TRANSMISSION LINES DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

BY K.VEERABHADRA RAO RETD.CHIEF ENGINEER,AP TRANSCO

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DEVELOPMENT OF AC TRANSMISSION LINES
16-5-1888 TRANSMISSION LINE PATENT GIVEN FIRST LINE 25 kV LINE LAUFFEN TO FRANKFURT IN GERMANY 1912 110 kV LINE LAUCHLAMMER TO RIESA 17-4-1929 220 kV LINE BRAUWEILER TO FRANKFURT TOWERS DESIGNED FOR 380 kV 5-10-1957 380 kV LINE ROMERSKIRCHEN TO LUDWIGSBURGHOHENECH 1967 735 kV LINE IN HYDRO QUEBEC 1982 1200 kV LINE IN SOVIET UNION EXTREMEMELY HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION BEYOND 2000 kV NOT PREFERED DUE TO HIGH CORONA DISCHARGELOSSES MORE THAN LOSSES DUE TO LINE 2 RESISTANCE

DESIGN BASIS
1.ECONOMIC FACTORS

2.NETWORK SAFETY 3.REDUNDANCY
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INSULATORS 5. EARTH WIRE a) COMPRESSION JOINTS b) VIBRATION DAMPERS c) COPPER EARTH BONDS 4. CONDUCTOR 2. CONDUCTOR ACCESSORIES a) REPAIR SLEEVES b) COMPRESSION JOINTS c) VIBRATION DAMPERS d) SPACERS / SPACER DAMPERS 3.MAIN COMPONENTS 1. EARTHING/ COUNTER POISE EARTHING SETS 4 .

INSULATOR STRING HARDWARE a) SUSPENSION STRING HARD WARE b) TENSION STRING HARD WARE 7. EARTH WIRE /OPGW HARDWARE 9. OPGW 8. TOWER ACCESSORIES a) PHASE PLATES c) BIRD GAURDS e) STEP BOLTS contd. b) DANGER BOARDS d) ANTI CLIMBING DEVICES 5 . TOWERS 10..MAIN COMPONENTS 6.

CONDUCTORS 1.ACSR(AS) 6 . ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR ALUMINIUM CLAD STEEL REINFORCED . COPPER 2 . ALUMINIUM 4. ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTOR STEEL REINFORCED(AACSR) 5. ALL ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTORS(AAAC) 5. ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR STEEL REINFORCED(ACSR) 6.COPPER CONDUCTOR STEEL REINFORCED 3.

ADVANTAGES OF ACSR 1. LARGER DIA -LESS CORONA LOSS FOR UHV LINES 7 . MORE SPAN-LESS SAG 2.

IS-398 PART-V : ACSR FOR 400 kV AND ABOVE 4. IS:398 IEC-1098-1991: SPECIFICATION FOR ALUMINIUM CONDUCTORS FOR OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES 2 IS-398 PART-II : ACSR 3. IEC-1232 : ALUMINIUM CLAD STEEL WIRES FOR ELECTRICAL PURPOSES 5.STANDARDS 1.IS-1778 :REELS AND DRUMS FOR BARE CONDUCTORS 8 .

/WIRE DIA.LAY RATIO( MAX. OVERAL DIA.TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF STEEL AND AL.mm) 5.mm) 4./MIN./STEEL 3.PRINCIPAL PARAMETERS OF ACSR 1. ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH ( KN) 9. COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION (PER DEG.(mm) 6. SECTIONAL AREA OF ALUMINIUM (SQ. APPROXIMATE WT(./km d) min.STRANDS a) strand dia.C) 11. b) cross sectional area c) wt. TOTAL SECTIONAL AREA (SQ.breaking load befor stranding and after stranding KN e)zinc coating of steel wire f) joints in strands g) chemical composition of steel wire 9 .KG / KM) 7.C( OHM/KM) 8.AL.) 12. APPLICABLE STANDARDS 2. NO. FINAL MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (KG/cm) 10. DC RESISTANCEAT 20 DEG.

IMP.DC RESISTANCE 5.The calculation to be based on every day temp. and tension 22 % of UTS.30.Creep is due to settlement of strands and due to non -elastic elongation of metal when subjected to load. for 400 kV and 25 %UTS for 220 kV 10 .The manufacturer shall furnish the amount of creep in 10.CORONA EXTINSION VOLTAGE 3.20.ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH 2.50 years along with supporting calculations.40.RADIO INTERFERENCE VOLTAGE 4.STESS STAIN TEST This test is to collect the creep data of the conductor. TYPE TESTS 1.

305 X 170 mm 160 KN 280mm /330mm/430mm CREEPAGE BALL DIA--16mm.POLYMER SILICON RUBBER/ALLOY OF SILICON RUBBER AND EPDM NORMAL SIZES 1.TOUGHENED GLASS 3. 280mm/330mm/430mm CREEPAGE 3.280 X 170 mm 120 KN/160KN. 280mm CREEPAGE 2. 280mm /330mm/430mm CREEPAGE 4.305 X 145 mm 120 KN.INSULATOR STRINGS TYPES OF INSULATORS 1.254 X 145 mm 70KN/90KN EMS. 20mm 11 . PORCELAIN DISC INSULATORS.LONG ROD INSULATORS 2.

SINGLE TENSION 4.V-SRTING CONTINUED 12 .SINGLE SUSPENSION 2.DOUBLE SUSPENSION 3.INSULATOR STRINGS---TYPES OF STRINGS 1. DOUBLE TENSION 5.

CONSTRUCTION WORKS 1. APPROVALS FROM CONCERNED a) ROAD CROSSINGS i) RAIL CROSSINGS iii) RIVER CROSSINGS c) CHECK SURVEY ii) TELECOM LINES iv) AIR PORT AUTHORITIES 13 . SURVEYS a) ROUTE ALIGNMENT b) DETAILED SURVEY i) PROFILES ii) SOIL PARTICULARS iii) SAG TEMPLATE iv)TOWER SPOTTING v) RIGHT OF WAY 2.

FOUNDATIONS i) DESIGN FOR DIFFERENT SOILS iii) FORM BOXES v) CONCRETING vii) EARTHING 4. TOWER ERRECTION i) TOWER SCHEDULES contd.. ii) EXCAVATION PLAN iv) STUB SETTING vi) REVETMENTS ii) INSEPCTION AND SORTING OUT MEMBERS iii) TREATMENT OF JOINS iv) ASSEMBLY v) TIGHTENING AND PUNCHING OF BOLTS AND NUTS vi) FIXING ACCESSORIES 14 .CONSTRUCTION WORKS 3.

CONSTRUCTION WORKS 5.. FINAL CHECKING 9. POWER AND EARTH CONDUCTOR ERRECTION i) DELIVERY OF CONDUCTOR AT SITE iii) TENSIONING AND SAGGING contd. ii) PAYING OUT AND STRINGING iv) CLIPPING -IN 7. FIXING OF CONDUCTOR AND EARTH WIRE ACCESSORIES 8. INSULATOR HOISTING 6. TESTING AND COMMISIONING i) CONDUCTOR CONTINUITY TEST ii) INSULATION RESISTENCE TEST iii) TO BE CHARGED AT LOW VOLTAGE iv) STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET 15 .

CENTAGES 28% 36% 01% 06% 04% 14% 11% 16 . ERRECTION 7. EARTH WIRE AND ACCESSORIES 4. INSULATOR AND STRINGS 5.COST COMPONENTS 1. TOWERS AND ACCESSORIES 2. FOUNDATIONS 6. ACSR CONDUCTOR AND ACCESSORIES 3.

DESIGN BY PROBABILISTIC METHOD IECIEC-826 CLIMATIC LOADS a) RETURN PERIODS OF CLIMATIC EVENTS 1) 50 YEARS 2) 150 YEARS 3) 500 YEARS b) DRAG COEFFICIENT OF CONDUCTOR c) TERRAIN CATEGORIES DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS a) RELIABILITY (STRUCTURAL) OR PROBABILITY OF SURVIVAL b) SECURITY (STRUCTURAL) c) SAFETY 17 .

HARDWARE CONDUCTOR CONDUCTORS. WITH 90% CONFIDENCE HARDWARE DEAD END TOWER TOWER. INSULLATORS.FOUNDATIONS.FOUNDATIONS. HARDWARE NOT TO FAIL FIRST ANGLE TOWER TOWER.FOUNDATIONS.DESIGN BY PROBABILISTIC METHOD IECIEC-826 COORDINATION OF STRENGTH OF COMPONENTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAJOR COORDINATION WITH COMPONENT MA JOR COMPONENTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TO FAIL FIRST TANGENT TOWER TOWER. HARDWARE NOTE: WITH IN EACH MAJOR COMPONENTS THE UNDERLINED COMPONENT IS THE WEAKEST WITH 90% CONFIDENCE 18 .

WIND LOADS a. DEAD LOADS a. WITHOUT ICE SNOWY REGIONS 2.LOADINGS ON TRANSMISSION LINES LIVE LOADS 1. WEIGHT OF TOWER b. WITH ICE SNOWY REGIONS c. HARDWARE AND INSULATORS 3. c. EXTERNAL LOADS DURING b. SPECIAL LOADS a. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANACE 19 . WEIGHT OF CONDUCTORS. NON-SNOWY REGIONS b.

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS LOADS DURING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE LOADS 20 .SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FAILURE CONTAINMENT LOADS UNDER BROKEN WIRE CONDITION 3.RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS CLIMATIC LOADS UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS 2.REQUIREMENT OF LOADS 1.

METHODOLOGY FOR THE DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION LINES ESTABLISH SAFETY REQUIREMENTS SELECT SECURITY REQUREMENTS SELECT RELIABILITY CALCULATE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE LOADS CALCULATE LOADS RELATED TO SECURITY CALCULATE CLIMATIC LOADS COMBINE ALL LIMIT LOADS CHECK SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FROM NATIONAL REGULATIONS CALCULATE STRENGTH NEEDED TO COMPLY WITH ALL LOADS AND REQUIREMENTS DESIGN COMPONENTS FOR LOADS AND STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS 21 .

TOWER HEIGHT 2. CROSS ARM WIDTH 22 .TOWER OUTLINE 1. TOWER WIDTH 3.

TELECOM. CLEARACE AND SWING ANGLES 4. AIR CLEARANCE 5. MIN. MIN.LINE CROSSINGS 7. POWER LINE CROSSINGS 6.ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES 1.GROUND CLEARANCE 2. RAIL TRACK CROSSINGS 23 .CLEARANCE ABOVE HIGHEST FLOOD LEVEL 3.

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS a. 7. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS CONDUCTOR EARTH WIRE INSULATOR STRINGS SPAN 24 . ICE FORMATION 3. 5. WIND b. ISOKERANIC LEVEL d.DESIGN PARAMETERS 1. 6. SEISMIC INTENSITY e.OF CIRCUITS 2. NO. TEMPERATURE c. 4.

i) LONGITUDINAL LOADS ii) TORSIONAL LOADS iii) ANTI CASCADING LOADS 3. FAILURE CONTAINMENT LOADS RELATED TO SECURITY REQUIREMENTS. 25 .LOADINGS 1. LOADS DURING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE LOADS RELATED TO SAFETY REQUIREMENTS. CLIMATIC LOADS RELATED TO RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS: WIND LOADS i) SNOWY WITH ICE ii) SNOWY WITH OUT ICE iii) NON SNOWY 2.

SECURITY CONDITION (BROKEN WIRE CONDITION) AND SAFETY CONDITION (CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE) HAVE ALL THE ABOVE LOADS UNDER THEIR LOADING COMBINATIONS. GW & INSULATOR STRING COMPONENT OF MECHANICAL TENSION 2. 26 . LONGITUDINAL LOADS(L) RELIABILITY CONDITION (NORMAL CONDITION). NATURE OF LOADS 1. VERTICAL LOADS(V) SELF WEIGHT LOADS DURING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE 3. CONDUCTOR. SAFTETY CONDITION HAS BOTH NORMAL AND BROKEN WIRE CONDITION.LOADINGS contd.. TRANSVERSE LOADS(T) WIND LOAD ON TOWER STRUCTURE.

27 . 1. TRANSVERSE LOADS(T) : UNDER NO-WIND CONDITION 2. LONGITUDINAL LOADS(L): PULL OF CONDUCTOR/GW AT EVERY DAY TEMPERATURE AND NO-WIND APPLIED SIMULTANEOUSLY AT ALL POINTS ON ONE SIDE WITH ZERO DEGREE DEVIATION. WEIGHT OF INSULATOR STRINGS AND ACCESSORIES 3. GW WEIGHTS ON ONE SIDE ONLY. VERTICAL LOADS(V) : CONDUCTOR.ANTI CASCADING CHECKS ALL ANGLE TOWERS SHALL BE CHECKED FOR ANTI CASCADING CONDITIONS WITH ALL THE CONDUCTORS AND G.W. INTACT ONLY ON ONE SIDE.

LARGE ANGLE TOWERS/DEAD END TOWERS: ANY THREE PHASES BROKEN ON THE SAME SIDE OR ANY TWO PHASES AND GW BROKEN ON THE SAME SIDE. 28 .BROKEN WIRE CONDITION (BWC) SINGLE CIRCUIT: ONE PHASE OR GW BROKEN WHICH EVER IS MORE STRINGENT FOR A PARTICULAR MEMBER MULTI CIRCUIT: SUSPENSION TOWER: ANY ONE PHASE OR GW BROKEN WHICH EVER IS MORE STRINGENT FOR A PARTICULAR MEMBER SMALL ANGLE TOWERS: ONE PHASE AND GW OR TWO PHASES BROKEN ON ONE SIDE.

DESIGN OF TOWER MEMBERS STRESS ANALYSIS: 1. GRAPHICAL DIAGRAM METHOD: NOW OBSOLETE 2. COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS: 3D ANALYSIS SELECTION OF MATERIAL i) BOLT DIAMETER FLARGE WIDTH 16MM 45 MM ii) MINIMUM THICKNESS: 5 MM LEG 4MM BRACINGS/REDUNDENT MEMBERS iii) GRADE OF STEEL : MILD STEEL AND HIGH TENSILE STEEL iv) STENDERNESS RATIO: LEGS < 120 29 BRACINGS < 200 REDUNDENT < 250 TENSION < 400 . ANALYTICAL METHOD 3.

DESIGN OF TOWER MEMBERS PERMISSIBLE STRESSES SELECTION OF MEMBERS BOLTS & NUTS i) CLASS 4.2220 Kgf/cm2 ii) CLASS 5.3552 Kgf IN 5mm TH..sECTION .6 ULTIMATE BEARING STRESS .6322 Kgf/cm2 ULTIMATE SHEARING STRESS -3161 Kgf/cm2 FOR 16 mm DIA BOLTS contd.6 ULTIMATE BEARING STRESS .6 ULTIMATE BEARING STRESS .4440 Kgf/cm2 ULTIMATE SHEARING STRESS . 30 i) CLASS 4.

BWC/ANTI CASCADE CONDITION 31 4. DESTRUCTION TEST . PERMANENT ANCHORS: LONGITUDINAL MOST 3. CONTROL ROOM 7. ELECTRICAL WRINCHES (REMOTE CONTROLLED) 5. BOLT SLIP TEST 3.TESTING OF TOWERS TOWER TESTING STATION 1. NC 2. TEST BED 2. INSTRUMENTS TO RECORD THE LOAD APPLIED: MECHANICAL SPRING GAUGES OR ELECTRICAL / ELECTRONIC TRANSDUCEROS/DYNAMO METERS 6. ARRANGEMENT FOR APPLYING THE COMBINATION OF LOADS 4. THEODOLOTES TO OBSERVE DEFLECTION OF TOWER TESTING 1.

WIND LOAD ON TOWER BODY SIMULATED AT A.APPLICATION OF LOADS TRANSVERSE.W. CROSS ARM LEVELS C. LONGITUDINAL LOADS AND VERTICAL LOADS AT PEAK AND RESPECTIVE CROSS ARM POINTS. TOWER WITH EXTENSION AT TOP OF EXTENSION 32 . G. B. WIND BELOW CROSS ARM LEVEL TO BE SIMULATED TO ACT AT BOTTOM CROSS ARM LEVEL D.

INSPECTION OF INCOMING MATERIAL 9.QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN 1. BOUGHTOUT ITEMS 10. DOCUMENTATION 33 . QUALITY PLANNING 4. INSPECTION EQUIPMENT. COMPANY STANDARDS 6. QUALITY CONTOL(QC) DEPARTMENT 3. IN-PROCESS INSPECTION 11. MATERIAL MANAGEMENT 8. QUALITY POLICY 2. TOOLS AND GUAGES 7. DESIGN AND DRAWING 5.

ANGEL OF EARTH FRUSTRUM 3. TYPY OF SOIL b.DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS 1. DENSITY OF SOIL c. TRANSVERSE AND LOGITUDINAL DIRECTIONS 2. COMPRESSION OR DOWN WARD THRUST b. TENSION OR UPLIFT c. LIMIT BEARING CAPACITY b. LATERAL FORCES OR SIDE THRUST BOTH. GROUND WATER TABLE 34 . SOIL PARAMETERS a. TYPE OF LOADS a. SOIL INVESTIGATION a.

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS contd. TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS a. FULLY SUBMERGED FOUNDATION e. BLACK COTTON SOIL FOUNDATION f. PARITAL BLACK COTTON SOIL FOUNDATION g. SANDY SOIL FOUNDATION 35 . PARTIAL SUBMERGED FOUNDATION d. HARD ROCK FOUNDATION i.. NORMAL DRY SOIL FOUNDATION b. 4. WET SOIL FOUNDATION c. SOFT ROCK/FISSURED ROCK FOUNDATION h.

STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENT OF FOUNDATION a. PCC TYPE b.. 36 . PILE TYPE g. UNDER CUT TYPE e. GROUTED ROCK AND ROCK ANCHOR TYPE f. BLOCK TYPE d.DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS 5. REVETMENT ON FOUNDATION contd. WELL TYPE 6. RCC SPREAD TYPE c.

THE END 37 .

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