The word ¶research· is an organised process of seeking out facts about the same
.Literall y the word ¶operation· may be defined as some action that we apply to some problems or hypothesis.
and tools to problems involving the operation of a system so as to provide those in control of the system with optimum solution to the problem
.C W Churchman defines OR as ´Operations research is the aplication of scientific methods. techniques.
. The Americans sometimes combine the terms OR and MS together and say "OR/MS" or "ORMS". Yet other terms sometimes used are "industrial engineering" ("IE") and "decision science" ("DS"). namely the term "OR". In recent years there has been a move towards a standardisation upon a single term for the field.
The British/Europeans refer to "operational research". the Americans to "operations research" but both are often shortened to just "OR" Another term which is used for this field is "management science" ("MS").
Whereas 70 years ago it would have been possible to study mathematics.
. It was really only in the late 1930's that operational research began in a systematic fashion. indeed the term OR did not exist then.
OR is a relatively new discipline. and it started in the UK. physics or engineering at university it would not have been possible to study OR.
the talents from all walks of life join together to overcome the situation and solve the problems. These combined efforts always result in new discoveries and techniques. may be political. Operations research is the outcome of such a situation.In times of national crisis.
. economical or cultural.
Operations research came into existence when Fredric w Taylor in 1885 exphasised the application of scientific analysis to methods of production. The name Operation Research came in use from a military context. England undertook a programme known as Research in military operation·. Military management called on scientists from various disciplines and organised them into teams to assist in solving strategic and technical problems relating to defence of the country
. During World War II.
. This new approach to the systematic and scientific study of the operations of the system was called Operations Research. Their mission was to arrive at decisions on optimal utilisation of scarce military resources and to implement those decisions effectively.
. What such people brought to their work were "scientifically trained" minds. used to querying assumptions. two physiologists. exploring hypotheses. Many too were of high intellectual calibre (at least four UK wartime OR personnel were later to win Nobel prizes when they returned to their peacetime disciplines). devising experiments. collecting data. two mathematical physicists and a surveyor.
These early OR workers came from many different disciplines. logic. one group consisted of a physicist. etc. analysing numbers.
As such OR did not spread particularly well. In the USA OR spread to the universities so that systematic training in OR for future workers began.
By the end of the war OR was well established in the armed services both in the UK and in the USA.
. In the UK many of the distinguished OR workers returned to their original peacetime disciplines. Following the end of the war OR took a different course in the UK as opposed to in the USA. except for a few isolated industries (iron/steel and coal).
In fact that many experts consider the start of Operational Research in the III century B. and a system of mirrors that was setting to fire the enemy boats by focusing them with the Sun's rays.C. besieged for Romans. with analysis and solution that Arquimedes named for the defense of the city of Syracuse.. Enter his inventions would find the catapult. during the II Punic War.
and another warlike machines. cannons. with his greats ideas.
Leornado DaVinci took part. contributing in the antisubmarine war. armored vehicles. to construct ships. like engineer in the war against Prisa due to he knew techniques to accomplish bombardments. like shields against torpedo for the ships. in 1503. Thomas Edison made use of Operational Research.
Another antecedent of use of Operational Research obeys to F. with that can be available to determine the outcome of a military battle. from a system of equations differential.
. Lanchester. Lanchester's Square Law.W. who made a matematical study about the ballistic potency of opponents and he developed.
The objective was to find the most effective utilisation of limited military resources by the use of quantitative techniques. although it spread in different ways in the UK and USA.
. Following the end of the war OR spread.
OR started just before World War II in Britain with the establishment of teams of scientists to study the strategic and tactical problems involved in military operations.
to a large extent.
You should be clear that the growth of OR since it began (and especially in the last 35 years) is.
. Most (though not all) OR involves carrying out a large number of numeric calculations. the result of the increasing power and widespread availability of computers. Without computers this would simply not be possible.