ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS ET 201

 Define, analyze and calculate the response of RLC (resistance R and reactance X).  Define and analyze the impedance and impedance diagram for RLC elements.

1

14.2 The Derivative
• To understand the response of the basic R, L and C elements to a sinusoidal signal, you need to examine the concept of the derivative. • The derivative dx/dt is defined as the rate of change of x with respect to time. • If x fails to change at a particular instant, dx = 0, and the derivative is zero. • The derivative dx/dt is actually the slope of the graph at any instant of time.

2

14.2 The Derivative
• The derivative dx/dt is zero only at the positive and negative peaks (ωt = π/2 and 3π/2) since x fails to change at these instants of time. • For the sinusoidal waveform, the greatest change in x will occur at the instants ωt = 0, π, and 2π. The derivative is therefore a maximum at these points.

3

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Resistor
• For power-line frequencies and frequencies up to a few hundred kilohertz, resistance is, for all practical purposes, unaffected by the frequency of the applied sinusoidal voltage or current. • For this frequency region, the resistor R can be treated as a constant.

v = Ri
4

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Resistor
Given

v = Vm sin ωt

v Vm i= = sin ωt = I m sin ωt R R
Where;

Vm Im = R

For a given i = I m sin ωt ;

v = iR = ( I m sin ωt ) R = I m R sin ωt = Vm sin ωt
Where;

Vm = I m R

5

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Resistor
vR = Vm sin ωt iR = I m sin ωt

• For a purely resistive element, the voltage across and the current through the element are in phase, with their peak values related by Ohm’s law.

6

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Inductor
• The inductive voltage is directly related to the frequency f (or more specifically, the angular velocity of the sinusoidal ac current through the coil) and the inductance of the coil L. • The voltage across an inductor is directly related to the rate of change of current through the coil.

 diL  v L = L   dt 
7

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Inductor
Given

iL = I m sin ωt

diL d vL = L = L ( I m sin ωt ) = ωLI m cos ωt dt dt
Or; Where;

vL = ωLI m cos ωt = Vm sin ωt + 90
Vm = ωLI m Vm = ωL = X L Im

(

)

Hence;

[ Ω]

XL : Inductive reactance
8

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Inductor
vL = Vm sin ωt + 90
iL = I m sin ωt

(

)

• For an inductor, vL leads iL by 90°, or iL lags vL by 90°.
9

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Capacitor
• For a particular capacitance, the greater the rate of change of voltage across the capacitor, the greater the capacitive current. • The capacitive current is directly related to the rate of change of the voltage across the capacitor.

 dvC  iC = C    dt 
10

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Capacitor
Given

vC = Vm sin ωt

dvC d iC = C = C (Vm sin ωt ) = ωCVm cos ωt dt dt
Or; Where; Hence;

iC = ωCVm cos ωt = I m sin ωt + 90
I m = ωCVm Vm 1 = = XC I m ωC

(

)

[ Ω]

XC : Capacitive reactance
11

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Capacitor

iC = I m sin ωt + 90

(

)

vC = Vm sin ωt

• For a capacitor, iC leads vC by 90°, or vC lags iC by 90°.
12

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
• If the source current leads the applied voltage, the network is predominantly capacitive. • If the applied voltage leads the source current, the network is predominantly inductive.

13

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Resistor:
vR and iR in phase

Inductor:
vL leads iL by 90°

Capacitor:
iC leads vC by 90°

14

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Relationship between differential, integral operation in phasor listed as follow:

dv dt

∫ v dt

jω 1 jω

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current Summary of voltage-current relationship
Element Time domain Frequency domain

R L C

v = Ri
di v=L ; dt dv i=C ; dt 1 i = ∫ v dt L 1 v = ∫ i dt C

V = RI

V = jωLI
V = I jω C
16

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.1(a)
The voltage across a 10 Ω resistor is given by the expression;

v = 100 sin 377t
Find the expression for the current i through the resistor and sketch the curves for v and i.

17

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.1(a) – solution
v = Vm sin ωt = 100 sin 377t Vm = 100 V
and ω = 377 rad/s = 2πf

Vm 100 Im = = = 10 A R 10
Hence;

im = I m sin ωt = 10 sin 377t A
18

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.1(a) – solution (cont’d)
The alternative waveform;

v, i 100 V 10 A 0 i 8.35 16.7 t (ms) v In phase

19

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.1(b)
The voltage across a 10 Ω resistor is given by the expression;

v = 25 sin 377t + 60

(

)

Find the expression for the current i through the resistor and sketch the curves for v and i.

20

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.1(b) – solution
v = Vm sin ( ωt + θ ) = 25 sin 377t + 60 Vm = 25 V;

(

)

ω = 377 rad/s
and θ = +60

Vm 25 Im = = = 2.5 A R 10
Hence;

im = I m sin ( ωt + θ ) = 2.5 sin 377t + 60 A

(

)

21

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.1(b) – solution (cont’d)
The alternative waveform;

v, i 25 V i 2.5 A -4.17 2.78 0 4.17 v In phase 8.33 12.5 16.67 t

22

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.3(a)
The current a 0.1 H coil is given by the expression;

i = 10 sin 377t
Find the expression for the voltage v across the coil and sketch the curves for v and i.

23

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.3(a) – solution
vL leads iL by 90°, Hence, if the current is; iL = I m sin ωt the voltage will be; where;

vL = Vm sin ωt + 90
and;

(

)

Vm = I m X L

X L = ωL = 2πfL

24

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.3(a) – solution (cont’d)
From the expression;

i = 10 sin 377t
377 f = = 60 Hz; 2π

I m = 10 A;
T=
Hence;

ω = 377 rad/s;

1 1 = = 16.67 ms; f 60

X L = ωL = 377 × 0.1 = 37.7 Ω

Vm = I m X L = 10 × 37.7 = 377 V

Hence the expression for the voltage is;

v = Vm sin ωt + 90 = 377 sin 377t + 90

(

)

(

)
25

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.3(a) – solution (cont’d)
The waveforms; i = 10 sin 377t

v = 377 sin 377t + 90

(

)

16.67 -4.17 4.17 8.33 12.5
26

t(

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.3(b)
The current a 0.1 H coil is given by the expression;

i = 7 sin 377t − 70

(

)

Find the expression for the voltage v across the coil and sketch the curves for v and i.

27

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.3(b) – solution
vL leads iL by 90°, Hence, if the current is; the voltage will be; where;

iL = I m sin ( ωt + θ )
vL = Vm sin ωt + θ + 90
and;

(

)

Vm = I m X L

X L = ωL = 2πfL

28

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.3(a) – solution (cont’d)
From the expression;

i = 7 sin ( 377t − 70°)
377 f = = 60 Hz; 2π

I m = 7 A;
T=

ω = 377 rad/s;

1 1 = = 16.67 ms; f 60

θ = −70°

X L = ωL = 377 × 0.1 = 37.7 Ω
Hence;

Vm = I m X L = 7 × 37.7 = 263.9 V

Hence the expression for the voltage is;

v = Vm sin ωt + θ + 90 = 263.9 sin 377t + 20

(

)

(

)

29

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.3(b) – solution (cont’d)
The waveforms;

i = 7 sin ( 377t − 70°)

v = 263.9 sin 377t + 20

(

)

16.67 0.93 3.24 4.17 8.33 12.5 t (ms)

30

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.5
The voltage across a 1 µ F capacitor is given by the expression;

v = 30 sin 400t V
Find the expression for the current i through the capacitor and sketch the curves for v and i.

31

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.5 – solution
iC leads vC by 90°, Hence, if the voltage is; the current will be; where;

vC = Vm sin ωt
iC = I m sin ωt + 90
and;

(

)

Vm Im = XC

1 1 XC = = ωC 2πfC

32

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.5 – solution (cont’d)
From the expression;

v = 30 sin 400t
400 f = = 63.7 Hz; 2π

Vm = 30 V;

ω = 400 rad/s;

1 1 T= = = 15.7 ms; f 63.7
Hence;

1 1 XC = = = 2500 Ω −6 ωC 400 ×1×10

Vm 30 Im = = = 12 mA X C 2500

Hence the expression for the current is;

i = I m sin ωt + 90 = 12 sin ( 400t + 90°) mA

(

)

33

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.5 – solution (cont’d)
The waveforms;

v = 30 sin 400t

i = 12 sin ( 400t + 90°) mA

7.85 3.93 3.93 i leads v by 3.93 ms ≡ 90°
34

t 11.78 15.7

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.6
The current through a 100 µ F capacitor is given by the expression;

i = 40 sin 500t + 60 V

(

)

Find the expression for the voltage v across the capacitor.

35

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.6 – solution
iC leads vC by 90°, Hence, if the current is; iC = I m sin ( ωt + θ ) the voltage will be; where; Vm = I m X C

vC = Vm sin ωt + θ − 90
and;

(

)

1 1 XC = = ωC 2πfC

36

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.6 – solution (cont’d)
From the expression;

i = 40 sin 500t + 60

(

)

500 ω = 500 rad/s; I m = 40 A; f = = 79.6 Hz; 2π 1 1 T= = = 12.57 ms; θ = 60 f 79.6 1 1 XC = = = 20 Ω −6 ωC 500 ×100 ×10
Hence;

Vm = I m X C = 40 × 20 = 800 V

Hence the expression for the voltage is;

v = Vm sin ωt + θ − 90 = 800 sin ( 500t − 30°)

(

)

37

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.7(a)
Determine the type of element in the box (C, L or R) and calculate its value if;

v = 100 sin ωt + 40 V

(

)

and

i = 20 sin ωt + 40 A

(

)

Solution
The voltage and current are in phase . The element is a resistor (R). Vm 100 R= = =5Ω Im 20
38

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.7(b)
Determine the type of element in the box (C, L or R) and calculate its value if;

v = 1000 sin 377t + 10 V

(

)

and

i = 5 sin 377t − 80 A

(

)

Solution
The voltage leads the current by 90° The element is an inductor (L).

Vm 1000 XL = = = 200 Ω; Im 5

X L 200 L= = = 0.53 H ω 377

39

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.7(c)
Determine the type of element in the box (C, L or R) and calculate its value if;

v = 500 sin 157t + 30 V

(

)

and

i = 1sin 157t + 120 A

(

)

Solution
The voltage lags the current by 90° The element is a capacitor (C).

V 500 XC = m = = 500 Ω; Im 1

1 1 C= = = 12.74 µF ωX C 157 × 500

40

14.3 Response of Basic R, L and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current
Example 14.7(d)
Determine the type of element in the box (C, L or R) and calculate its value if;

v = 50 cos ωt + 20 V

(

)

and

i = 5 sin ωt + 110 A

(

)

Solution

v = 50 cos ωt + 20 = 50 sin ωt + 20 + 90 = 50 sin ( ωt + 110°) V

(

)

(

)

The voltage and current are in phase . The element is a resistor (R). Vm 50 R= = = 10 Ω Im 5

41

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance Z • It is a ratio of the phasor voltage V to the phasor current I. • Unit in ohms (Ω).

V Z= I

[Ω]
42

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance Z Impedance Z has two components: • Real component (ZRe ): Resistance, R • Imaginary component (ZIm ) : Reactance, X

Z = R ± jX

[Ω]

• Reactance can be inductor, L and capacitance, C. • Positive X is for L and negative X is for C.
43

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Admittance Y • It is the reciprocal of impedance Z. • Unit in siemens (S).

1 I Y= = Z V 1 = R ± jX

[S]

44

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance for Resistor, R
v and i are in phase;

Vm Im = R
Or;

Vm = I m R

In phasor form;

v = Vm sin ωt
Where;

V = V∠0

Vm V= 2

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance for Resistor, R
Applying Ohm’s law and phasor algebra;

V I= ZR V V∠0 = = R∠θ R R∠θ R V = ∠0  − θ R R
0 − θ R = 0 Since v and i are in phase; Hence; θ R = 0 V I = ∠0  Therefore; R

Z R = R ∠ 0°

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance for Resistor, R
• The boldface Roman quantity ZR, having both magnitude and an associate angle, is referred to as the impedance of a resistive element. • ZR is not a phasor since it does not vary with time. • Even though the format R∠ 0° is very similar to the phasor notation for sinusoidal current and voltage, R and its associated angle of 0° are fixed, non-varying quantities.

Z R = R ∠ 0°

[ Ω]

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.1
Find i in the figure.

Solution
v = 100 sin ωt
Applying Ohm’s law;

V = 70.7∠0 V

V 70.7∠0 I= = = 14.14∠0 A ZR 5∠0

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.1 – solution (cont’d)
Inverse-transform;

I = 14.14∠0 A

i = 20 sin ωt A

I = 14.14 A V = 70.7 V

vR and iR in phase

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.2
Find v in the figure

Solution
i = 4 sin (ωt + 30 ) A
Applying Ohm’s law;

I = 2.83∠30 A

V = IZ R = ( I∠θ )( R∠0°)
= 2.83∠30 × 2∠0 = 5.66∠30 V

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.2 – solution (cont’d)
Inverse-transform;

V = 5.66∠30 V

v = 8 sin (ωt + 30 ) V

V = 5.66 V I = 2.83 A 30°

vR and iR in phase

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance for Inductor, L
vL leads iL by 90°, By phasor transformation;

X L = ωL = 2πfL

[ Ω]

v = Vm sin ωt
Where;

V = V∠0 Vm V= 2

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance for Inductor, L
Applying Ohm’s law and phasor algebra;

V I= ZL V V∠0° = = X L ∠θ L X L ∠θ L V = ∠0° − θ L XL
Since v leads i by 90°; Hence;

0 − θ L = −90

θ L = 90

Therefore;

V I= ∠ − 90° XL

Z L = X L ∠90

= ωL∠90°

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.3
Find i in the figure.

Solution
v = 24 sin ωt V
Applying Ohm’s law;

V = 16.97∠0 V

V V∠ θ 16.97∠0 I= = = Z L X L ∠90° 3∠90
= 5.66∠ − 90 A

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.3 – solution (cont’d)
Inverse-transform;

I = 5.66∠ − 90 A

i = 8 sin (ωt − 90 ) A

V = 16.97 V

I = 5.66 A

vL leads iL by 90°

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.4
Find v in the figure.

Solution
i = 5 sin (ωt + 30 ) A
Applying Ohm’s law;

I = 3.54∠30 A

V = IZ L = ( I∠θ )( X L ∠90°) = 3.54∠30 × 4∠90
= 14.14∠120 A

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.4 – solution (cont’d)
Inverse-transform;

V = 14.14∠120 V
V = 14.14 V

v = 20 sin (ωt + 120 ) A

I = 3.54 A 120° 30°

vL leads iL by 90°

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance for Capacitor, C
iC leads vC by 90°, By phasor transformation;

1 1 XC = = ωC 2πfC

[ Ω]

v = Vm sin ωt
Where;

V = V∠0 Vm V= 2

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance for Capacitor, C
Applying Ohm’s law and phasor algebra;

V I= ZC V V∠0° = = X C ∠θ C X C ∠θ C V = ∠0° − θ C XC
  Since i leads v by 90°; 0 − θ C = +90  Hence; θ C = −90

Z C = X C ∠ − 90 1 = ∠ − 90° ωC

Therefore;

V I= ∠90° XC

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.5
Find i in the figure.

Solution
v = 15 sin ωt V
By Ohm’s law;

V = 10.61∠0 V

V V∠θ I= = Z C X C ∠ − 90 10.61∠0 = = 5.31∠90 A 2∠ − 90

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.5 – Solution (cont’d)
Inverse-transform;

I = 5.31∠90 A

i = 7.5 sin (ωt + 90 ) A

I = 5.3 A

V = 10.6 V
iC leads vC by 90°

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.6
Find v in the figure.

Solution
i = 6 sin (ωt − 60 ) A
By Ohm’s law;

I = 4.24∠ − 60 A

V = IZ C = ( I∠θ )( X C ∠ − 90°)

= 4.24∠ − 60 × 0.5∠ − 90 = 2.12∠ − 150 V

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Example 15.6 – solution
Inverse- transform;

V = 2.12∠ − 150 V

v = 3 sin (ωt − 150 ) V

iC leads vC by 90°

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor Diagram
1 X L = ωL; X C = ωC

Impedances and admittances of passive elements Element R L C Impedance, Z Admittance, Y

R
jωL

R∠ 0°
X C ∠ 90° X L ∠ - 90°

1 R
1 jωL j ωC

1 ∠ 0° R
1 ∠ - 90° XL 1 ∠ 90° XC
64

1 j ωC

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance Diagram
• An angle is associated with resistance, inductive reactance and capacitive reactance, each can be placed on a complex plane diagram. • Combining different types of elements give total impedance from -90o to 90o. θ θ θ
T

Inductive reactance

resistance

Capacitive reactance

angle = 0o

Resistive in nature Inductive in nature Capacitive in nature

closer to 90o T closer to -90o T

15.2 Impedance and the Phasor diagram
Impedance Diagram
• For any configuration (series, parallel, seriesparallel, etc.), the angle associated with the total impedance is the angle by which the applied voltage leads the source current. • For inductive networks, θ T will be positive. • For capacitive networks, θ T will be negative.

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