You are on page 1of 17



‡ SMRC model of communication
± Begins with a source (S) who
± Encodes a message (M)
± Which is transmitted through
communication channels (C)
± The message is decoded by a receiver (R)
‡ Interactive models stress two-way
communications in which source and
receiver change positions





‡ Source¶s objectives in advertising are
focused on receiver responses
(customer-focused marketing)
‡ Objectives of advertising
± Increase sales
± Perception
± Learning
± Persuasion
‡ A source¶s impact is in part determined
by source credibility


‡ Any factor that interferes with or
distorts the delivery of the ad message
‡ External environment
± Competitor marketing communications
± General patterns of consumer use
± Public opinion
± Clutter
‡ Internal Factors
± Perceived needs
± Customer¶s history and attitudes
± Information processing, avoidance

j  j 

‡ Ad message
± Begins with an analysis of the marketing
and advertising strategy and the target
± Executing strategy is done by the creative
team which designs and produces the ads
‡ Media mix
± Media plan is developed to provide the best
chance of delivering the ad message to the
right target audience at the right time and


‡ When a person perceives something,
the message has registered
‡ But this is difficult to achieve
‡ Communication drivers of perception:
± Exposure: placing the message in a medium
the target audience will encounter
± Attention: Creating an engaging ad
± Awareness: Making an impression on the
consumer, creating top of mind awareness
± Interest and relevance: Pulling power,
making the ad personally relevant

ÿ j 

‡ Two types of learning
± Cognitive learning (creating understanding)
± Advertisers want people to know
something after experiencing the ad
± Understanding demands a conscious
mental effort to make sense of information
± Conditioned learning (creating associations)
‡ Learning can also occur when people
make connections and link ideas
‡ Ads use associations to get consumers to
link products with something they aspire
to, respect, value, or appreciate
‡ Memorability (locking power)
± Effective ads lock messages into the
mind once learned
ÿ j 


‡ Arguments
± The reasons behind a statement or a claim
‡ Attitudes and opinions
± Attitudes are underlying beliefs, opinions are the
expressions of these attitudes
± Ads attempt to accomplish one of three things
‡ Establish a new opinion
‡ Reinforce an existing opinion
‡ Change an existing opinion
‡ Emotions (affecting feelings)
± How one feels may be as important as what one
knows about a brand



‡ Involvement: intensity of the

consumer¶s engagement with messages,
brands, or media
‡ Tools for creating involvement
± Get people involved in completing a
‡ Ask questions, spark curiosity, use
± Physical involvement
‡ Taste tests at point of purchase



‡ Involvement affects
message processing
± High involvement leads to
central processing
± Low involvement leads to
peripheral processing
‡ Conviction: a particularly
strong belief reflecting
attitudes, reasons, logic,
and emotion



‡ Advertisers hope that
ads will lead to behavior
± Trying
± Sampling
± Buying
± Increasing usage
± Stopping or preventing a
± Generating feedback


‡ Brand personalities and images create a

feeling of familiarity with a known
‡ Branding: creating a unique product
‡ Trust: the secret ingredient in branding


‡ Brand image: sets of ideas, feelings, and

attitudes consumers have about brands
± Physical: attributes, ingredients, design
± Psychological: emotions, beliefs, values
ascribed to the product
‡ Brand relationships: people have bonds
with brands they buy and use regularly
‡ Brand equity: Branding affects the
balance sheet


‡ What do you think makes an effective

ad? One that creates an emotional bond
with consumers or one that is designed
to inform about the product¶s unique