Civil Engineering

Soil Mechanics Flow Measurements Surveying



Soil Classification


Sieve Analysis


All naturally occurring relatively unconsolidated earth material (organic or inorganic) that lies above bedrock. They can be broken down into constituent particles relatively easily (distinct from rocks, hard soil at the boundary). Concerns the application of principles of mechanics, hydraulics & chemistry to engineering problems related to soils & to under stand soil behavior. 

Soil mechanics: 


In most of the civil engineering applications, soil is subjected to stress due to external loading. The external loading is caused by buildings (residential, commercial, industrial), highways, dams, embankments etc. In the present course, soil is studied as engineering material and it is classified (gravel, sand, silt, clay) based on certain experimental parameters. Based on this classification proper use of soil as civil engineering material is determined (in foundation, dam, highway, embankment construction etc.) 

CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS y y y article Size Classification Textural Classification Public Roads Administration Classification System y Unified Soil Classification System .

 Grain size distribution of soil is determined. (ii) Textural classification: (a) IS:1498-1970 system: Grain size distribution of soil is obtained.  % of soil in each size group is obtained (as per this system. sand. mixed soil might contain 10% gravel. silt & clay based on particle size. .  Weight of soil grain within each size group is computed. 38% silt & clay).CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS Different types of soil classification: (i) Particle size classification: Soil is classified as gravel. (b) US bureau of soils & chemistry system: First % of sand. silt and clay is found. 52% sand.

. 1 on page 14).CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS y Based on this a point is located on the triangular chart which indicates soil type (Fig.

2 (Page 14)  Soils below A line are inorganic silt.  Plasticity chart for classifying fine grained soil is given in Fig. (iv) Unified soil classification system (USC): This method is based on grain size distribution and plastic properties.CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS (iii) Public roads administration classification system [AASHTO (1978) system]: Classification is based on particle size composition as well as on plasticity characteristics. . organic silt or organic clay.  Group index of soil is determined and soil is rated as subgrade material.  Modified USC has been adopted in IS:1498-1970. Higher value of group index indicates poor quality of material. It is applicable for any use.


075mm to 0. sand has 4. It has dark brown colour and odour of decaying vegetation.75mm particle size.075mm size.002mm particle size. shaking.FIELD IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS y Coarse grained: gravel has 80mm to 4. . y Organic fine grained soil has appreciable amount of organic matter in soil. plasticity and dispersion test. y Fine grained: silt has 0.75mm to 0. y Inorganic fine grained soil is classified based on dry strength.002mm particle size. clay has less than 0.

Silt breaks with little effort and clay requires lot of effort. If shiny appearance comes at top. It is shaked in hand by tapping. 3mm size dry lump of fine grained soil is broken between thumb and forefinger. then it is clay.  In shaking test. then it is silt. If dull appearance comes at top. .FIELD IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS  In dry strength test. fine grained soil of very soft consistency with smoothened top surface is kept in hand.

5 to 240 minutes and clay takes several hours to several days. Sand settles in 30sec. Clay can easily be rolled into thread.FIELD IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS y In plasticity test. whereas silt can·t be. silt in 0. y In dispersion test. small soil sample is dispersed in 10cm water depth. . small fine grained soil paste is rolled into 3mm thread.

GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS    Sieve Analysis Wet Analysis (Hydrometer Analysis) Pipette Method .



75mm) sieve are designated by the size of the openings in the sieve (Example: 31.SIEVE DESIGNATION .LARGE Sieves larger than the #4 (4.5mm Size) .

SMALLER Smaller sieves are numbered according to the number of openings per inch 10 openings per inch 1inch # 10 sieve .SIEVE DESIGNATION .


SIEVE ANALYSIS y Write down the weight of each sieve as well as the pan to be used in the analysis. Carefully pour the soil sample into the top sieve and place the cap over it. Place the pan below the smallest sieve. Make sure that all the sieves are clean. Place the sieve stack in the mechanical shaker and shake for 10 minutes Remove the stack from the shaker and carefully weigh and record the weight of each sieve including the pan with its retained soil. and assemble them in the ascending order of sieve numbers. y y y y . Record the weight of the given dry soil sample.

18mm 0.3mm 0.75mm 2.075mm PAN (Weight of the Sample ± Depends on the Nominal size of the Mix and the Sieve Aperture (For the current Experiment ± 1200Gm) .425mm 0.SIEVES AS PER IS CODE OF PRACTICE 4.15mm 0.36mm 1.6mm 0.

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