An Introduction

. how they are used in spoken language. letters.What is PHONETICS?  Study of the physical properties of the sounds of the language. how we can record speech sounds in written symbols and how we can recognize different sounds/ phonemes NOT letters. concerns in Phonetics are the discovery of how speech sounds are produced. The central language.

e. how speech sounds are produced or articulated in the VOCAL TRACT by the VOCAL ORGANS or the mechanisms that PRODUCE the speech sounds. ..So basically. we are studying of the SOUNDS of SPEECH i.

It refers to that part of the general theory of human language that is concerned with the universal properties of natural language sound systems. . The study of structure and systematic patterning of sounds in human language and the term is used in TWO ways: 1. 2.WHAT IS PHONOLOGY? Study concerned with the relationship between one sound and another in utterance  OR rather the functions of sounds/ phonemes in speech. It refers to a description of the sounds of a particular language and the RULES governing the distribution of those sounds.

Are studies within the general fields of human physiology and neuro psychology 1. ARTICULATORY PHONETICS The study of the PRODUCTION of SPEECH by VOCAL ORGANS. Is a branch of Physics 3. ACOUSTIC PHONETICS The study of SOUND WAVES of which SPEECH consists. 2. AUDITORY PHONETICS The study of the RECEPTION OF SOUNDS by AUDITORY ORGANS. .

. jaw and tongue.PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH SOUNDS In reality to learn to speak a language is more complex than the control of a few muscles that move the lips. because over 100 muscles exercise direct and continuous control during the production of sound waves that carry speech.

which is modified by the LARYNX/ voice box in the throat.VISIBLE INVISIBLE ORGANS OF SPEECH/ ARTICULATORS (MOUTH & THROAT) SOUND WAVES are produced by AIR that flows outward from the LUNGS. . and further modified by the position and movement of the TONGUE and other anatomical structures of the VOCAL TRACT.


. which are transmitted by the molecules of the AIR (sometimes by other media) and perceived by the ear.A sound is caused by VIBRATIONS at its SOURCE.

The SOURCE may be a VIBRATOR (e.g. the strings of a violin) .

the wooden body of the violin) .g.The quality of sound may be modified by a resonance chamber (e.

´ (Stetson. 1951) .³Every utterance is a movement.

The human vocal organs form a fairly complex system of ADJUSTABLE VIBRATORS & RESONANCE CHAMBERS. . Our study of utterance begins with an analysis of the systems of movements which generates human speech.

throat. which narrows and disturbs the passage of air. The principal sources of vibration are either the VOCAL CORDS or a constriction somewhere in the throat. mouth and nose. nose or mouth. nose and mouth act as resonators.Most speech sounds are caused by vibrations set up in a column of air moving upwards from the lungs and out through the throat. The cavities of the face. .

The action of speaking can be divided into 4 principal phases: The LUNGS The VOCAL CORDS The VELUM/ SOFT PALATE The MOUTH .

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