°)

= 4.24∠ − 60 × 0.5∠ − 90 = 2.12∠ − 150 V

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Example 15.6 – solution

Inverse- transform;

V = 2.12∠ − 150 V

v = 3 sin (ωt − 150 ) V

iC leads vC by 90°

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor Diagram
**

1 X L = ωL; X C = ωC

Impedances and admittances of passive elements Element R L C Impedance, Z Admittance, Y

R

jωL

R∠ 0°

X C ∠ 90° X L ∠ - 90°

1 R

1 jωL j ωC

1 ∠ 0° R

1 ∠ - 90° XL 1 ∠ 90° XC

64

1 j ωC

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance Diagram

• An angle is associated with resistance, inductive reactance and capacitive reactance, each can be placed on a complex plane diagram. • Combining different types of elements give total impedance from -90o to 90o. θ θ θ

T

Inductive reactance

resistance

Capacitive reactance

angle = 0o

Resistive in nature Inductive in nature Capacitive in nature

closer to 90o T closer to -90o T

**15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
**

Impedance Diagram

• For any configuration (series, parallel, seriesparallel, etc.), the angle associated with the total impedance is the angle by which the applied voltage leads the source current. • For inductive networks, θ T will be positive. • For capacitive networks, θ T will be negative.

- Ac Sinusoidal Ckt
- em222_exp1
- Oxford
- 030122 Iet Lcr Primer 1st Edition
- EE301 Lesson 24 AC Power and Pwr Triangle
- Electrical Protecton III (ELPR 321)
- EE301 Lesson 25 AC Power and Pwr Triangle
- EE2404 SET1.pdf
- Cap06 Transformers
- ppt_SVC
- Chapter 5 Dcacbridges 2 0
- Anon - Conductor and transformer modeling 0000.pdf
- EE-101 Electrical Technology)_2012 Mech.PDF
- WP009001EN-CSSC-1412-809 Transformer Impedance February 2015_LR.pdf
- PSA
- Minimising the Risk of Cross-country Faults in Systems Using Arc Suppression Coils
- Active & Reactive Power Control of Alternator
- k Var Compensation
- Cable Fault
- preeti
- 18-Chapter 4 Short Circuit Analysis Working-MOM LL
- Decoupling Methodology
- Power Systm Basics.ppt
- Electrical Engineering - Reference Power Systems Protection Handbook
- EEM337 Lecture 2 AC Power Analysis AA
- Cursul 2 de fizica
- Frequency Agility Using Gunn Diode on a Rectangular Microstrip Antenna
- c8-13
- GATE EE 2010 Question Paper
- 01257775

Skip carousel

- Power Swing Phenomena and Comparative Study of Its Detection on Transmission Line
- tmp459E
- tmpB11A.tmp
- tmpA837
- As NZS 1935.1-1998 Acoustics - Determination of Sound Absorption Coefficient and Impedance in Impedance Tubes
- tmpB6E1.tmp
- Power Transfer Capability Improvement of Transmission Line using TCSC
- HB 301-2001 Electrical Installations - Designing to the Wiring Rules
- tmpF0AE
- Julie Research Laboratories, Inc. v. Guildline Instruments, Inc., and Hallmark Standards, Inc., 501 F.2d 1131, 2d Cir. (1974)
- Direct Torque Control of A 5-Phase Induction Motor
- Design Of High Power Amplifier At 3.4 GHz For Satellite Transponder (IRNSS)
- tmp5F92
- tmp269F.tmp
- As 2993.1-1987 Vibration and Shock - Dynamic Characteristics of the Human Body Driving Point Impedance of The
- CREW
- tmpC773.tmp
- As NZS 60479.1-2010 Effects of Current on Human Beings and Livestock General Aspects
- As 3851-1991 the Calculation of Short-circuit Currents in Three-phase a.c. Systems
- tmp6FA8.tmp
- tmpB83D.tmp
- As NZS 60479.3-2002 Effects of Current on Human Beings and Livestock Effects of Currents Passing Through The
- as10
- tmp90C2.tmp
- The Effects of Mutual Coupling and Transformer Connection Type on Frequency Response of Unbalanced Three Phases Electrical Distribution System
- Tmp 9339
- Design of Coupled Line Bandpass Filter For Ranging Transponder (IRNSS)

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulRead Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading