POLARIMETRY

POLARIMETRY
Presented By Mr. Shaise Jacob Faculty Nirmala College of Pharmacy Muvattupuzha, Kerala India Email ± jacobshaise@gmail.com

‡ The term Polarimetry may be defined as the study of the rotation of polarised light by transparent substance. ‡ Optical rotatory power is useful for » ‡ Qualitative analysis ‡ Quantitative analysis ‡ Elucidation of chemical structures ‡ An ordinary light usually vibrates in all the planes UNPOLARISED LIGHT

‡ The vibrations may all be restricted to one direction only, in the perpendicular plane PLANE POLARIZED LIGHT ‡ Unpolarised light gets converted into a planepolarized light by simply passing it through a lens called a NICOL Prism. (after William Nicol ± the inventor) ‡ NICOL Prism ± Iceland Spar Calcite ( CaCO3 form ) (or) Polaroid

‡ A plane polarized light which consists of two components of fixed magnitude rotating in opposite directions to one another; ‡ The right circulatory polarized light ‡ The left circulatory polarized light ‡ Plane polarized light is the vector sum of these two components

THEORY
‡ An optically active substance is one that rotates the plane of polarized light ‡ (1) Lactic acid

‡ Latin : Dexter = right designated by µd¶ ‡ Latin : Laevus = left designated by µl¶

OPTICAL ACTIVITY
When a certain organic liquids, solutions (sugar) or quartz crystals are placed in the path of plane polarized light, the plane of polarization is rotated

Magnitude of rotation depend upon 
Nature of the substance  Length of liquid column  Conc. Of the solution  Nature of the solvent  Temperature of the solution  WL of the light used The rotatory power of a given solution is generally expressed as Specific rotation

a ± observed angle of rotation L ± length in decimeters C - grams of substance in 100ml of solution

INSTRUMENTATION
Optical activity may be detected & measured by an instrument Polarimeter

‡ Light source ± Sodium vapor lamp ‡ Analyzer ± another Nicol prism aligned to intercept the linearly polarized ray as it emerges from the sample solution

Determination of optical activity of Pharmaceutical substances 
Optical rotation Specific optical rotation noting the angle through which the plane of polarization is rotated.

Applications 
Identification  Determination of O.A compounds  Quantitative ± sugar industry (sucrose)  O.A is the only one parameter, for distinguishing b/w D & L isomeric forms

SACCHARIMETRY
» important practical application of polarimetry » determination of high conc. of sugars » visual saccharimeters called POLAROSCOPES

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